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D 2007 1200b00 2 

California State Library 


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45024 4-19 5000 






July to December, 1918 


Abangarez Gold Fields of Costa Rica, company report. . 396 

Abrams, D. A. . .Basic principle of concrete mixers. ... 23 

Accidents from insufficient lighting 360 

Accounting, new book on 101 

Acetate of lead in cyanidation 380 

Acetic acid prices in July Ill 

Acid for leaching Utah copper ore 789 

Adsorption in flotation 730 

Advertising and circulation of papers 744 

In technical societies bulletins 242 

Agitation in Parral tanks 695 

Air compressors, lubrication of 290 

In flotation, Callow's work with 155 

In precipitation of gold from solutions, effect of . . . 251 

Tanks, function of 754 

Use of cold in quicksilver condensers 322 

Ajo, blasting methods at S. U. Champe. ... 46 

Excavating leached ore 303 

Alabama, nitrate production at Muscle Shoals 454 

Alaska, conditions in, new map 765 


Lake Clark-Kuskokwim region 

Mining in E. J. White . . . 

Railroad progress 

Alaska Gold Mines Editorial. . . 

Shares Editorial . . . 

Company report 3 2i 

Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co., report on 833 

Alaska Treadwell, Alaska Mexican, and Alaska United 

mines, report on 83 3 

Group, power plants 822 

Alaska United, depth of Ready Bullion mine 165 

Alienization Henry Legin. ... 619 

Allen, G. R War Minerals Bill. . . . 373 

Alloys of manganese 5 6 

Alumina from compounds of metals 312 

Aluminum alloys, analysis of 602 

Dust v. zinc-dust for cyanide work 91 

In Germany 22 

Ditto Editorial. ... 1 

In Zeppelins 194 

Strength of 192 

Alundum manufacture 45 

Alunite and potash 761 

In Europe 560 

Locating metalliferous lodes containing 110 

Treatment for potash 160 

Amalgamated Zinc (De Bavay's), Ltd., company report 

399, 878 

Amalgamation of gold from coarse ore 290 

American Bankers Association and gold 438, 461 

American Gold Conference. . . . Courtenay De Kalb. . . . 243 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 241 

American Institute of Mining Engineers and Mining 

and Metallurgical Society to merge 

Bulletins, matter therein Editorial. 

Meeting in Colorado 369, 

Name Editorial . 

American Mining Congress circular on chrome and 


Journal and Mining and Scientific Press 

Editorial . 

American mining engineers and war 439 

Potash resources 759 

American Smelting & Refining Co. and payment to ore 

producers Editorial . 

. Smelter at Garfield 

American Trona Corporation potash outjmt Ri }91f 
American Zinc Institute meeting at St. I»pui8.\. : . .; 




Ammonia in flotation, use of 

Oxidized to nitric acid 

Amparo Mining Co., company report 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co.'s expanding interests. . . . 

Editorial .... 

Starts making ferro-manganese 

Stops making ferro-manganese • 

Analyses, chemical Herbert Lang. . . . 

Of nitrate samples from Oregon 

Analysis and sampling of chromite . . .A. A. Hanks. . . . 

Of Calumet & Arizona blast-furnace products 

Of Calumet & Arizona roasting-furnace materials . . 

Of crude and calcined magnesite 

Of flotation concentrate at Utah Copper mills 

Of iron ore in Santo Domingo 

Of molybdenum ores 

Of quicksilver fume 

Of reverberatory products at Calumet & Arizona . . 

Of 29 American magnesite samples 

Of zinc-lead ore 

Anchorage, Alaska, letter 93, 

'Annalist', views on gold 

Anticlines and apexes R. M. Searls. . . . 

Antimonial-lead pipe in flotation plants 

Antimony and quicksilver in Idaho 

Di-oxide, preparation of 

Imports and stocks in December 

In 1916 

Market demoralized 

Ores, Magnolia Metal Co. to buy 

Sulphide, use of 

Apexes and anticlines R. M. Searls. . . . 

Apex suit at Rochester, Nevada 

Suits at Bingham, further 

Suits at Jerome impossible 

Apparatus for sampling quicksilver fume 

For sulphur di-oxide tests 

Argonaut mine, California, hoisting at 

Arizona Copper Co., company report 

Arizona copper production in 1918, estimate 

Cunningham Pass district 

Geologic survey to be made 

Manganese in 

Manganese in western 

Mines, assessed valuation 

Mining situation at mid-year 

Valuation of mines 

Arkansas manganese deposits 

Arsenic in subterranean waters 

Arthur and Magna mills, Utah ■ 

Photo of 

Artifice for restoring economic equilibrium of world. . . 
Asbestos, chromite, graphite, magnesite, mica, and 

molybdenite in Quebec 

Production of U. S. in 1917 

Asphalt production of U. S. in 1917 

Assaying on the Rand 

Assay at Joplin, Missouri, purchaser to pay for umpire . 

Cost in Korea 

Of zinc-lead ore, standard method 

W. G. Waring. . . . 

Plan of Utah Copper tunnels 

Assaying on the Rand 

Atlin, B. C, magnesite at 

Placer mining at 

Aurora Consolidated Mines Co., company report 

;»A;ujti^, Texas, letter 

•!ft:ust?a1ia, development of flotation in 375, 











MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 117 


Australia, labor unres,t in 45S 

Metals, output sold in 226 

Use of lead salts in cyanidation 380 

Automatic separation of solution from solids in ore- 
pulp B. MacDonald .... 695 


Ball mill controversy in technical press. .Editorial. ... 471 

.\Iills in the Oklahoma field 131 

Test, Brinell 244 

Baizari. R. A. .Hoisting by stages from deep mines. ... 5 7 

Banker and depositor, talk on prices 455 

Bankers endorse gold propaganda Editorial. . . . 438 

Meet at Portland. Oregan, to discuss gold 341, 362 

Barium carbonate prices in England 56 

From strontium, separating J. Waddell . ... 495 

Mining in Nevada 330 

Barker, E. E . . . .Tunnel-blasting at Chuquicamata . . . . 213 

Barnes-King Development Co., company report ... 296, 734 

Barrett. E. P Rapid method for determining 

titanium and chromium in beach-sand 729 

Barytes prices in June 5 6 

Basic principle of concrete mixes. . . .D. A. Abrams. ... 23 

Bates. B. R Flotation and other troubles in . . . . 277 

Batesville manganese district, Arkansas 464 

Battle of St. Mihiel offensive 823 

Bauxite in India 312 

Production ot U. S. in 1917 50 

Bawdwin mines ore, milling 800 

Beach-sand, rapid method for determining titanium 

and chromium in E. P. Barrett .... 729 

Beer-Sondheimer and Minerals Separation — A chron- 
ology 189 

Belgium Editorial .... 548 

Feeding 381 

Bell, R. N., ventilation of Butte and Idaho mines 430 

Belmont Wagner Mining Co., company report 28 

Belt conveyor, notes on 349 

Conveyor, portable 675 

Wear of 290 

Benedict, w. deL Gold problem. . . .650, SI 7 

Ditto Market-value of gold. . . .209, 275 

Ditto What is a dollar?. . . . 145 

Benguet Consolidated Mining Co., company report. . . . 574 

Bingham & Garfield ore-train 445, 479 

Bingham canyon, ore-train, and Utah Copper mine, 

photo of 479 

Bingham, Utah, apex litigation at 6 4 

Discovery of minerals 446 

Porphyry ore, J. M. Callow's experience 154 

Bismuth in surgical dressings 58 

Black sand treatment 681 

Blakemore, L. G. . . .Why not domestic ores first?. ... 711 

Blaster's handbook 336 

Blast-furnace and potash 760 

Gas, potash and 559 

Of Calumet & Arizona 181 

Blasting at Chuquicamata, tunnel. . . E. E. Barker. . . . 213 

At Utah Copper mine 523 

Fitting primer for 580 

Methods at Ajo S. U. Champe .... 46 

Powder, making black W. J. Cahalan . . . . 675 

Well-drill J. C. Costello 685 

Block-hole blasting 47 

Blowers at Calumet & Arizona smelter 182 

Blowpipe analysis, new book 740 

Boilers, efficient burning of coal under 336 

Bonus on gold production, result of 209 

Plan, new A. M. Heckman. . . . 249 

Bookkeeping, new book on 301 

Boston & Montana Development Co., company report. . 63 

Boston Creek, Ontario, map of 537 

Boulder Tungsten Production Co. affairs 733 

Boundaries: racial and natural Editorial. . . . 847 

Bounty on gold, how to pay 861 

Boutwell, J. M Platinum in Grand Canyon. . . . 309 

Bracken a source of potash I 162 

Braden Copper Co., company report 334 

Bradford flotation process 377 

Process at Broken Hill E. T. Henderson. . . . 407 

Bradley, F. W., reports on Alaska Treadwell and Alaska 

Juneau groups 833 

Brass manufacture Editorial. ... 369 

Ribbon zinc as a substitute for 8 8 

Brazilian manganese exports for 6 months of 1918. . . , 7.5 4,, 

Breckenridge. Colorado, letter .".'■ S!,*' 


Bridge construction, method of 253 

Bridges and roads in mining districts 252 

Brinell ball-test 244 

Brinsmade, R. B Iron in Santo Domingo. . . . 356 

Briquetting, nei* book on 101. 399 

Britannia copper mine, B. C report 365 

British Columbia, mining situation in 127 

Platinum in C. R. Price. . . . 850 

Sources of gold 361 

British Metals Corporation Editorial. . . . 846 

Broken Hill, Bradford process at . E. T. Henderson. . . . 407 

Flotation at Editorial. . . . 404 

Labor unrest at 458 

Broken Hill Proprietary Co., company report S78 

Broken Hill Proprietary mine, Australia, development 

of flotation at E. T. Henderson. . . . 375 

Broken Hill South Silver Mining Co.. company report. . 399 

Bromine, derivation of 289 

Brown, F. C Western mining and religion. ... 405 

Brown. F. W. . . .Our natural resources of potash. ... 759 

Brown. W. L Rotterdam, distributing centre 

for the C. R. B 381 

Buchanan, why worry over Editorial. ... 39 

Buena Tierra Mining Co., company report 98 

Buffalo Mines, company report 133 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan M. & C. Co., concentrating lead 

ore at 52 

Smelter improvements S06 

Bunker Hill Mines Co., company report 103 

Bunyan, F. W Sampling. . . . 827 

Burch, Albert Status of gold mining. . . .209, 248 

Burgess, J. A Menace to gold mining. . . . 177 

Burma Corporation, ore-treatment problem 800 

Burma Mines, heating of ore in 694 

Burma, wolfram output in 1917 194 

Burnett, F. L Chromite scandal. . . . 747 

Burro Mountain mine in 1917 102 

Business and inflation after war 526 

Butler tin mine, Australia, ore-dressing at 162 

Butte & Superior Mining Co., company report 269, 767 

Mine, big welding job at 161 

Butte labor situation at end of July 167 

Labor troubles 501 

Montana, letter 195, 665, 803 

First-aid meet 200 

Wages and employees 96 

Byler, E. A Correction of stadia-readings to 

horizontal 150 


Cahalan, W. J Making black blasting-powder. . . . 675 

Calaveras and Tuolumne County Chrome Miners Asso- 
ciation 805 

Calcining and mining magnesite in Napa, California. . . 459 

Calcium chlorine, manufacture of 3 25 

Calculating percentage of recovery in concentration. . . 

A. H. P. Moline 192 

Traverses without tables A. J. Sale. ... 659 

California, chrome and manganese mining in 801 

Expansion o£ mining Editorial. ... 813 

Iron ore in 782 

Making ferro-manganese in 89 

Manganese in south-eastern 755 

Nitrate deposits in Amargosa valley 26 2 

Potential electric power 370 

Shortage of power Editorial .... 173 

Topography and geology of dredging areas 763 

California Metal Producers Association and gold mining 

188, 209 

Californian gold production Editorial. ... 271 

Oilfields and water 606 

Metal output in 1917 128 

Mining in 191S 425 

Power situation in August 273 

Callbreath, J. P Federal taxation and finance 

of mines 567 

Views on gold and mining generally. .Editorial. ... 239 

Callow, John M. — Engineer and metallurgist 

T. A. Rickard. ... 151 

Callow cone 154 

Callow v. Minerals Separation machines at Inspiration. 156 

Calumet & Arizona Mining Co., company report 302 

Smelter Courtenay De Kalb. ... 181 

Cambridge University Editorial .... 645 

Jianjjj Bird, Ltd., ccmipany report 842 

•.: iDevelopmfent'- . . .: 837 


Vol. 117 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Camp Bird, Ltd., development Editorial.... 845 

Canada Copper Corporation shuts-down Greenwood 

Bmelter 7ul' 

Canada, unprofitable British mines 688 

Canadian casualties Editorial. . . . 677 

Dividend list 878 

dlan Klondyke Mining Co., notes on operations. . . 792 

Canadian Mining Institute. Western Branch 27 

Canal Zone sanitation 4S 

Canby, R. C. . .Similarities in legal aspects of litigation 

over notation, cyanidation, and filter patents. . . 450 

rape Explosive Works 90 

Capital, Invested 493 

Capps, J. H . . Simple methods tor determining sulphur 

di-oxide' 415 

Carbocoal 374, 490 

Ditto Editorial .... 471 

Carbon di-oxide in air, per cent affecting men 212 

.Monoxide in air. per cent affecting men 212 

Notes on 781 

Carbonaceous schist and precipitation of gold 591 

Carnahan, F. vV International mining law. . . . 514 

Ditto To stimulate gold mining. . . . 246 

Carnahan. H. L.. resigns from Commission of Corpora- 
tions ; 305 

Carnotite ore. concentrating 

K. L. Kithil and J. A. Jones. ... 55 

Cascade method of froth flotation 

W. A. Fahrenwald. ... S7 

Cash Boy Consolidated Mining Co., company report. . . 872 

Cassel Cyanide Co.. dividends in 191S S09 

Cassiterite, test for 9 2 

Caustic soda prices 531 

Cement copper flotation process 665 

Firebrick 596 

Manufacture and potash 759 

Potash from 525 

Powdered coal used in calcining 627 

Prices fixed 348 

Central Eureka Mining Co., company report. . . .' 394 

Mine, developments 604 

Central Rand mines 73 

Champe, S. U Blasting methods at Ajo . ... 46 

Charcoal as a precipitant of gold 494 

As substitute for coal 226 

Charts of gold production 561 

Chemical analyses Herbert Lang. . . . 747 

Changes in exposed silver ore 419 

Combinations among metals, new book 740 

Exposition, annual 499 

Used in cyaniding in Honduras 91 

Chemistry, Germany's stolen T. R. Leigh. . . . 421 

Of gold at high temperatures 536 

Chemists, demand for Editorial. ... 581 

Chestnut. Jr., M. T Future gold and silver 

output 309 

Ditto Market for silver. . . . 849 

Ditto Menace to gold mining. . . . 177 

Chicago, Illinois, letter 461, 499 

Chief Consolidated Mining Co., company report 701 

Chile Copper Co., company report 506, 574, 668 

Chile, potash deposits in 444 

Chilean nitrate deposits D. F. Irvin. . . . 109 

Chimneys, how to clean 546 

China, currency problems 290 

Export embargo on silver 543 

Gold-secured currency for 476 

In 1917, gold and silver movements in 134 

Silver currency in 694 

Tungsten in 624 

Chino Copper Co., company report 296, 735 

Chitina valley, Alaska, geology 229 

Chlorine process in minting gold 696 

Chrome Editorial .... 402 

And magnesite, space devoted to. . . .Editorial. . . . 271 

And manganese in Cuba 62S 

And manganese in north-western California 801 

Deposit at Port Chatham, Alaska 363 

Deposits on railroad lands 62 

Districts of Eldorado, California 539 

In eastern Oregon 502 

In Montana 231 

In Rhodesia, new deposits 490 

In tachylyte 290 

Manganese scandal and American Mining Congress 782 

Market in August Editorial. ... 205 

Miners difficulties in north-western California. ... 802 

Chrome mining in San l.uis Obispo county, California 

Ore imports Editorial. . . . 106 

Output of U. S. in first halt' of 1918 298 

Producers of Calaveras ami Tuolumne. California, 

organize 8 05 

Producers organize 547 

Production of U. S '.'.'.'.. 48 

Questionnaire 571 

Roads for in Siskiyou county. California . 95 

Scandal Editorial .... 5S4. 745 

Ditto J. F. Grugan 851 

Situation at end of September 468 

Situation in December 779 

Chromic oxide in chromite. determination of 

W. C. Riddell and Esther Kittredge. . . . 558 

Chromite Editorial .... 615 

Ditto J. c Williams. . . . 281 

And manganese Editorial .... 678 

Crisis H. W. Sanford. F. C. Smith. . . . 513 

Determination of chromic oxide in 558 

Graphite, magnesite. mica, molybdenite, and asbes- 
tos in Quebec 625 

Sampling and analysis of A. A. Hanks. . . . 654 

Scandal F. L. Burnett, D. E. Wells. . . . 747 

Chromium and titanium in beach-sand, rapid method 

for determining E. P. Barrett. ... 729 

Chuquicamata, tunnel-blasting at. . . .E. E. Barker. . . . 213 

Churn-drilling at Chuquicamata 213 

For blasting at Ajo 47 

Cinnabar near Mina, Nevada 698 

Clark dump-car 555 

Classifiers in Arthur mill, Utah 716 

Clemenceau. Georges Editorial. . . . 775 

Clement, V., early connection with Utah Copper 477 

Climax Molybdenum Co., notes on property 199 

Operations 529 

Coal dust firing, length of flame 290 

For steam-shovels at Bingham 551 

In Peru 342 

In Spitzbergen 601 

Mines in France Editorial. . . . 547 

New books on 68 

Pulverized 325 

Smoke prevention in burning 336 

Cobalt, Ontario, letter 94, 463, 570 

Coke works at Anyox, B. C 541 

Colloidal condition of charcoal in precipitation 494 

Gold, preparation of 624 

Colloids and flotation ., 730 

In flotation J. A. Pearce. . . . 491 

Colombia, platinum production of 210 

Colorado, condition of mining 59 

First half of 1918 165 

Mining in south-west 461 

Silver production, some counties 309 

Colorado Bankers Association and gold 429 

Colorado Pitchblende Co.'s prospectus. .Editorial. .. . 845 

Colorado River desert, manganese in 755 

Columbia University in war-time 657 

'Commercial Financial Chronicle', views on gold 475 

Commission for Relief of Belgium, activities of 381 

Compania Anonima Minera Lo Increible, Venezuela. . . 652 

Company and its employees S. J. Jennings. ... 49 

Company Reports: 

Abangarez Gold Fields of Costa Rica 396 

Amalgamated Zinc (De Bavay's) Ltd 399, 878 

Amparo Mining Co 6 5 

Arizona Copper Co 500 

Aurora Consolidated Mines Co 103 

Belmont Wagner Mining Co 28 

Benguet Consolidated Mining Co 574 

Boston & Montana Development Co 63 

Braden Copper Co 334 

Broken Hill Proprietary Co 878 

Broken Hill South Silver Mining Co 3 99 

Buena Tierra Mining Co 98 

Buffalo Mines 133 

Bunker Hill Mines Co 103 

Calumet & Arizona Mining Co 302 

Camp Bird, Ltd 842 

Cash Boy Consolidated Mining Co 8 72 

Central Eureka Mining Co 394 

Chile Copper Co 506 

Consolidated Arizona Smelting Co 260 

Consolidated Coppermines Co 232 

Cresson Consolidated Gold M. & M. Co 73 9 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 117 


Company reports, cont. 

Davidson Gold Mines 297 

Davis-Daly Copper Co 739 

Empire Copper Co 199 

Esperanza Mining Co 6 5 

Golden Horse-Shoe Estates Co.. Ltd 506 

Great Boulder Proprietary Gold Mines 612 

Howe Sound Co 365 

Hudson Bay Mines Co 874 

International Nickel Co 269 

Ivanhoe Gold Corporation 399 

Kerr Lake Mines, Ltd 842 

Keystone Mines Co 197 

Llallagua Tin Co 456 

Mascot Copper Co 733 

Mclntyre Porcupine Mines. Ltd 842 

Mining Corporation of Canada 302 

Moctezuma Copper Co 103 

Modderfontein B. Gold Mines 578 

Mt. Lyell Mining & Railway Co 878 

Nevada Packard Mines Co 9 7 

New Cornelia Copper Co 334 

New York & Honduras Rosario Mining Co 334 

North Broken Hill. Ltd 612 

Old Dominion Co 302 

Oriental Consolidated Mining Co 73 9 

Pennaroya Mining & Metallurgical Co 506 

Phelps Dodge Corporation 102 

Philippine Dredging Co 297 

Reorganized Blue Bull Mining Co 501 

Rose Deep, Ltd 171 

Round Mountain Mining Co 103 

Santa Gertrudis Co., Ltd 841 

Seoul Mining Co 578 

Shattuck Arizona Copper Co 103 

Tomboy Gold Mines Co., Ltd 842 

Tonopah Belmont Development Co 268 

Tonopah Extension Mining Co 26S 

Tonopah Mining Co 268 

United Eastern Mining Co 327 

U. S. Smelting, Refining & Mining Co 171 

Utah Consolidated Mining Co 171 

Waihi Gold Mining Co 334 

West End Consolidated Mining Co 269 

White Caps Mining Co 465 

Yuba Consolidated Gold Fields 870 

Compressors for mines, portable motor-driven 545 

Jackson rotary 436 

Comstock Lode, mines to be flooded to 2600 ft 700 

Tailing, recovery of metals from 497 

Concentrate at Broken Hill, assay of 410 

At Utah Copper mills, treatment of vanner 749 

Prom Utah Copper mills, moisture in 853 

Produced at Broken Hill, zinc and lead 379 

Treatment cost in Korea 753 

Concentrating carnotite ore 

K. L. Kithil and J. A. Jones. ... 55 

Lead ore at Kellogg, Idaho 5 2 

Manganese ore 52 

Molybdenite at Climax, Colorado 530 

Tin-wolfram-lead ore 162 

Concentration, calculating percentage of recovery in. . . 

A. H. P. Moline. ... 192 

Of manganese in Oregon 698 

Concentrators at Arthur mill, Utah 716 

Meyer ore 69 

Concrete mixes, basic principle of. . .D. A. Abrams. ... 23 

New book on 236 

Setting in cold weather 650 

Time in mixing 92 

Condenser system at Idria, California 319 

System at Oceanic Quicksilver mine, California. ... 321 

Condensing quicksilver from furnace-gases 

L. H. Duschak and C. N. Schuette. ... 315 

Conditions in Russia C. L. F. . . . 850 

Ditto F. F. Foss .... 113 

Connecticut Zinc Corporation's new mill 329 

Conrey Placer Mining Co.. Montana 61 

Conservation of technical engineers 4 2 

Consolidated Arizona Smelting Co., company report. . 260 

Consolidated Coppermines Co., company report 232 

Consolidated Interstate-Callahan Mining Co., company 

report 295,806 

Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co.'s charges 

Editorial. ... 509 

Smelter at Trail, Are and rates 498 

Construction of leaching-vat at Utah Copper 790 

Conveyors Editorial 

Ditto R. S. Lewis .... 

Replace common labor 

Cooperite, new alloy 

Copper cathodes, melting 

Concentrate, weight of 

Consumption of Allies in seven months 

Editorial .... 

Distribution in Mexico 

Flotation process, cement 

In the Urals, Russia 

Leaching by salt water and sulphurous gases 

C. S. Vadner. . . . 

Ore at Utah Copper, leaching 

Ore development at Bingham 

Ore, excavating leached from tanks 

Phosphate in cyanidation G. D. Diehl. . . . 

Plates, absorption of gold by 

Price of Editorial .... 

Price of 26 cents continued 

Prices advanced in July Editorial. . . . 

Prices to remain 

Producers combine for export trade. .Editorial. . . . 

Production of Mexico R. P. Jarvis. . . . 

Properties of electrolytic 

Refining charges 

Secondary production of U. S. in 1917 

Supplies in Germany 

Tuyeres, cast 

Zinc compounds 

Copper Export Association, capital of 

Copper Queen bonus plan 

Copper Queen mine. Arizona, in 1917 

Copper Queen smelter, plan of 

Copperton mill flow-sheets 713. 

Corliss. H. P., death of 

Correction of stadia-readings to horizontal 

E. A. Byler. . . . 

Corrosion of lead roofing 

Cosmopolitan mixture at Bingham, Utah 

Cost accounting, new book on 

At Kerr Lake. Cobalt 

At Mclntyre Porcupine 753. 

At Modder B mine 

At Mt. Lyell, Tasmania 

At Rose Deep, Transvaal 

At Tomboy. Colorado 782. 

At Tonopah mines and mills 

Of assays in Korea 

Of churn-drilling at Chuquicamata 

Of collecting potash from cement dust 

Of concentrate treatment in Korea 

Of dredging on Yuba, California 

Of driving tunnel at Hawaii 

Of excavating tanks of leached ore 

Of handling food in Belgium 

Of living, actual rise in 

Of living, increase Editorial. . . . 

Of making lead acetate 

Of melting at mints in electric furnaces 

Of mining at Broken Hill 

Of mining at Elko Prince, Nevada 

Of mining at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia 

Of mining supplies in Korea 

Of mining supplies in Mexico 

Of moving rock by hand and electric-shovel 

Of operating aerial tram in Napa county, California 

Of Oriental Consolidated in Korea 

Of producing gold in United States 

Of producing gold in Western Australia 

Of producing silver by Mining Corporation, Cobalt . . 

Of producing tin at Dolcoath and Mt. Bischoff . . . . 

Of sand-filling stopes on Rand 

Of Seoul Mining Co 

Of shaft-sinking on Rand 

Of South American companies and exchange rates 

Of spreading rock by machine 

Of tunneling at Chuquicamata 

Of the War Editorial .... 

Costello, J. C Well-drill blasting. . . . 

Credits and inflation Editorial .... 

Creosote price in June 

Cresson Consolidated Gold M. & M. Co., company report 

Cripple Creek, Colorado, letter 

27, 60, 163, 259, 392, 570, 603. 634, 666, 803. 

Crook. W. J., and M. L'A Determination of 

molybdenum in ores 









4 20 

9 2 

5 4 :i 



Vol. 117 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Crowe. T. K . . . . Effect of oxygen in precipitating gold 

from cyanide solutions J">t 

Crown King district. Arizona 129 

Crucibles, flake graphite in S.i^ 

Crushing-plant of Arthur mill. I'tah 711 

Crystallography, new book 740 

Cuba, chrome and manganese in 628 

Cubo Mining Co., Mexico, dotation by 277 

Cunningham. K. A. and Arthur Feust Smelting 

cyanide silver-precipitate in oil-burning rever- 

beratory furnaces 621 

Cunningham Pass district. Arizona. . . .W. Tovote. ... 19 

Cuprite replaces pyrfcte 247 

Currency, notes on paper 795 

Cyanidation at San Juancito, Honduras 91 

Copper phosphate in G. D. Diehl. . . . 345 

Flotation, and filter patents, similarity in legal 

aspects of litigation R. C. Canby. . . . 450 

Lead salts in T. B. Stevens. . . . 380 

Of silver ore at El Oro. Mexico .... F. A. Malins .... 419 

Replaces flotation in certain Nevada districts 392 

Sodium sulphide in F. Wartenweiler . ... 59 

Cyanide silver-precipitate in oil-burning reverberatory 

furnaces, smelting 

K. A. Cunningham and Arthur Feust. . . . 621 
Solutions, effect of oxygen in precipitating gold from 

T. B. Crowe. . . . 251 

Solution, hydrolysis of 58 

Cycle of leaching ore at Utah Copper 789 


Darlington. Wayne In memoriam. . . . 684 

Davidson Gold Mines, company report 297 

Davis, F. P . .To stimulate gold mining. . . . 247 

Davis-Daly Copper Co., company report 739, 806 

De Beers Consolidated Mines explosives production. . . 90 

Decanting H. Tillisch .... 424 

Decimal systems Editorial. ... 173 

Decisive battle of war F. H. Simonds. . . . 725 

De Kalb, Courtenay. . . .American Gold Conference. . . . 243 

Ditto Calumet & Arizona smelter. ... 181 

Ditto Government and miners .... 779 

Ditto International Gold Conference at 

Spokane 341 

Ditto James Douglas. ... 41 

De Lamar, J. R., in Utah 477 

Obituary note Editorial. ... 777 

Photograph of 480 

Some history of 477 

Del Mar, Algernon Differential flotation of lead 

and zinc sulphides 691 

Ditto Flotation flow-sheets. ... 311 

Delprat flotation process 375 

Democratic control of industry. . . .P. B. McDonald. . . . 145 

Denver, Colorado, letter 5 9 

Deseret, Utah 445 

Determination of chromic oxide in chromite 

W. C. Riddell and Esther Kittredge. ... 558 

Of molybdenum in ores 

W. J. Crook and M. L'A. Crook. . . . 313 

Of suplhur di-oxide 415 

Determining titanium and chromium in beach-sand, 

rapid method for E. P. Barrett. . . . 729 

Detroit copper mine in 1917 102 

Development of flotation at Broken Hill Proprietary 

Mine, Australia E. T. Henderson. . . . 375 

Of Rand mines 77 

Diamond-drilling in porphyry 794 

Methods at Mayer, Arizona 260 

Diehl, G. D Copper phosphate in cyanidation. . . . 347 

Differential flotation of lead and zinc sulphides 

Algernon Del Mar. ... 691 

Flotation process, Terry J. T. Terry, Jr. . . . 533 

Dillon, Montana, letter 61 

Divide district, Nevada, notes 731 

Dividend list 34, 434 

Dividends from certain Rand mines 73 

From Michigan mines 767 

From United States and Canadian companies 877 

Of Coeur d'Alene mines in second quarter 130 

Dolcoath and Mt. Bischoff tin mines 458 

Dollar, what is a W. deL. Benedict. . . . 145 

Dorr, J. V. N Elko Prince mine, Nevada. . . . 791 

Dosenbach, B. H., death of 770 

Dosenbach v. Webster suit over cement copper flotation 665 

Dougan, L. D Elko Prince mine, Nevada. . . . 791 

Douglas, James Courtenav De Kalb. . . . 

Ditto Editorial 

Eulogy of A. R. Ledoux 

Draft, the escond Editorial 

Dredges at Oroville, California, two remain 

Safety-rules for electric equipment 

Dredging and power in California 

Areas, topography and geology of 

Charles Janin 

Future of Charles Janin 

In United States, new book 

Drill hole samples of Utah copper 

Little Giant corner 

Record at Midas mine, Alaska 


Steel puncher, new 

Drilling at Utah Copper mine 

Heat in 

In Oklahoma 

On the Rand 

Dump, a flowing 

Car, Clark 

Car in open-cut mining 

Duncan, G. A Water laws of Nevada. . . . 

Dunite, platinum in J. C. Reilly. . . . 

Durango, Colorado, letter 259, 461 

Duschak, L. H. and C. N. Schuette. . .Condensing quick 

silver from furnace-gases. . 

Dust from carnotite ore 

Duty of employer to crippled soldier 

D. C. McMurtrie. . . , 
Dynamite, burning of 








Eastern Metal Market, every issue. 

Eden Mining Co., Nicaragua 396 


Account, the 207 

Alaska Gold Mines 305 

Alaska Gold Mines shares 71 

Aluminum in Germany 1 

American Academy of Engineers 142 

American Gold Conference 241 

A. I. M. E. bulletins, matter therein 241 

A. I. M. E. name 105 

American Mining Congress Journal and M. & S. P. 743 
American Smelting & Refining Co. and payments to 

ore producers 205 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co.'s expanding interests 814 

An old story 647 

Ball-mill controversy in technical press 471 

Bankers endorse gold propaganda 438 

Baseball players 141 

Beer, Sondheimer & Co. and L. Vogelstein & Co. 

taken over by alien custodian 105 

Boundaries: racial and natural 847 

Boyle, Joseph W., in Europe 71 

Brass manufacture 369 

British Metals Corporation 846 

Buchanan, why worry over 39 

California, expansion of mining 813 

California, shortage of power 173 

Calif ornian gold production 271 

California State Commissioner of Corporation, H. 

L. Carnahan, resigns 305 

' Callbreath, James F., views on gold and mining 

generally 239 

Cambridge University 645 

Camp Bird development 845 

Canadian casualties 677 

Carbocoal 471 

Chemists, demand for 581 

Chrome 402 

Chrome and magnesite, space devoted to 271 

Chrome market 205 

Chrome ore imports 105 

Chrome scandal 584, 745 

Chromite 615 

Chromite and manganese 678 

Chromite pamphlet 71 

Clemenceau, Georges 775 

Coal mines in France 547 

Colorado Pitchblende Co. prospectus 845 

Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co 509 

• Conveyors 3 39 

Copper and lead and peace 677 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 117 

Editorial, cont. Page 

Copper consumption of Allies in seven months 581 

Copper prices advanced in July 38 

Copper producers combine for export trade 84 7 

Cost of living, increase 582 

Cost of the War 708 

Creel. George. 'Official Bulletin' 141 

Decimal systems 173 

De Lamar, obituary note 777 

Doing their bit 439 

Douglas, James 2 

Electric power in California 370 

Electrolytic zinc 206 

Excess-profits 20 6 

Federal Trade Commission 205 

Ferro-manganese imports 1 

Financial safety valve 143 

Financiers endorse gold propaganda 474 

Flotation at Broken Hill 404 

Food Administration 208 

Food prices in United States 239 

Ford. Henry 707 

Foreign money in Germany 1 

Freedom of the seas 616 

Function of gold 307 

General March's views 240 

German chemistry is not German 403 

Gold after the War 272 

Gold, aid to British producers sought 677 

Gold committee to investigate industry 613, 743 

Gold dredging and electric power 273 

Gold investigation by Great Britain 581 

Gold mining and power 437 

Gold price and nineteenth century article 814 

Gold production and cost of living 337 

Gold, suggestions for increasing price absurd 271 

Gold transactions to cease 370 

Gold yield of Transvaal 438 

Government's duty to miners 511 

Graphite importations 141 

Great Britain and metal currency laws 3 7 

Income-tax 438 

Inflation and credits 549 

Influenza 613 

Influenza deaths in United States 813 

Investment and speculation 305 

Irish and War 2 

Iron of Lorraine 371 

I. W.. W. cases at Bisbee quashed 775 

I. W. W. convictions 306 

Japanese affairs 401 

Japanese and the English language 38 

Jennings. Sidney J., of A. I. M. E., here 707 

Kamerad 511 

Keep faith with the dead 510 

Killing the War Minerals Bill 402 

Labor and the War 3 9 

Labor Day events 305 

Labor demands 106 

Labor theories 3 7 

Lead production to he cut 707 

League of nations 814 

Liberty Loan, subscriptions to fourth 613 

Limestone for acid soil 437 

Lusitania test 472 

Maps 105 

March, General, views 240 

Merger, a 816 

Metal cliques dissolved 614 

Metal dealers clique 175 

Metal prices and wages 71 

Mexican affairs 20 6 

Mexican conditions 547 

Mexican editors 40 

Mexican imports 205 

Mexico, changes in government 645 

Minerals Separation and the gag 709 

Minerals Separation v. Butte & Superior 614 

Mining engineers blue book 142 

Mining law 441 

Mining machinery bureau 106 

Mining on the Rand 7 2 

Mooney case 777 

Nevadan affairs 401 

New Slav countries 372 

New York 'Tribune' 548 

Nitrate deposits 274 

Nitrate situation 3S 

Editorial, cont. Page 

Nitric and sulphuric acid prices fixed 3 7 

Oil-shale placer locations 1 

Outlook „ S15 

Pacific Coast^Chrome Producers Association 547 

Paper economy 205 

Paper embargo 744 

Peace offensive 4 7;' 

Peruvian resources 141 

Platinum 550 

Platinum controversy 173 

Platinum in dunite rocks 613 

Platinum restrictions removed 7u7 

Postal rates, zonal 106 

Price of copper 710 

Prospect of peace 5 S 2 

Protest 242 

Quicksilver, payments by Government 205 

Railroad scrip 141 

Regulations for publishers 64s 

Rice. George Graham, convicted again 173 

Ricketts, L. D., and Inspiration and New Cornelia. . S13 

Russian crisis 10 7 

Salt Lake City and Government offices 71 

San Francisco and influenza 6 4."; 

Schwab. Charles, character of 205 

Second draft 3 4 it 

Securities, rise and fall in 240 

Selby Smelting Works ! 239 

Share market and peace 677 

Shares in African mines held by Germans 105 

Silver transactions 142 

South American trade 3 7 

Spain and United States 272 

Spanish metals for Allies 474 

Spokane gold conference 339 

Status of gold 174 

Status of gold mining 108 

Sulphur and pyrite situation 106 

Sulphur supplies 271 

Sulphuric and nitric acid prices fixed 3 7 

Sustain production of gold 73 

Tariff hearing on metals 3 

Terms of capitulation 6 7:< 

Testing of man and ores 142 

Thanksgiving 70S 

The Day 646 

Tin deposits of the United States 3 7 

United Press hoax 646 

United States mineral output in 1917. final figures. . B45 

Utah Copper enterprise 84S 

Victory 615 

Vive la Belgique 5 4s 

War Industries Board to disband 7 7 5 

War Minerals Administration 239 

War Minerals Bill 1 

War Minerals Bill opponents 141 

War news 2 

War notes 509 

Wreck of 'Princess Sophia' in Alaska 5S1 

Zinc ore warehouses in Komspelter region 4 7 2 

El Amparo Mine. Ltd., Venezuela 652 

El Callao gold mine of Venezuela 652 

Eldorado county. California, chrome districts 53 9 

Electric boiler at Juneau. Alaska 229 

Equipment of dredges, safety rules for 458 

Firing at Chuquicamata 221 

Furnace, Greaves-Etchell 5 2 

Furnace, notes on two-ton S12 

Furnace products 664 

Melting-furnace at Philadelphia Mint S52 

Motor starters 811 

Power and gold-dredging in California 27 3 

Power in California Editorial. ... 370 

Power load in oilfields ideal 657 

Shovels, underground mining with S44 

Treaters for smelter fume 641 

Electric Reduction Co. and molybdenum-steel S2" 

Electrical engineering, new book 300 

Electricity and water T. D. MacCormack. ... 194 

Electro-analysis, book on 70 5 

Electrode regulating devices S12 

Electrolytic copper, properties of 91 

Iron manufacture in France 150 

Zinc Editorial. ... 206 

Ditto C. A. Hansen. ... 5S6 

Zinc in Australia S66 

Zinc, notes on 53 4 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Electro-plating, Government standards tor 112 

Electroscope and radio-active ores 92 

Electrostatic precipitation 632 

Elko Prince mine, Nevada 

J. V. X. Dorr and L. D. Dougan. ... 791 

El Oro, Mexico, cyanidation of silver ore at 

[•". A. Malins. ... 419 

Embargo on paper 74s 

Empire Copper Co., company report 199 

Employees and company S. J. Jennings. ... 49 

Emulsions, notes on 534 

Encouraging gold production 475 

Engineering positions in the Army 590 

Engineer officer's training-school at Camp Humphreys 160 

Engineers, conservation of technical 42 

Government classification ot 326 

Esperanza Mining Co., company report. .' 6 5 

Estimates of Utah Copper mine, early 484 

Eureka. California, letter Sol 

Eureka district. Nevada 427 

Europe, boundary question 847 

Europeans at Bingham. Utah 555 

Ewing, Thomas, death of 431 

Excess profits Editorial .... 206 

Profits in gold mining, none 209 

Exchange rate calculation between England and United 

States 14 6 

With foreign countries 796 

Expansion of metals by heat John Roger. ... 112 

Explosives, price of mining 90 

Tamping-bag for 758 

Exports of the United States 143 

Extraction from ores, no percentage allowed in Court. . 269 

Extra-lateral rights in veins 43 


Fahrenwald. W. A Cascade method of froth 


Fatigue, meaning of term 

Federal Reserve Bank, function of 

Federal taxation and finance of mines 

J. F. Callbreath. . . . 
Federal Trade Commission Editorial .... 

v. Minerals Separation 

Feeders for flotation concentrate at Garfield, Utah. . . . 
Feldspar near Porterville, Cal 


Ferro-alloy industry and chromite 

Ferro-alloys J. W. Richards .... 


Ferro-manganese blast-furnaces to be reduced 

Imports Editorial .... 

In California, making 

Manufacture at Great Falls, Montana 

Prices, chart of 

Situation in England and Canada 



Ferro-vanadium . . . . , 

Feust, Arthur, and K. A. Cunningham Smelting 

cyanide silver-precipitate in oil-burning rever- 

beratory furnaces 

File for mining records, permanent 

Filter, flotation, and cyanidation patents, similarity of 
legal aspects of litigation. . . .R.. C. Canby. . . . 

Litigation in Western Australia 

Papers, kinds of 

Filtration of concentrate at Utah Copper mills 

Finance of mines and Federal taxation 

J. F. Callbreath. . . . 

Financial safety-valve Editorial .... 

Financiers endorse gold propaganda 

Fine grinding, recent developments in 

Firebrick cement 

Flame in coal-dust firing, length of 

Fletcher, F. N Gold output: a suggestion. . . . 

Flotation and colloids 

And other troubles in Mexico B. R. Bates. . . . 

And reagents 

At Broken Hill Editorial 

At Broken Hill Proprietary Mine, Australia, devel- 
opment of E. T. Henderson. . . . 

At Mt. Morgan, Australia 

Callow, J. M., work in 

Cascade method of W. A. Fahrenwald. . . . 

Colloids in J. A. Pearce. . . . 









Flotation concentrate, moisture in 

Cyanidation and filter patents, similarity of legal 
aspect of litigation R. C. Canby .... 

FlOW-sheetS Algernon Del .Mar. . . . 

Litigation in Australia 

Litigation. M. S. V. B. & S 

Machine, Groch 

F. O. Groch and \V. 10. Simpson. . . . 

Machine. Janney 

Machine. Ruth A. .1. Hoskin . . . . 

Of lead and zinc sulphides, differential 

A. Del Mar .... 

Of oxide ores 

Of tin-wolfram-lead concentrate 

Of zinc ore in Kansas 

Process for cement copper 

Process, Terry differential J. T. Terry. Jr. . . . 

Replaced by cyanidation at certain places in Nevada 

Flowing dump 

Flow-sheet for flotation Algernon Del Mar. . . . 

For gravity and flotation treatment 

. Of Belmont-Wagner mill 

Of Calumet & Arizona smelter 

Of carnotite concentrating mill 

Of Climax molybdenite mill 

Of Copperton mill 713, 

Of cyanide plant using sodium cyanide 591, 

Of primary and secondary crushing-plants in Arthur 

mill, Utah 

Fluorine in copper deposits 

Fluorspar in British Columbia 


Mining in Colorado 

Flux for Calumet & Arizona smelter 

For melting cyanide silver precipitate 

For welding steel 

Food Administration Editorial .... 

Food prices in United States Editorial. . . . 

Foreign trade, notes on 

Forest, W. K Miner and tariff. . . . 

Formulas for mine-valuation D. B. Morkill .... 

Ditto H. D. Pallister .... 

Ditto '. W. W. Whitton .... 

Foss, F. F Conditions in Russia. . . . 

Fremont Consolidated gold mine, California, closed . . . 

Friction in belts 

Friendly greeting W. W. Wishon . . . . 

Front, another letter from 

Letter from 532, 629. 

Froth flotation, cascade method. W. A. Fahrenwald. . . . 

Flotation machines at Utah Copper mills 

In flotation cells, types of 

Fuel economy in hand-fired power-plants 

For mining 

Fume-losses in quicksilver furnaces 315, 

Function of gold Editorial .... 

Furnace, electric melting at mints 

Gases, condensing quicksilver from 

L. H. Duschak and C. N. Schuette. . . . 
Future of dredging Charles Janin. . . . 

Of manganese F. F. S . . . . 

Galena ore at Slocan. British Columbia 

Ganister as lining of coke-ovens . . . 

Production of United States 

Garfield smelter of A. S. & R. Co 

Gas, gasoline from natural 

In gasoline cans 

Mustard, notes on 

Potash and blast-furnace 

Warfare, methods of 

Gases, condensing quicksilver from 

Copper-leaching by salt water and sulphurous 

C. S. Vadner. . . . 

From smelter stacks, examination of 

On man, physiological effect of 

Gasoline production of United States from natural gas . 
Gemmell, R. C, early connection with Utah Copper. . . . 

Photo of 

Generators for water-wheel drive, vertical 

Geography of Ural mountains, physical 

H. W. Turner. . . . 
Geologic investigations at Cobalt, Ontario 

Survey of Arizona to be made 


>:. I 


:: I 1 


7 19 

IB 6 

6 :', t; 








MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 117 


Geologv and topography of dredging areas— -I. II 

Charles Janin . . . .763, 792 

Of Bingham district. Utah 521 

Of Elko Prince mine. Nevada 791 

Of Gold Hill district. Utah 30 

Of manganese deposits in the South-YVest 756 

Of Urals. Russia 411 

Ge 'rgia. manganese in 540 

German chemistry is not German Editorial. . . . 403 

Holdings in African mines Editorial. . . . 105 

Schools, technical students at 596 

Germany, aluminum in 22 

Stolen chemistry T. R. Leigh. . . . 421 

Gilbert's formula for transportion of debris by water. . 24S 

Gilpin county bumping-tables 152 

Glass and rubber tubing, connection 

C. C. Kiplinger. . . . 460 

Gold absorption by copper plates 290 

After the War Editorial. . . . 272 

And credits 549 

And platinum, their preciousness 122 

And promissory paper 795 

And silver in Utah Copper ore 712 

And silver mines of the United States 45 

And silver movements in China in 1917 134 

And silver output, future. . . M. T. Chestnut, Jr. . . . 309 

And silver output of United States in 1917 528 

And silver production of United States in 1917. . . . 657 

And silver, weights of 782 

Areas of United States, map 227 

As basis of credit 147 

As monetary standard 795 

At high temperatures, chemistry of 536 

Bounty, how to pay 861 

Charcoal as a precipitant of 494 

Chlorine process in minting 696 

Committee to investigate the industry 

Editorial. . . . 613 

Committee to investigate gold mining 

Editorial. .. . 743 

Conference at Reno 227 

Conference at Spokane Editorial. ... 339 

Conference at Spokane. International 

Courtenay De Kalb. ... 341 

Convention at Spokane 23 2 

Discussion at Chicago 461 

District of Venezuela H. H. Miller. . . . 651 

Dredging and electric power Editorial. . . . 273 

Dredging in United States, new book 456 

Exports of United States in 1918 560 

Fixed price of 147 

From California dredging ground, classes of 764 

For industrial use 410 

Function of Editorial .... 307 

In a sovereign 146 

In British and United States coins :. 146 

In economic system, value of.. Henry Strakosch. . . . 861 

In reserve earns no interest 159 

In Yukon, removal of royalty asked 503 

Investigation by Great Britain Editorial. . . . 581 

Is essential W. J. Loring .... 75 

Market-value of W. deL. Benedict. . . .209. 275 

Mines, helping low-grade B. W. F. . . . 618 

Mining and monetary adjustments 

Blarney Stevens. . . . 795 

Mining and power Editorial .... 437 

Mining, how to aid T. Marshall. . . . 344 

Ditto F. C. Smith. . . . 345 

Mining in California, condition of 74 

Mining in the world, situation of 147 

Mining, menace to 122 

Ditto. . . J. A. Burgess and M. T. Chestnut. Jr. . . . 177 

Ditto Charles G. Yale. . . . 1SS 

Mining, status of Albert Burch. . . .209, 248 

Ditto Editorial .... 108 

Ditto S. Kawakami .... 275 

Mining, to stimulate : 

P .W. Carnahan and F. P. Davis. ... 246 

Movements of United States. 1914-'18 561 

Need of more 560 

New regulations for use 410 

On copper, native 247 

Output: a suggestion F. N. Fletcher. . . . 344 

Output of California in 1SS7, 1907, and 1917. ratio 

to other minerals S13 

Placers of Nevada 569 

Preparation of colloidal 6 24 


Gold price and article in the 'Nineteenth Century' 

Editorial. ... S14 

Problem W. deL. Benedict. . . .650. 817 

Ditto * W. B. McKinlay. . . . 818 

Problem, review of H. N. Lawrie. . . . 561 

Producers and bankers 241 

Producers' harvest when War ends 279 

Producers to meet at Reno 200 

Production A. M. Nicholas. . . . 514 

Production and cost of living Editorial. . . . 337 

Production, encouraging 475 

Production, importance of. .Sir Lionel Phillips. . . . 158 

Production of Allied countries 148 

Production of Rand 85 

Production of Rand in first half of 191S 424 

Production of United States in 1912-'18 '. 563 

Production of Western Australia 420 

Production of world. 1912-'17 562 

Propaganda, bankers endorse Editorial. . . . 438 

Propaganda, financiers endorse Editorial. ... 474 

Recovered by dredging in United States 273 

Reserve of world 562 

Resources of world 797 

Secured currency for China 476 

Silver, and quicksilver from old Comstock tailing. . 497 

Silver, tellurium compounds 740 

Standard W. Karri-Davis. . . . 617 

Status of Editorial. . . . 174 

Ditto Blarney Stevens. . . . 210 

Sustain production of Editorial. ... 73 

To war finance, relation of B. L. Thane. . . . 147 

Transactions to cease Editorial. ... 370 

Value and cost of. . 561 

Value of P. R. Turner. . . . 684 

Views of National City Bank 526 

Yield of Transvaal Editorial. . . . 438 

Zinc compounds 740 

Gold Fields of Venezuela. Ltd 652 

Gold Hill, Oregon, letter 197, 292, 698 

Gold Hill district. Utah 30 

Gold Mountain. Nevada, developments 540 

Goldfield. Nevada, letter 803 

Golden Cycle mill. Colorado, roasting at 595 

Golden Horse-Shoe Estates Co.. company report 506 

Government and miners Courtenay De Kalb. . . . 779 

Grab sampling, notes 828 

Granby Consolidated closes Phoenix mines 362 

Coke works 541 

Grand Forks. British Columbia, letter 835 

Graphite as a lubricant 470 

Concentration of 626 

For crucibles, crystalline 88 

Grease, use of 238 

Importations Editorial .... 141 

In Adirondacks 841 

In crucibles, flake S52 

Licenses for import curtailed 693 

Lubrication, theory ot 579 

Magnesite. mica, molybdenite, asbestos, and chrom- 

ite in Quebec 625 

Market 45 

Prices in December S52 

Graton, L. C. and value of ore at depth 647 

Great Boulder Proprietary Gold Mines, company report 612 

Great Britain and metal currency laws. . .Editorial. ... 37 

Great Salt Lake, notes on S5S 

Greaves-Etchell electric furnace 52 

Green River manganese deposits. Utah 8 72 

Gresham's law on function of money 797 

Grinding in Arthur mill. Utah 718 

Recent developments in fine S79 

Grizzlies at Arthur mill, Utah 720 

Groch flotation machine 

F. O. Groch and W. E. Simpson. ... 53 

Grugan, J. F Chrome scandal. . . . 851 

Guatemala, mining in 196 

Gypsum a fertilizer 290 


Haiti, iron in Santo Domingo 356 

Halley table 152 

Hancock. R. T Hydraulic-mining debris. . . . 24S 

Hanks. A. A. . Sampling and analysis of chromite. . . . 654 

Hansen. C. A Electrolytic zinc. . . . 586 

Hardness, definition of 534 

Hawaii. 7000-ft. tunnel at Lahaina. . .Fr. Koelling. . . . 190 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Heat, expansion of metals by John Roger. . . . US 

In drilling holes 686 

Heating cyanide solutions Increases slime settlement.. 630 

Value ol wood and peal 225 

Heckman, A M A new bonus plan. . . . 24!l 

Ditto Personal element In management ... 536 

Hi nderson, E. T. .Bradford process at Broken Hill. . . . -hit 

Ditto Development of notation at Broken 

Hill Proprietary mine 3 7 f> 

Hercules Powder Co. extracting potash f rum kelp 590 

Herreshoft roasting-turnaces of Calumet & Arizona 

smelter is:i 

Hirst. F. W . . . .Mining engineer as administrator. . . . 348 

Hoarding ol precious metals Tits 

Hoist, original and present cost of 500 

Hoisting by stages from deep mines. . R. A. Balzari. ... 57 

With steel cables Ernest Levy. ... 21 

Holland. L. F. S Recent developments 

in molybdenum 529 

Holt tractor and the tanks 136 

Hongkong, tin exports from 367 

Hoover. H. C, eulogy of 208 

Horwood flotation process 377 

Hoskin. A. J Ruth flotation machine. ... 119 

Hoskold formula 179 

Formula compared 277 

Hoskold. Whitton, and Morkill tables for mine valua- 
tion 682 

Houghton, Michigan, letter 391, 462, 537, 665 

Howe Sound Co., company report 365 

Howell. E. B Industrial development. ... 50 

Hudson Bay Mines Co., company report 874 

Hulett excavator for copper leach-tailing at Ajo 

Franklin Moeller. ... 303 

Hull Copper Co. suit settled 393 

Hydraulic and placer mining, new book 301 

Mining debris R. T. Hancock. . . . 248 

Tests with valves, nozzles, etc 841 

Hydro-carbons and boiling-point 449 

Hydrolysis of cyanide solutions 58 

Idaho dividends in third quarter 540 

Gold in central 430 

Metal output in 1917 329 

Mining situation at mid-year 231 

Ore deposits in Custer county 166 

Quicksilver and antimony in 500 

Import of laborers from Mexico 228 

Importance of gold production. .Sir Lionel Phillips. . . . 158 

Income-tax Editorial. . . . 438 

India, bauxite in 312 

Industrial development E. B. Howell. ... 50 

Industry, democratic control of. . .P. B. McDonald. . . . 145 

Ingot-iron a substitute for copper 632 

Inflation and business after War 526 

And credits Editorial. ... 549 

Influenza Editorial. . . . 613 

Among U. S. S. R. & M. Co. staff 743 

Deaths in United States Editorial. . . . 813 

In San Francisco Editorial .... 645 

On the Rand 574 

Story 754 

Infusorial earth, use of 179 

Ingalls, W. R., opinion on War Minerals Bill 9 

Inspiration Consolidated operations shown by cinema 

Alms 813, 836 

International Gold Conference at Spokane 

Courtenay De Kalb . . . . 3 41 

International mining law F. W. Carnahan. ... 514 

International Nickel Co.. company report 269, 769 

Invested capital 493 

Capital and share-values 567 

Investment and speculation Editorial. . . . 305 

Iron founding, principles of 300 

In Santo Domingo R. B. Brinsmade. ... 356 

Of Lorraine Editorial. ... 371 

Ore and pig-iron output of United States in 1917... 696 

Ore in California 782 

Ore prices raised 3 3 

Production in September a record 544 

Irvin, D. F Chilean nitrate deposits. . . . 109 

Ivanhoe Gold Corporation, company report 399 

I. W. W. cases at Bisbee quashed. ..... .Editorial. ... 775 

Convictions Editorial. ... 306 

Jackling, i>. c. early connection with Utah Copper. . . . 477 

Photo nl' , (s i 

Janln, Charles Future of dredging. . , 689 

Ditto Topography anil geology 

or dredging areas- 1. II 71;:;, 7:12 

Janney, Frank c. photo of 7m 

.lanncj dotal ion machine details 7 m 

Flotation machines in Arthur mill, hundreds of. . . . 749 

Japanese affairs Editorial. . . . 401 

And English language Editorial .... 38 

Smelter smoke investigation 225 

Jarvis. R. P Copper production of Mexico. . . . 820 

Jennings. Hennen. views on gold mining 122 

Jennings. Sidney J. . . .Company and its employees. ... 49 

Jerome, Arizona, letter 195, 292 

Labor situation at end of July 16 5 

Jigs for black sands 681 

Jim Butler Tonopah Mining Co. and West End Consoli- 
dated Mining Co. suit 43 

Jones, G. W Simple method for determining 

sulphur di-oxide 415 

Jones, J. A., and K. L. Kithil Concentrating 

carnotite ore 55 

Joplin, Missouri, and zinc ore imports 472 

Assaying zinc-lead ore 193 

Letter 667 

Juneau, Alaska, letter 833 


Kamerad Editorial. ... 511 

Karri-Davis, W Gold Standard. ... 617 

Katz, S. H Simple method for determining 

sulphur di-oxide 415 

Kawakami, S Status of gold mining. . . . 275 

Kelp as a source of potash 761 

Kent, William, death of 467 

Kerr Lake Mines, Ltd., company report 842 

Keystone Mines Co., company report 197 

Kipling, Rudyard Savings v. savagery. . . . 442 

Kiplinger, C. C . Connecting glass and rubber tubing .... 460 

Kirkland Lake, Ontario, map of 537 

Kislingbury, George. . .Utah Copper enterprise. . . .586. 619 

Kithil, K. L., and J. A. Jones Concentrating 

carnotite ore 55 

Kittredge, Esther Determination of chromic 

oxide in chromite 558 

Klondike, dredging in 792 

Koelling, Fr. . ,7000-ft. tunnel at Lahaina, Hawaii. . . . 190 

Komspelter region, ore ware-house in 472 

Korea, cost of mining supplies in 8 63 

Mineral production in 1917 42 

Labor and the War Editorial. ... 39 

At Butte at end of July 167 

At Jerome at end of July 165 

Demands Editorial .... 106 

Manual and clerical 343 

Share 864 

Theories Editorial .... 37 

Troubles at Butte 501 

Unrest in Australia 458 

Labor Day events Editorial. ... 305 

Lagrange hydraulic mine closed 230 

Lake Bonneville, Utah, notes on 858 

Lang, Herbert Chemical analyses. . . . 747 

Laramie, Wyoming, letter 605 

Lawrie, H. N. Review of the gold problem. ... 561 

Leaching copper by salt water and sulphurous gases 

C. S. Vadner 457 

Ores at Utah Copper 787 

Vats at Utah Copper, notes on 787 

Lead acetate and intrate, use of 380 

And zinc sulphides, differential flotation of 

Algernon Del Mar. ... 691 

Bismuth compounds 740 

In zinc, assay for 193 

Ore at Kellogg, Idaho, concentrating 5 2 

Price fixed by producers in July 66 

Price reduced 771 

Producers of S. L. Pearce. . . . 620 

Production of Spain 474 

Production to be cut Editorial. . . . 707 ' 

Roofing, corrosion of 423 

Salts in cyanidation T. B. Stevens. . . . 380 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 117 


Lead Producers Committee and lead mines 620 

Lead. South Dakota, letter 27, 291, 498, 731, 868 

Leadville, Colorado, letter 26, 94, 127, 697 

Pyrite at 295 

League ot nations Editorial .... 814 

Ledoux, A. R James Douglas. . . . 245 

Legin. Henry Alienization . ... 619 

Leigh, T. R Germany's stolen chemistry. . . . 421 

Letter from the front 254. 283, 53 2, 629, S23 

Ditto E. G. Snedaker. . . . 649 

Levy, Ernest Hoisting with steel cables. ... 21 

Lewis, R. S Conveyors. ... 349 

Lighting causes accidents, insufficient 360 

Lime production of United States in 1917 664 

Limestone for acid soil Editorial. . . . 437 

In soil, effect of 347 

Lithium, use of 9 2 

Lithophone prices in July 118 

Litigation over flotation, cyanidation. and filter patents, 

similarities in the legal aspects. .R. C. Canby. . . . 450 

Llallagua Tin Co., company report 456 

Locating metalliferous lodes containing alunite 110 

Lock-nut, Drake 773 

Lode location, decision on 335 

Lodes containing alunite, locating metalliferous 110 

Logan, C. A Process for recovering platinum. . . . 819 

Lopez, romance at Bingham, Utah 552 

Loring, W. J Gold is essential .... 75 

Lorraine, iron of Editorial. ... 371 

Loss of quicksilver H. G. Smith. . . . 514 

Lowden dryer for concentrate 856 

Lubricating, theory of graphite 579 

Lubrication of air-compressors 290 

Lumber cut in United States in 1917 89 


MacCormack, T. D Water and electricity. . . . 194 

MacDonald, Bernard Automatic separation of 

solution from solids in ore-pulp 695 

MacQuisten process of flotation 154 

Magna and Arthur mills, Utah 714 

JYIagnesite. adding magnetite to 625 

At Atlin, British Columbia 502 

At mid-year. 1918 324 

In Napa, California, mining and calcining 459 

Mica, molybdenite, asbestos, chrome, and graphite 

in Quebec 625 

Output of Napa county, California 294 

Production of Porterville, California 199 

Sampling S27 

Magnesium as a fertilizer 187 

Production of United States in 1917 302 

Rapid estimation of IS 

Magnetic properties of manganese and special man- 
ganese steels 126 

Separation of tin-wolfram-lead ore 162 

Malay States tin output in 1917 536 

Tungsten exports 781 

Malins, F. A Cyanidation of silver ore 

at El Oro, Mexico 419 

Management, personal element in. .A. M. Heckman. . . . 5 3 5 

Manganese alloys 5 6 

And chrome in Cuba 628 

And chromite Editorial .... 678 

And manganese steel, magnetic properties of 126 

And pyrite 655 

At Atascadero, California 28 

At Green River, Utah 872 

At Tintic, ITtah 608 

Exports of Brazil, first half of 1918 754 

Freight-rates lowered 298 

Future of F. F. S. . . . S51 

Imports of United States in first half of 191S 414 

Imports restricted 9 9 

In Arizona 393 

In Arkansas * 464 

In Canal Zone 312 

In Chihuahua, Mexico 671 

In Colorado River desert 75 5 

In fixation of nitrogen 586 

In Georgia 540 

In Madison county. Montana 200 

In New Mexico 700 

In 1918 794 

In Oregon 604 

In Piute county. Utah 330 


Manganese in southern Nevada 755 

In south-estern California 7",:, 

In Tennessee 466 

In Utah . .» 602 

In Washington 767 

In western Arizona 755 

In White Pine county, Nevada 263 

In Wyoming 605 

Ore in Oregon, concentration not effective 6;is 

Ore prices, chart of 655 

Ore, treatment of 5 2 

Output of certain States, 191S rate 794 

Situation at Butte 803 

Manganese Association mine. Las Vegas, Nevada 7.">" 

Manganil'erous iron ore of Minnesota 282 

Manitoba, tungsten in 233 

Map of coal and iron regions of Belgium, etc 371 

Of gold areas of United States 227 

Of northern Russia 412 

Of northern Utah 447 

Of United States quicksilver deposits 5 

Of United States tungsten deposits 7 

Of Wall property ( Utah Copper ) 4 S " 

Of zinc districts of United States 163 

Maps Editorial. . . . 105 

March, General, views Editorial. . . . 240 

Market for silver M. T. Chestnut. Jr. . . . 849 

Value of gold W. deL. Benedict. . . .209, 275 

Marriott. H. F Mining on the Rand. ... 77 

Marshall. T How to aid gold mining. ... 344 

Mascot Copper Co., company report 733 

Mason, Nevada, letter 2 5 

Mastic, composition of 78 7 

Matachewan, Ontario, developments 732 

Notes on 42 S 

Mataquescuintla. Guatemala, letter 196 

Matte arrangements at Calumet & Arizona smelter. . . . 1S6 

Mayer. Arizona, letter 260, 570 

McCarthy, E. T.. life of 577 

McDonald. P. P, . . . .Democratic control of industry. . . . 14.". 

Ditto Wages and salaries. . . . 343 

Mclntyre Porcupine, costs at 753 

Mclntyre Porcupine Mines, Ltd., company report S42 

McKinlay, W. B Gold problems. . . . 818 

McMurtrie. D. C Duty of employer to crippled 

soldier .. 224 

Medford, Oregon, letter 604 

Melting-furnace at mints, electric S52 

Menace to gold mining 122 

Ditto. . . . J. A. Burgess and M. T. Chestnut. Jr. . . . 177 

Ditto Charles G. Yale. . . . 1SS 

Mercury, vapor-pressures of 323 

Merger Editorial. ... 816 

Merton & Co.. Henry R.. affairs of 406 

Messina Copper Co. and value at depth 647 

Metals by heat, expansion of John Roger. ... 112 

Chemical combination among, new book 74n 

Cliques dissolved Editorial. . . . 614 

Dealers clique Editorial. . . . 175 

Definition of 92 

From European battle-fields, salvaging 476 

Market, Eastern every issue 

Prices and wages Editorial .... 71 

Tariff hearing on Editorial .... 3 

Turnings, recovering oil from 627 

Metallurgists handbook, new 399 

Methane in air, per cent affecting men 212 

Mexican affairs Editorial .... 206 

Conditions Editorial. ... 547 

Editors Editorial .... 4n 

Government rescinds silver decree 671 

Imports Editorial .... 205 

Laborers, import of 228 

Mexican Milling & Transportation Co., melting preci- 

tate 621 

Mexico, changes in government Editorial. . . . 645 

Copper distribution in 658 

Copper production of R. P. Jarvis . ... 820 

Cost of mining supplies in 121 

Crop reports 201 

Cyanidation of silver ore at El Oro.F. A. Malins. ... 419 

Denouncing mining claims, new regulation 16S 

Flotation and other troubles in. . . . B. R. Bates. ... 277 

Higher rates on ore exported 702 

Import duty on machinery lifted 396 

Number of mines in 770 

Vol. 11 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Mexico, oil production in July 396 

On gold basis 73G 

Railroad situation In , 867 

Meyer dry concentrator 69 

Mica Industry in Quebec 627 

Markets In 1917 89 

Molybdenite, asbestos, chromite, graphite, and mag- 

neslte in Quebec 625 

Mica-schist as a furnace lining 58, 290 

Michigan, conditions in copper country 462, 465 

Copper mines, trammers for 872 

Dividends 767 

Labor conditions in September 391 

Miller. H. H Gold district of Venezuela. . . . 651 

Miller chlorine process for gold 696 

Milling Bawdwin mines ore 800 

Mills of Utah Copper Co 482, 713 

Minard. F. H.. and Utah Copper 486 

Mine duty electric starters 811 

Federal taxation and finance of 

J. F. Callbreath 567 

Right of shareholder to inspect 693 

Tracks, book on 705 

Valuation, formulas for D. B. Morkill. . . . 276 

Ditto H. D. Pallister. . . . 682 

Ditto W. W. Whitton. . . . 179 

Miner and tariff W. K. Forest. . . . 247 

And the Government Courtenay De Kalb. . . . 779 

Government's duty to Editorial. . . . 511 

Mineral character of land. Government decision final. . 612 

Control. War 359 

Definition of 101 

Interesting W. Tovote. . . . 247 

Output of United States in 1917, final figures 

Editorial. . . . 845 

Production of Quebec in 1917 395 

Vital 247 

'Mineral Industry' new edition 841 

Mineralogy, new book 740 

Minerals Separation and Beer-Sondheimer — a chronol- 
ogy 189 

And the gag Editorial .... 614 

v. Butte & Superior Editorial. . . . 614 

Mining and calcining magnesite in Napa, California. . 459 

And civil engineers, their spheres 3 48 

Claims (contiguous) assessment work regulations . . 880 

Decisions 101, 269, 335, 507, 612, 63S 

Districts, bridges and roads in 252 

Engineer as administrator F. W. Hirst. ... 348 

Engineers blue book Editorial. . . . 142 

Explosives, price of 9 

In Alaska E. J. White .... 711 

In Russia 116 

Ditto. . H. C. Woolmer. ... 597 

In the Urals, Russia 412 

Law Editorial .... 441 

Law, international. ..... .'. . .F. W. Carnahan. . . . 514 

Law, new book 507 

Machinery bureau Editorial. ... 106 

Methods at Utah Copper mine 522, 587 

On the Rand Editorial .... 72 

Ditto H. F. Marriott. ... 77 

Partnerships, law regarding 269 

Purposes, wood for J. T. Reid. . . . 345 

Records, a permanent file 596 

Supplies in Mexico, cost of 121 

System at Elko Prince, Nevada 791 

With electric-shovels, underground 844 

Mining and Metallurgical Society and American Insti- 
tute of Mining Engineers to merge S16 

Mining and Scientific Press and Minerals Separation. . 70 9 

Mining Corporation of Canada, company report 302 

Minnesota, manganiferous-iron ores of, bulletin on... 301 

Missouri zinc producers and ore warehouses 472 

Mobilization of engineers 3 26 

Moctezuma Copper Co., company report 103 

Modderfontein B. Gold Mines Co., company report... 578 

Moeller, Franklin Hulett excavator for copper 

leach-tailing at Ajo 303 

Moisture in copper concentrate 853 

Moline, A. H. P. .Calculating percentage of recovery in 

concentration 192 

Molybdenite, asbestos, chromite, graphite, magnesite, 

and mica in Quebec 625 

In Australia 2 2 

Occurrences of 494 

On Prince of Wales Island, Alaska 832 


.Molybdenite polished Specimen 

Molybdenum In ores, determinatt f 

W. .1. ami M. I. A. Crook .... i 

Recent developments in [,. K. s. Holland. . . . 529 

Steel Clifton Taylor.... 820 

Mond Nickel Co., profits oi 688 

Monetary adjustments and gold mining 

Blarney Stevens. ... 795 

Money loaned the Allies 11:: 

Monorail ore-haulage 811 

Montana, manganese in Madison county 200 

Mining situation at mid-year : 

Monterrey, Mexico, letter 867 

Mooney case Editorial .... 777 

Moore Filter Co. v. Great Boulder Proprietary 602 

Morkill, D. B Formulas for mine-valuation. . . , 2 7 1; 

Morkill. Whitton, and Hoskold tables for mine valua- 
tion 682 

Mormons, history of 445 

Morris, H. W Defense of the rough-neck 

superintendent 76 

Mosquitoes and tropical sanitation 4S 

Mossback mine, Oatman. boom talk 500 

Motor-trucks and freezing water 8 8 

Mt. Bischoff and Dolcoath tin mines 458 

Mt. Lyell Mining & Railway Co., company report 878 

Mount Morgan, Australia, flotation at 325 

Mine, ore-reserves 494 

Mustard-gas, notes on 223 


Napa county, California, magnesite in 45 9 

National City Bank, views on gold 527, 560 

National copper mill, Idaho, flotation at 155 

National Radium Institute and concentrating carnotite 

ore 55 

Nationality of miners at Bingham, Utah 516 

Nations, league of Editorial. ... 814 

Naval Appropriations Bill and patents 559 

Need of more gold. 560 

Neill. J. W., and Utah Copper 485 

Ditto Process for recovering platinum. ... 681 

Nevada affairs Editorial. ... 401 

Gold placers in 569 

Manganese in southern 755 

Manganese near Ely 263 

Mining situation at mid-year 231 

Review of mining 391, 427 

Silver districts 497 

Water laws of G. A. Duncan. . . . 821 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co., company report. .296, 767 

Nevada Packard Mines Co., company report 97 

New Callao Mining Co., Venezuela 652 

New Cornelia Copper Co., Ajo, blasting at 46 

Company report 334 

Excavating leached ore 303 

Operations shown by cinema Alms 813, 83 6 

New Idria Quicksilver Co., experiments in condensing 

furnace-gases 315 

New Jersey Zinc Co., company report 670 

New Mexico, general notes 131 

Manganese in 700 

New York, letter 25, 499 

New York & Honduras Rosario Mining Co., cyanide 

practice by 91 

New York 'Tribune' Editorial. ... 54S 

New Zealand Quicksilver Mines Co.'s operations 423 

Nicaragua, mining in 396 

Nicholas, A. M Gold production. ... 514 

Nickel in Alaska 261 

Ore in Santo Domingo 590 

Properties of 9 2 

Nitrate deposits Editorial. ... 274 

Deposits, Chilean D. F. Irvin. ... 109 

Deposits in Amargosa valley, California 262 

Deposjts of south-eastern Oregon 

I. A. Williams. ... 285 

Production at Muscle Shoals, Alabama 454 

Situation Editorial .... 38 

Nitre-cake for flotation 375 

Use of 390 

Nitric acid plants in United States, capacity of 596 

And sulphuric acid prices fixed Editorial. ... 37 

Nitrogen in air, effect on men 212 

Nodulizing flotation concentrate 858 

North Broken Hill, Ltd., company report 612 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 117 


Xorth Star passes dividend 540 

Nozzles, etc.. hydraulic tests with 841 


Oatman, Arizona, letter 327 

Booming certain property 500 

Oceanic Quicksilver Mining Co.. experiments in con- 
densing furnace-gases 315 

Oil and gas in Missouri 63 

Burning reverberatory furnaces, smelting cyanide 


K. A. Cunningham and Arthur Feust . . . . 621 

Feeder at Arthur mill, Utah 753 

For separating galena and blende in flotation 692 

Fuel and steam engineering, new book 236 

In flotation at Broken Hill Proprietary, no 377 

In San Francisco 656 

In shale, source of 9 2 

In South Dakota 807 

Mixture for Utah Copper Co.'s flotation 751 

Placers, decision on 612 

Production of Baku, Russia 314 

Recovered from metal turnings 627 

Shale in Utah 132 

Shale placer locations Editorial. ... 1 

Oilfield power load ideal 657 

Of California, and water troubles 606 

Oklahoma, ore exchange at Miami 232 

Zinc miners and ore warehouses 472 

Oklahoma Ore Storage Association 767 

Notes on warehouses 807 

Old Dominion Co., company report 302 

Old Eureka mine, California, developments 604 

Progress 164 

Ontario, map of certain districts 537 

Nine months mining 762 

Silver-mining prospects in Kirby Thomas. ... 599 

Ore bins at Calumet & Arizona smelter 182 

Exchange at Miami, Oklahoma 232 

First, why not domestic? . . . .L. G. Blakemore. ... 711 

Ditto A. Miner. . . . 852 

Haulage by monorail 811 

Haulage in Rand mines 82 

High temperature of broken 694 

Pulp, automatic separation of solutions from solids 

in B. MacDonald. . . . 695 

Train over Bingham canyon 479 

Warehouses in Tri-State region 472 

Oregon, chrome in eastern 502 

Manganese in 604 

Mineral production in 1917 167 

Mining in 1918 426 

Nitrate deposits of south-eastern 

I.A.Williams.... 285 

Oregon Bankers Association, gold conference 341 

Oregon Chrome Producers Association formed. . . .584, 698 

Oriental Consolidated Mining Co., company report. . . . 739 

Cost of supplies 863 

Orizaba silver mine re-opened in Nevada 698 

Oronogo Circle mine, Missouri, new mill at 329 

Orthoclase, potash in 192 

Outlook Editorial. . . . 815 

Oxy-acetylene in French army 758 

Welding of a roll-frame O. J. Zook. ... 161 

Oxygen in air, per cent affecting men 212 

In precipitating gold from cyanide solutions, effect 

of T. B. Crowe. . . . 251 

Pachuca. Mexico. Santa Gertrudis Co. expands 841 

Pacific Coast Chrome Producers Association 

Editorial. ... 547 

Pacific Electro Metals Co. ferro-manganese plant 8 9 

Pallister, H. D Formulas for mine valuation. . . . 682 

Paper and publishers 648 

Economy ■ Editorial. ... 205 

Embargo Editorial'. . . . 744 

Money and gold 795 

Parker rust-proofing process I49 

Parral agitating system 695 

Patents 559 

In Australia, principal flotation 37S 

Similarity in legal aspects of litigation over flota- 
tion, cyanidation, and filter. . . .R. C. Canby. . . . 450 

Pearce. J. A Colloids in flotation. . . . 491 

Pearce. S. L Producers of lead. . . . 620 


Peat, heat value of 225 

Use of 290 

Pebbles for tube-mills 238 

Production^' United States in 1917 194 

Pennaroya Mining & Metallurgical Co., company report 506 

Penrose, S., and R. A. F., and Utah Copper 486 

Persistence of gold content on the Rand 73, 85 

Personal element in management. .A. M. Heckman. . . . 535 

Peru, coal in 342 

Peruvian resources .".Editorial. . . . 141 

Phelps Dodge Corporation bonus system 95, 250 

Company report 102 

Philippine Dredging Co., company report 297 

Phillips, Sir Lionel Importance of gold 

production 158 

Phillipsburg, Montana, manganese output 803 

Phoenix mines, B. O. closed by Granby Consolidated. . 362 

Phosphate in cyanidation, copper 347 

Rock in 1917 56 

Rock in Utah 132 

Physical geography of Ural Mountains 

H. W. Turner. . . . 411 

Physiological effects of gases on man 212 

Pig-iron and iron ore output of United States in 1917.. 696 

Pine Creek tungsten mine, Inyo, California 836 

Pioneer Mill Co., Ltd., tunnel at Hawaii 190 

Pipe, gaskets for 104 

Re-manufacturing used 545 

Piping, new book 300 

Placer mining and hydraulicking, new book 301 

Mining at Round Mountain, Nevada 103 

Mining in British Columbia during war 869 

Mining in Nevada 569 

Platinum Editorial. . . . 550 

And gold, their preciousness 123 

Controversy Editorial .... 173 

In British Columbia 23 2 

Ditto OR. Price. . . . 850 

In dunite rocks Editorial. ... 613 

Ditto J. C. Reilly. ... 748 

In electric detonators 290 

In Grand Canyon J. M. Boutwell. . . . 309 

Process for recovering C. A. Logan. . . . 819 

Ditto J. W. Neill 681 

Ditto : V. J. Zachert. . . . 489 

Production of Colombia in 1917 210 

Released 712 

Restrictions removed 707 

Platteville, Wisconsin, letter 

60, 94, 227, 292, 427, 537, 666, 869 

Plymouth Consolidated Mines, California, development 429 

Poling copper, notes on 418 

Porcupine, Ontario, letter 293, 537 

Porous bottoms in flotation cells 156 

Porphyry, diamond-drilling in 794 

Ore at Bingham, early investigators 154 

Portable belt-conveyor 675 

Portland, Oregon, letter 362 

Postal rates, zonal Editorial. . . . 106 

Potash and blast-furnace gas 559 

Deposit in Chile 444 

From blast-furnaces 760 

From bracken 162 

From cement 525 

From cement kilns 759 

From kelp 590, 761 

In orthoclase 192 

In Saskatchewan, Canada 431 

Our natural resources of F. W. Brown. . . . 759 

Output of American Trona Corporation 699 

Production of United States in first half of 191S. . 424 

Recovery from alunite 160 

Potassium by sodium cobaltinitrate, determination of. . 595 

Potter flotation process 375 

Pottery production of United States in 1917 664 

Powder, making black blasting. . . .W. J. Cahalan. . . . 675 

Price in Ontario 428 

Powdered coal as a fuel, new book 68 

Coal used in cement works 627 

Power plant at Calumet & Arizona smelter 182 

Plants, fuel economy in 101 

Plants on Douglas island, Alaska 822 

Used at Garfield smelter, Utah 856 

Precipitant of gold, charcoal as a 494 

Precipitate in oil-burning reverberatory furnace, 

smelting silver 

K. A. Cunningham and Arthur Feust. . . . 621 

Vol. 117 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Precipitating gold from cyanide solutions, effect ot gold 

In T. B. Crowe 

Precipitation, electrostatic 

Of gold, premature 

Preservation of pit-timber 

Prestea Block A. West Africa, cyanidatlon at 

Price of copper Editorial .... 

Of mining explosives 

Prices are high, why R. H. Tingley. . . . 

Price. C. R Platinum in British Columbia. . . . 

Prison labor for gold mines 

Process for recovering platinum C. A. Logan. . . . 

Ditto J. W. Neill 

Ditto V. J. Zachert .... 

Producers of lead S. L. Pearce .... 

Production of gold and silver in United States in 1917 

Of gold, sustain Editorial .... 

Of Quicksilver 

Of quicksilver and tungsten Tariff Commission hear- 

Prospect of peace Editorial .... 

Prospectors' short course at Mackay School of Mines . . 

Protest Editorial .... 

Publishers, regulations for Editorial. . . . 

Publishing business discussed 

Pulleys on belt-conveyors 

Pulp, decanting 

Pulverized coal, notes on 

Pumping on the Rand 

Push-conveyors, notes on 

Pyrite at Leadville, Colorado 

Sulphur in 

Quebec, asbestos, chromite, graphite, magnesite. mica, 
and molybdenite in 

Mineral production of 

Quicksilver and antimony in Idaho 

And precious metals from Comstock tailing 

And tungsten production Tariff Commission hear- 

From furnace-gases, condensing 

L. H. Duschak and C. N. Schuette. . . . 

In Cobalt silver ore 

In Phoenix mountains, Arizona 

In silver ore of Cobalt 

Loss of '. H. D. Smith .... 

Mining at Terlingua, Texas 

Payments by government 

Production of United States in first half of 1918. . 


Races at Bingham, Utah 

Radio-activity, what is 

Railroad situation in Mexico 

Rand, assaying on 

Deepest mining in October 

Dividends from certain mines 

Gold mining situation 

Gold production in first half 

Influenza on 

Mining on Editorial .... 

Ditto H. F. Marriott .... 

Rapid method for determining titanium and chromium 

in beach-sand ' E. P. Barrett. . . . 

Ray, Arizona, litigation 

Ray Consolidated Copper Co., company report. . . .294, 

Ray-Kelvin Mining Co. prospectus 

Reactions in leaching copper 

Recent developments in molybdenum 

L. F. S. Holland. . . . 
Recovery in concentration, calculating percentage of. . 

A. H. P. Moline .... 
Red Mountain chrome district. Humboldt county, Cali- 

Re-dredging tailing 

Refining charges for copper 

Refractory minerals, decomposition of 

Reid, J. T Wood for mining purposes. . . . 

Reilly, J. C Platinum in dunite .... 

Relation of gold to war finance B. L. Thane. . . . 

Reno, Nevada, letter. .227, 391, 427, 497, 569, 633, 666, 
Reorganized Blue Bull Mining Co., company report. . . 

Revelstoke, British Columbia, letter 

Reverberatory furnaces of Calumet & Arizona 


Reverberatory furnaces, smelting cyanide silver I ipl- 

25 1 tate in oil-burning 

632 K A Cunningham anil Arthur Peust. 831 

691 Review of the gold problem II. N. Lawrle, . 561 

US Rhodesia, new chrome deposits 190 

591 Tungsten in 22 

Tlo Ribbon zinc as a substitute for brass 88 

!io Rice. George Graham, convicted again .. Editorial .. . l?:'. 
455 Richards. J. W Ferro-alloys .... 631 

550 RIchards-Janney classifier in Arthur mill, I'tah 716 

344 Rickard. Jr., Lieutenant Forbes 211 

S19 Rickard, T. A Interview of John M. Callow. ... 15 1 

681 Ditto Utah Copper enterprise, I, II. Ill, IV. V, 

489 VI, VII, VIII, IX 

620 445, 477, 515, 551, 587, 713, 749, 7S7. 853 

657 Ricketts, L. D., and Inspiration and New Cornelia. . . . 

73 Editorial 813 

488 Ricketts, P. de P., death of SOS 

Rico Consolidated v. Rico-Argentine apex suit 39 4 

5 Riddell. W. C Determination of chromic oxide in 

582 chromite 5 5S 

S37 Ridgway filter, notes on 602 

242 Riffles at the Vissenij gold mine, Russia 117 

648 Rights of stockholder 593 

74 4 Roasters at Garfield smelter, Utah 855 

350 Roasting furnaces at Calumet & Arizona smelter IS 2 

4 24 Sulpho-telluride ore 595 

32 5 Robins belt-conveyors, chart of 351 

81 Rochester Elda Fina M. Co. v. Rochester Mines Co. 

355 apex suit 573 

295 Roger, John Expansion of metals by heat. . . . 112 

536 Rogers plant of Utah Copper 484 

Roll-frame, oxy-acetylene welding of . . .0. J. Zook. . . . 161 

Rope, fastening ends of 676 

Rose Deep, Ltd., company report 171 

Rotterdam, distributing centre for the C. R. B 

625 w. L. Brown. ... 381 
395 Round Mountain Mining Co., company report 103 

500 Royalty on gold in Yukon, removal asked 503 

49 7 Rubber and glass tubing, connecting 460 

Russia, conditions in C. L. F. . . . 850 

5 Ditto F. F. Foss. ... 113 

Crisis Editorial .... 107 

315 Mining in , H. C. Woolmer. ... 597 

63 Not a nation but a conglomerate 113 

198 Oil production 314 

92 Physical geography of Ural Mountains 411 

514 Rust-proofing process, Parker 149 

293 Ruth flotation machine A. J. Hoskin. ... 119 


488 h 

St. Joseph Lead Co. labor dispute 295 

St. Louis, Missouri, letter 163 

St. Mihiel offensive, battle of S23 

551 Salaries and wages P. B. McDonald. . . . 343 

496 Sale, A. J. . . .Calculating traverses without tables. ... 659 
867 Ditto Topography from moving objects. . . . 387 

24 Salina domes and other salt deposits 

S32 Kirby Thomas. ... 226 

73 Salt production of United States in 1917 27S 

158 Water and sulphurous gases, copper-leaching with 

424 C. S. Vadner. ... 457 

574 Salt Lake City and Government offices. .Editorial. ... 71 

72 Salt Lake, Great 445 

7 7 Notes on the 85S 

Salvaging metal from European battlefields 476 

729 Sampling F. W. Bunyan. ... S27 

870 And analysis of chromite A. A. Hanks. ... 654 

733 Error, limit of . S27 

198 Flotation concentrate at Garfield, Utah S53 

457 Quicksilver furnace-gases 315 

Sand lime brick production of United States in 1917. . . 2 23 

5 29 Rapid method for determining titanium and chro- 

mium in beach E. P. Barrett. . . . 729 

192 Sanford, H. W Chromite crisis. ... 513 

San Francisco and anarchists 777 

S02 Letter 12S. 603 

689 Mineral imports in April 50 

367 Oil in 656 

284 Sanitation in tropics 4S . 

345 Santa Gertrudis Co., Ltd., company report 542, 841 

748 Santo Domingo, iron in R. B. Brinsmade . . . . 356 

147 Savings v. savagery Rudyard Kipling. ... 442 

698 Scheelite, flotation not successful 157 

501 Schist causes dump to flow 25S 

127 Schuette, C. N., and L. H. Duschak Condensing 

187 quicksilver from furnace-gases 315 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 117 


Schumacher Mines, company report 769 

Scott quicksilver furnace 315 

Screen analysis of Arthur crushing-plant. Utah 716 

Analysis of Utah Copper leaching ore 787 

Sea-water in flotation 157 

Searls. R. M Apexes and anticlines. ... 43 

Second draft Editorial. . . . 340 

Selby Smelting Works Editorial. ... 239 

Sec ul Mining Co., company report 578 

Tungsten ore-reserves 454 

Separating barium from strontium. . . .J. Waddell. . . . 495 

Vessel for flotation at Broken Hill 3 75 

Separation box for flotation at Broken Hill 407 

Of solution from solids in ore-pulp, automatic. . . . 

B. MacDonald. . . . 695 

Shafts on Rand, circular 80 

Shakan molybdenite mine, Alaska 832 

Shattuck Arizona Copper Co., company report. . . .103, 294 

Sheet-zinc, uses of 79 4 

Shipbuilding terms, book on 841 

Siam tin and tungsten output 754 

Siberia and Russia, dividing line 411 

Notes on 597 

Signals in mines, danger 92 

Silk, tin used in 258 

Silver and gold mines of United States 45 

And gold movements in China in 1917 134 

And gold output, future. . . .M. T. Chestnut, Jr. . . . 309 

And gold output of United States in 1917 528 

And gold production of United States in 1917 657 

And gold, weights of 782 

China's embargo on exports 543 

Coins in Mexico, shortage of . . . .'. 736 

Cost of production by Mining Corporation at Cobalt 302 

Currency in China 694 

Districts of Nevada 49 7 

Dollar, silver in 146 

Export licenses 432 

Exports and imports in last fiscal year 169 

Exportation of 3 79 

Fixed at $1,013 maximum , 266 

Gold tellurium compounds 740 

Great Britain fixes maximum price 298 

In the Yukon 233 

Market for .M. T. Chestnut, Jr 849 

Melted in burning railroad car in India 390 

Mines at Butte, Montana 195 

Mining in Colorado 60 

Mining prospects in Ontario. . . .Kirby Thomas. ... 599 

Ore at El Oro. Mexico, cyanidation of 

F. A. Malins. . . . 419 

Ore in Mexico, flotation of 278 

Output of Pennaroya mine in Spain 506 

Precipitate in oil-burning reverberatory furnaces, 

smelting cyanide 

K. A. Cunningham and Arthur Feust. ... 621 

Price reduced in England 809 

Production and demand 849 

Production of certain Colorado counties 309 

Transactions Editorial. . . . 142 

Silverton, British Columbia, labor troubles 228 

Silverton, Colorado, letter 291 

Wages at 394 

Similarities in legal aspects of litigation over cyanida- 
tion, flotation, and filter patents 

R. C. Canby. . . . 460 

Simonds, F. H Decisive battle of war. . . . 725 

Simple method for determining sulphur di-oxide 

G. W. Jones, J. H. Capps, S. H. Katz. ... 415 

Simpson, W. E., and F. O. Groch Groch flotation 

machine 53 

Siren, the Federal 400 

Slav countries, new Editorial. . . . 372 

Slime at Broken Hill, floating 377 

Flotation at Broken Hill 407 

Settlement, heating solutions to aid 630 

Treatment at Utah Copper mills 751 

Smelter, Calumet & Arizona. . .Courtenay De Kalb. ... 181 

Dispute in British Columbia 128 

Fume electric treaters 641 

Smelting charges at Trail, British Columbia 327 

Cyanide silver precipitate in oil-burning reverbera- 
tory furnaces 

K. A. Cunningham and Arthur Feust. . . . 621 

Of Utah Copper concentrate 853 

Smith, F. C Chromite crisis. . . . 513 

Ditto How to aid gold mining. ... 345 


Smith. H. G Loss of quicksilver. . . . 514 

Smoke from Japanese smelter, examination of 225 

Prevention in burning coal 336 

Stacks, clean your 546 

Snedaker, E. G.» Letter from front. . . . 649 

Soctarie tungsten-gold-copper deposit in Korea 454 

Sodium salts, production of 390 

Sulphate for flotation 375 

Sulphate, manufacture of 3 90 

Sulphide in cyanidation F. Wartenweiler. ... 59 

Soil, limestone for acid 437 

Solder minus tin 22 

Soldier, duty of employer to crippled 

D. C. McMurtrie 2 24 

Solids in ore-pulp, automatic separation of solution 

from B. MacDonald .... 695 

Solution at Utah Copper, analysis of leaching 789 

From solids in ore-pulp, automatic separation of. . 

B. MacDonald. . . . 695 

Soo canals, business in five months of 1918 525 

South American trade Editorial .... 37 

South Dakota, first half of 191S 167 

Mining in 86 8 

Oil in 807 

South Dakota School of Mines publication on tungsten. 841 

Spain and United States Editorial. . . . 272 

Spanish metals for Allies Editorial. . . . 474 

Mineral exports in first half of 1918 600 

Spearhead mine. Goldfleld, development in 803 

Spelter, situation in August 206 

Spiral conveyors, notes on 355 

Spitzbergen 601 

Ditto James White .... 822 

Spokane Gold Conference Editorial. ... 339 

International Gold Conference at 341, 361 

Spokane, Washington, letter 361 

Spreaders, Jordan 172 

Stadia-readings to horizontal, correction of 

E. A. Byler 150 

Standard method for zinc-lead assay. W. G. Waring. . . . 193 

Status of gold Editorial .... 174 

Ditto Blarney Stevens .... 210 

Of gold mining Albert Burch. . . .209, 248 

Ditto Editorial. . . .108 

Ditto S. Kawakami. . . . 275 

Steam-shovels at Utah Copper mine 524 

History at Utah Copper mine 588 

Work at Chuquicamata 213 

Steel cables, hoisting with Ernest Levy. ... 21 

Steels, magnetic properties of manganese and special 

manganese 126 

Workers' wage advance 496 

Stevens, Blarney Monetary adjustments 

and gold mining 795 

Ditto Status of gold. . . . 210 

Stevens, T. B Lead salts in cyanidation. ... 380 

Stevens-Adamson feeders for flotation concentrate... 857 

Stockholder, rights of 693 

Stope-filling on the Rand 84 

Strakosch, Henry Value of gold in 

economic system 861 

Stripping at Utah Copper mine 554 

Strontium from barium, separating. . . .J. Waddell . ... 495 

Suez canal, business in 1917 525 

Sulphides, differential flotation of lead and zinc 

A. Del Mar 691 

Sulpho-telluride ore, roasting . . .' 595 

Sulphur and pyrite situation Editorial. . . . 106 

Di-oxide, simple method for determining 

G. W. Jones, J. H. Capps, S. H. Katz 415 

In copper, relation of 418 

In pyrite, estimation of 536 

Supplies Editorial. . . . 271 

Sulphuric acid made at Calumet & Arizona smelter. . . 181 

And nitric acid prices fixed Editorial. ... 37 

Sulphurous gases and salt water, copper-leaching by. . . 

C. S. Vadner 457 

Superintendent, defense of rough-neck 

H. W. Morris. ... 76 

Superior & Boston mine, report on 500 

Surveyors rights, case decided 463 

Sutter Creek. California, letter 164, 197, 604 

Swinton, Col. E. D The tanks. . . . 136 

Tachylyte. chrome in 290 

Taels in China, number of 694 

Vol. 117 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Tailing excavator at A]o 

Recoverj o( sold, Bllver, and ijulcksllver from 

Treatment in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho 

Tamplng-bag filling-machine 

Tanks Col. E. D. Swinton. . . . 

Tariff and miner \V. K. Forest. . . . 

Hearing on metals Editorial.... 

Taxation and tinance of mines. Federal 

J. F. Callbreath. . . . 

Taylor. Clifton Molybdenum-steel. . . . 

Technical societies and advertising 

Telluride ore, roast ins sulpho 

Tellurium-gold-silver compounds 

Temiskaming mine. Cobalt, Ontario, geologic cross- 

Temperature in blasting rock 

In drilling 

In flotation at Broken Hill 

Of broken ore. high 

Tennessee manganese deposits 

Terlingua, Texas, letter 

Terms of capitulation Editorial .... 

Terry. J. T., Jr. Terry differential flotation process. . . . 

Testing of men and ores Editorial. . . . 

Thane. B. L Relation of gold to war finance. . . . 

Thanksgiving Editorial .... 

The Day Editorial .... 

Thomas. Kirby Saline domes and other 

salt deposits 

Ditto Silver mining prospects in Ontario. . . . 

Thomas, F. A., gold mines of central Idaho 

Tillisch. H Decanting. . . . 

Timber for mining purposes 

Preservation of pit 

Tin and tungsten in South Dakota 

And tungsten output of Siam 

Consumption in silk 

Deposits in Virginia 

Deposits of the United States Editorial. . . . 

Exports from Hongkong 

Field test for 

Imports for seven months 

International regulation arranged 398, 

New regulations 

Output of Llallagua Tin Co 

Prices fixed 

Production of Malay States in 1917 


State of market at end of year 

Supply of world to be regulated 

Wolfram lead ore. concentrating a 

Tingley. R. H Why prices are high. . . . 

Tintic. Utah, manganese at 

Titanium and chromium in beach-sand, rapid method 

for determining E. P. Barrett. . . . 

Tomboy Gold Mines Co., Ltd., company report 

Costs at 


Tonopah Belmont Development Co., company report. . . 

Tonopah Divide mine 

Tonopah Extension Mining Co., company report 

Tonopah Mining Co., company report 

Tonopah. Nevada, letter 731, 

Tools, danger of burred 

Topography and geology of dredging areas — I, II ... . 

Charles Janin. . . .763, 

From moving objects A.J. Sale .... 

Toronto, Ontario, letter. . .26, 164, 428, 603, 671, 732, 
Tovote, W. . . .Cunningham Pass district, Arizona. . . . 

Ditto Interesting minerals. . . . 

Tower, Jr., G. W War Minerals Bill. . . . 

Tracks for mines, book on 

Trail smelter, fire at 

Transvaal gold yield Editorial. . . . 

Traverses without tables, calculating. . .A. J. Sale. . . . 

Treatment charges at Cripple Creek 

Of manganese ore 

Tropical sanitation 

Trucks, duplex 

Tube-mill, grinding medium for 

Pebbles, new make 

Pebbles production of United States in 1917 

Tubing, connecting glass and rubber 

C. C. Kiplinger. . . . 

Tucson, Arizona, letter 634, 

Tungsten and other minerals, ah Oriental view 















Tungsten and quicksilver production Tariff Commission 

hearings 5 

And tin output Of Siam 7;, 1 

Exports of Federated Malay States 78] 

Gold copper ore In Korea 1,1 

In China 334 

In Inyo. California 836 

In Manitoba 

In Rhodesia 33 

International pooling of 432 

Minerals, how formed 390 

New book on S41 

Prices doubted 66 

Producers to combine for export trade 847 

Stocks in United States in May 7 

Tunisia. Africa, minerals in 1917 121 

Tunnel at Lahaina, Hawaii. 7000-ft.. .Fr. Koelling. . . . 190 

At Utah Copper mine 478 

Blasting at Chuquicamata E. E. Barker. . . . 213 

Turner, H. W Physical geography of 

Ural Mountains 411 

Turner. P. R Value of gold .... 684 

Tuyeres, cast copper 525 


United Eastern Mining Co., company report 327 

United Press hoax Editorial. ... 646 

United States asphalt production in 1917 IIS 

Dividend list 877 

Fluorspar production in 191S 414 

Gasoline output in 1917 560 

Gold and silver mines of 45 

Gold and silver output in 1917 528 

Gold and silver production in 1917 657 

Gold movements 1914-'18 561 

Gold production 1912-'18 562 

Graphite production in 1917 45 

Iron ore and pig-iron output in 1917 696 

Laws pertaining to timber lands 345 

Lime production in 1917 664 

Lumber cut in 1917 89 

Magnesite production in 1918 324 

Manganese imports in first half of 1918 414 

Manganese output in 1918 six months and estimate 

for year 794 

Mineral output in 1917, final figures 845 

Nitric-acid plant capacity 596 

Potash production in first half of 1918 424 

Potash resources 759 

Pottery production in 1917 664 

Production of bauxite in 1917 50 

Production of chrome 48 

Production of ganister 314 

Production of magnesium 302 

Production of phosphate rock in 1917 56 

Production of salt in 1917 278 

Sand-lime brick output in 1917 223 

Tin deposits Editorial .... 37 

Zinc ore production 435 

U. S. Bureau of Mines establishes permanent file for 

mining records 596 

U. S. Food Administration 208 

U. S. Platinum Co., property 309 

U. S. S. R. & E. Co. abandons mining at Leadville. ... 63 
U. S. Smelting, Refining & Mining Co., company report. 171 

Staff and influenza 743 

U. S. Steel Corporation finances and wage increases. . . 203 
U. S. Tariff Commission hearings on quicksilver and 

tungsten 5 

United Verde Copper Co., building program 229 

United Verde Extension Mining Co. and neighbors 195 

Progress report 669 

Ural mountains, physical geography of 

H. W. Turner 411 

Utacala Exploration Co.'s treatment of hydro-zincite . . 607 

Utah, area of original Salt Lake 860 

Dividends of first half of 191S 97 

Early history 445 

Manganese in 6 02 

Metal output in 1917 330 

Metal production in 1917 232 

Oil-shale and phosphate rock in 132 

Taxation of mines 8 73 

Utah Apex mine, the Lopez affair 552 

Utah Consolidated Mining Co., company report 171 

Utah Copper Co., company report 296, 735 

Organization of 487 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Vol. 117 

Utah Copper enterprise — I, II. Ill, IV, V. VI, VII, VIII, 

IX T. A. Rickard. . . .445, 477, 

515, 551, 587, 713. 749, 787, 853 

Ditto George Kislingbury. . . .586, 619 

Ditto Philip Wiseman .... 820 

Mills, photo 482 

Mine, early mill-tests 478 

Mine, ore-train, and Bingham canyon, photo of. . . . 479 

Mine, section of 515 

Ute Oil Co., Utah, shale report 167 

Utica mine. California, closed 364 

Vadner, C. S Copper-leaching by salt water 

and sulphurous gases 457 

Valuation, formulas for mine D. B. Morkill . . . . 276 

Ditto H. D. Pallister. . . . 682 

Ditto W. W. Whitton. ... 179 

Value of gold P. R. Turner. ... 684 

Of gold in economic system. .Henry Strakosch. ... 861 

Of Rand mines at depth 73, 85 

Vanadium in subterranean waters. 160 

Vancouver. British Columbia, letter 27 

Vanner-fioor in Magna mill, Utah 722 

Veins, what is an apex of 43 

Venezuela, gold district of H. H. Miller. . . . 651 

Mineral production in 1917 24 

Ventilation of Butte mines 430 

Of Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, mines 430 

Of Rand mines 80 

Verde district. Arizona, apex-suits 195 

Verrill. C. S., death of 684 

Victor. Colorado, letter 164 

Victoria, British Columbia, letter 27, 61, 164, 

196, 228, 327, 362, 463, 498, 732, 869 

Virginia, tin deposits in 54 

Vulcan Detinning Co., report 367 


Waddell, John. . Separating barium from strontium. ... 495 

Wages and metal prices Editorial. ... 71 

And salaries P. B. McDonald. . . . 343 

At Silverton, Colorado 394 

Of steel-workers 496 

Waihi Gold Mining Co.. company report 334 

Wall. Colonel Enos A., and Utah mining 449 

Wall property, Utah, map of 483 

Wall rock 154 

Wall Street copper mine, Nevada 570 

War breads and bran 24 

Bread notes 212 

Casualties among British 440 

Controls, duration of 711 

Cost of Editorial .... 708 

Decisive battle of F. H. Simonds. . . . 725 

Finance problem, our IS 

Finance, relation of gold to B. L. Thane. . . . 147 

Inflation and business after 526 

Labor and Editorial .... 39 

Letter from the front 254 

News Editorial .... 2 

Notes Editorial .... 509 

War Industries Board and paper 748 

To disband Editorial .... 775 

War Minerals Act. operation 781 

War Minerals Administration Editorial. . . . 239 

War Minerals Bill G. R. Allen. . . . 373 

Ditto Editorial .... 1 

Ditto . G. W. Tower. Jr . . . . Ill 

Discussed Editorial. ... 511 

Killing Editorial. ... 402 

Opponents Editorial. . . . 141 

Testimony of \V. R. Ingalls 9 

War Minerals Control 359 

Waring. W. G Standard method for 

zinc-lead assay 193 

Wartenweiler. F. .Sodium sulphide in cyanidation . ... 591 

Washington, manganese in • 767 

Mineral output in 1917 167 

Mining situation at mid-year 232 

Water and electricity T. D. MacCormack. . . . 194 

And sulphurous gases, copper-leaching by salt. . . . 

C. S. Vadner. . . . 457 

Freezing in motor-truck radiators 88 

In Old Dominion mine, Arizona 92 


Water laws of Nevada G. A. Duncan. . . 

Transportation of debris 24S 

Wheel drive, vertical generators for. 
Welding of roll-frame, oxv-acetylene . . .0. J. Zook. 
Well-drill blasting J. C. Costello. 



Wells, D. E. . . . . Chromite scandal. . 

West End Consolidated Mining Co., company report. 

And Jim Butler Tonopah Mining Co. suit 43 

Western Australia, filter litigation in 602 

Gold production of 420 

Government reduction plants in 624 

Western mining and religion F. C. Brown. ... 405 

Westinghouse research laboratory S 1 1 

What is a dollar? W. deL. Benedict. ... 145 

White, E.J Mining in Alaska .... 711 

White. James Spitzbergen . . . . S22 

White Caps Mining Co.. company report 465 

White Rock magnesite mine, California, operations. . . 459 

Whitton formula compared 277 

Whitton. Morkill, and Hoskold tables for mine valuation 6S2 

Whitton, W. W Formulas for mine valuation. . . . 179 

Why not domestic ores first L. G. Blakemore . ... 711 

Ditto A. Miner. . . . 852 

Prices are high R. H. Tingley. . . . 455 

Williams, Ira A Nitrate deposits of 

south-eastern Oregon 2S5 

Williams, J. C Chromite. ... 2S1 

Wilshire Bishop Creek mine 539 

Willow Creek district, Alaska 93 

Winchell, H. V., nominated president of A. I. M. E. . . . 613 

Wire rope, fastening ends 676 

Rope, notes on 21 

Wiring for electric blasting at Chuquicamata 222 

Wiseman. Philip Utah Copper enterprise. . . . S20 

Wishon, W. W Friendly greeting. ... 852 

Witwatersrand. gold mining situation 158 

Wolfram mining in China 187 

Output of Burma in 1917 194 

Wood and peat, gas from 5 2 

And peat, heat value 225 

For mining purposes J. T. Reid. . . . 345 

Stave tanks, use of 642 

Woolmer. H. C Mining in Russia .... 597 

Wreck of 'Princess Sophia' in Alaska. . . .Editorial. . . . 581 

Wulfenite, market for 5 29 

Wyoming, manganese in 605 


Yale. C. G Menace to gold mining. ... 1SS 

Yerington, Nevada, letter 538 

Young, Brigham. some history 446 

Yuba Consolidated Gold Fields, company report 870 

Yukon, dredging in 792 

Removal of royalty on gold asked 503 

Zachert, V. J Process for recovering platinum. ... 4 

Zeebrugge affair 5 

Zinc as a substitute for brass, ribbon 

Box and dust precipitation, effect of oxygen in 2 

Copper compounds 

Dust v. aluminum-dust 

Electrolytic Editorial . . 

Ditto C. A. Hansen .... 5 

Electrolytic, notes on 5 

Ferrate 4 

For gasoline cans 1 

Gold compounds 7 

In Australia, electrolytic S 

In British Columbia, smelter charges and bounty. . . 1 

Iron compounds 

Lead assay, standard method for.W. G. Waring. . . . 

Map of United States 1 

Ore producers and smelters meet 6 

Ore, production of 435 

Ore warehouses in Komspelter region . Editorial .... 472 

Sheet, uses of 794 

Sulphide, price of 525 

Sulphides, differential flotation of lead and 

A. Del Mar. ... 691 

Tailing, flotation of 375 

Zirconium, forms of 54 

Minerals, use of IIS 

Zook, O. J. . Oxy-acetylene welding of a roll-frame. . . . 161 

5 6 
3 4 


Edited by T. A. RICKARD 

Volume 117 
Number 1 




15 Cents per Copy 
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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

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July 6, WIS 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

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From A to Z 

Ammonium Sulphate 

Baghouse Dust 

I '.a i iuiii Carbonate 

Barium Sulphate 

Beet Sugar 


Calcium Carbide 

Calcium Carbonate 

Calcium Sulphate 

Caustic Mud 

Cement Copper 

Cement Dust 

Cement Slurry 

China Clay 

Chlorate of Potash 

Coal Dust 

Copper Concentrate 

Cyanide Slimes 


Electrolytic Zinc 

Flotation Concentrate 

Flue Dust 


Iron Concentrate 



Lead Concentrate 

Lime and Sulphur Mix 

Lime Sludge 


Magnesium Carbonate 

Magnetic Iron Concentrate 

Mineral Paint 

Nitrate of Soda 



Pottery Slip 

Saccharate of Lime 



Sodium Bicarbonate 

Starch — Potato or Corn 


Sulphuric Acid Sludge 

Synthetic Phenol 



White Lead 
Zinc Concentrate 
Zinc Oxide 

MINING and Scientific PRESS July 6, 1918 

To Users of the 
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July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRtSS 


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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

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Western Office: Felt Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 
Eastern Office: Chicago Office: 

36 Flatbush Avenue Extension, Brooklyn, N. Y. Peoples Gas Building, Chicago, 111. 

EXPORT TRADE AGENTS: Allied Sugar Machinery Corporation, 120 Broadway, New York City 



Ca»a Grand*. Arizona April 29th, 1913 

Young & Tyler, 

Lob ingeles, Cal. 

le ore pleased to adviBo you the result of cur first 
large teBt run of galena ore, whioh w&b as follows: ' 



#1 Tailings 

#2 • 






This shows a saving of about 9CT/> on first run product 
which we consider remarkable for our class ofore. Our 
heads were lowsr than expected owing to the fact that a 
portion of ths ors had teen screened and the screenings 
covered up so that they could not be gotten at. The 

soreeninge ran 14,". lead, 8 ounces silver and $3.00 gold. 

Wishing you all the success that you deserve in 
making it possible for us to handle low grade ore; In a 
dry country, ws ask to remain, 

Yours very truly, 



90% Saving 

-With the- 

Elsol Dry Concentrator 

Let us tell you more about the Elsol 

Write (or Our Catalogue 

Not an unusual case — 
even better results are 
being obtained on 
certain classes of ore. 
The Elsol has 
solved the con- 
problem in 
the dry min- 
ing field, 

Young &. 

430 Wesley Roberts Bldg. 


Los Angeles, Cal 

.Inly 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


1918 Model, Simplified, Ball Bearing 
Senn Panning -Motion Concentrator 

Capacity ; — from 20 Tons of Slimes to 150 Tons of —3 mm. Unclassified Feed, or 

the Entire Product of 10 Stamps. 
Water Required; — 2 Tons per ton of solids in tbe pulp. 
Power Required; — 8/4 Horse Power. 

Shipping Weight; — Domestic, 2700 pounds; Export, 2900 pounds. 
Heaviest Box; — Standard Packing, 475 pounds; Special Packing, 300 pounds 

maximum, if specified with order. 
Floor Space;— 8 feet 6 inches wide, feet 6 inches long, 3 feet 1 inch high 

from top foundations to top feed box. 

Senn Panning-Motion Concentrators Make Concentration Cheaper 

When handling the usual vanner feed or a slime feed, 
One Senn handles the same load that would require 
from 4 to 6 vanners of any other make, and it re- 
covers more of the fine or slime values than any other 
belt machine because its continuous "panning" motion 
keeps the pulp loose and enables it to handle a much 
thicker pulp and avoid currents of water that wash 
away the finest concentrates. 

The Price of One Senn is only a fraction of the price 
of from 4 to 6 "vanners" of any other make, and the 
Cost of Attendance and Upkeep are Correspondingly 
Less Per Ton treated. 

When handling an Unclassified Feed that would other- 
wise require "tables", the Senn still handles a thick 
pulp and it saves the fine values that no "table" can 
save. Its Capacity is equal to that of the best "table" 
handling the same material. It is Cheaper because its 
Recovery is Greater. 

One Senn is handling the entire product of 10 stamps, 
or their equivalent, in each of a number of California 

gold mills; 4 Senns are handling from 150 to 200 
tons per 24 hours of —80 mesh silver-gold ore in a 
Nevada mill; 30 Senns are handling the entire Flota- 
tion Tails from a 1400 ton copper mill in New Mexico, 
and 6 Senns have been installed to take the Flotation 
Tails from another 300 ton mill; in a mill in Canada, 
Senns are "roughing" the 3 mm. unclassified feed and 
finishing the Flotation Tails. Senns have been and 
are being installed from New Brunswick to New 
Zealand, to handle gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, 
tungsten, chrome, wulfenite, etc. They are called 
upon to handle all sorts of materials upon which 
others have failed — and they do it. 

"Handling" a certain tonnage, when applied to the 
Senn, means Making The Maximum Recovery from 
that tonnage, in Clean Commercial Concentrates; not 
merely the passing of that tonnage over the machine 
nor making a concentrate so dirty and low grade that 
it must be cleaned before it can be considered a com- 
mercial product. 

The Millman "Pans" His Tailings to Check the Work of His Concentrators 

The Senn Will Save All The "Pan" Can Save 

Senn Concentrator Company 

1215 P, First National Bank Building, San Francisco, CaL, IT. S. A. 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 




( and ° 






Jaw Crusher 


Get the Facts 

about these record making machines 

OUR NEW DESIGN (Patented)— The Last Word in 
Gyratory Crusher Construction Life, of "Eccentric 
and Gears" Lengthened "200%," Because All "Dust 
and Grit" is Absolutely Excluded and "Cut Gears" 
run "Quietly in Oil," Main Shaft 50% Stronger than 
any Gyratory of Corresponding Opening Area of Ec- 
centric, 75% Greater than any Machine of Equal Size. 

Pioneer Builders of Large Jaw Crushers — Have More 
Large Machines in Operation than all other Manu- 
facturer Combined — Repeat Orders for 84 x 60-in. Ma- 
chines from Chile Copper Co. ; Chino Copper Co. ; Hard- 
away Co.; Luossavaara Kurunavaara Aktiebolag. 

in a wide range of sizes, to meet the requirements of 
discriminating engineers, who demand an exception- 
ally efficient and worthy design. Most sizes of Garfield 
Rolls so constructed as to permit the use of oversize 
roll shells. A wide range of standard designs, and also 
several special types equipped with heavy, fly-wheel 
type pulleys. 

(Send for the Bulletins, They're Free.) 


T 1 5 Broadwa* , New York 

Power and Mining Works, 

Cudahy. Wis. 


July ti. L918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Your Light Loads 

The "Little Tugger" Way 

Man or mule power will do your hauling — 
but the cost will be lessened by substituting 
"Little Tugger." 

With it a single workman can haul one, two 
or three ears up an incline or as conveniently 
lower them. You save the cost of keeping a 
mule or the time of other workmen. 

''Little Tugger' 

operating costs are negli- 

You can clamp or bolt it anywhere and use 
it for any of the odd jobs of hoisting and 
handling. It will lift weights up to 1000 lb. 
or haul much greater loads. It is portable, 
entirely self-contained and can be operated 
by anyone. 

Bulletin 4233 gives full details. 
Ask for a ccpy 



11 Broadway, New York 165 Q, Victoria St., London 

Tor Canada, 'address Canadian -'lager soil-It rod Co., Montreal 

Offices the .World Over 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 

The Monotony of 
Unusual i erformance 

TO DUPLEX 4- Wheel Drive 
Trucks, the unusual is the 
commortplace ! Breaking 
records has become a matter of 

To us, Duplex performance is 
nothing to wonder at; it is ex- 
pected — planned, and pre-deter- 
mined. This is why we rarely cite 
definite cases of Duplex achieve- 
ment, such as the following: 

Between Edgewater and Paterson, 
N. J., is the famous — or infamous 
— Fort Lee hill. It's a mile long 
and has grades up to 17 per cent. 
Doesn't sound difficult to negoti- 

No! But the bottom abounds in 
deep chuck holes ; the middle is a 
mass of soft asphalt; the top sec- 
tion is rough cobble stones. As 
good measure there's a hair pin 
turn on the last lap. 

Still, it's negotiable — for an auto- 
mobile or a lightly loaded truck. 
But the Duplex was neither! 

At Edgewater they gave the 

11th YEAR 

Duplex eight thousand pounds of 
sugar to carry — and another six 
thousand (loaded on a trailer) to 
haul. All told, the load totaled 
seven tons. 

Summarized, the conditions were: 

A stiff grade ; bad road surface ; 
difficult turn where the grade was 
steepest ; seven tons on truck and 
trailer; new, stiff engine. 

The 3 J-ton Duplex made it ! 

Made it in twelve minutes. Made 
it without difficulty, although in 
places the soft asphalt was two 
inches deep. 

Then it completed its 50-mile run 
on a total gasoline consumption 
of seven gallons, and at a cost of 
four cents per ton mile. 

# # # * 

To us this performance is not par- 
ticularly startling; to us such ac- 

complishment is perfectly natural. 
But here are quotations from 
truck users — who keep careful tab 
on all trucks. 

"Seven miles to the gallon with 
four tons on truck, and pulling a 
trailer carrying three tons is in- 
deed a marvelous performance." 

"It does not seem possible that 
any truck ..... could obtain 
such remarkable mileage." 

"In all my records which cover 
the operation of 1400 different 
trucks I can find nothing to com- 
pare with it." 

* • • • 

The Port Lee hill performance 
was unusual as a motor truck 
achievement, and not unusual as 
a Duplex accomplishment, simply 
because such ability is built into 
every Duplex truck. Exclusive 
principles — correct designing — 
careful construction — and ten 
years spent in doing it — help us 
produce a truck that is so depend- 

Duplex Truck Co., 2038 Washington Ave., Lansing, Mich. 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 








Capacity 1000 cubic feet per minute at 10 lbs. pressure. 

Water cooled. Height 47 in. Floor space 32x72 in. 

Weight 6000 lbs. including motor. 

F. O. B. Denver $2,500.00. 


Capacity 100 cubic feet per minute at 50 lbs. pressure. Water 

cooled. Height 31 in. Floor space 35x41 in. Weight complete 

with 4-cyIinder gasoline engine 1700 lbs. 

F. O. B. Denver $650.00. 

Same Compressor, belt driven, up to 50 lbs. pressure, 9500.00. 
Up to 100 lbs. pressure, $650.00. 


Capacity 400 cubic feet per minute at 100 lbs. pressure. Height 

40 in. Floor space 54x80 in. Weight 10,000 lbs. complete 

with motor. 

F. O. B. Denver $4,500.00. 

Deliveries can be made on short notice. 


Water cooled. 100 lbs. pressure. Belt drive, complete with pulley 

and outboard bearing. Speed 350 R. P. M. Capacity 

150 cubic feet, free air per minute. Length 42 in., 

width 24 in., height 30 in. 

Weight about 1300 lbs. Price $1,050.00 

Write us for full description and prices on other sizes. 

July «. 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 




Our shops are equipped for manufactur- 
ing mining equipment of special design 
to efficiently meet your requirements. 48 

Our warehouses are 
headquarters for every- 
thing used in and about 
a mine: Hoists, Hoist- 
ing Rope, Mine Cages, 
Landing Chairs, Ore 
Buckets, Ore Cars, 
Skips for vertical and 

incline shafts, Sheaves, 
Safety Hooks, Pumps, 
Compressors, Engines, 
Boilers. Mining Sup- 
plies of every descrip- 
tion. Large stocks car- 
ried at Denver, Salt 
Lake and El Paso. 



Marcy Ball Mills Wilf ley Concentrating Tables 

Assay and Laboratory Equipment 

Electrical Apparatus 

Send us your inquiries and orders. 




The Mine and Smelter Supply Company 

A Service Station Within Reach of You 


New York Office: 42 Broadway 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 





The Universal 






l~:-\ V 







wor jcposj 


The All-the-Year-'Round 
Explosive for Ore-Mining 



Ore Mining is conducted on high-production, economic 
\ff Snd "safety -first" principles when Red Cross Extra of required 
strength is loaded and detonated with electric blasting caps. 


wy Red Cross Extra is made in strengths of 20 to 60%, — a range suf- 
ficient to meet the requirements of ore-mining. Don't overlook its 
low-freezing property,. — a big factor in open work 

:y low-ireezuig property,. — a uig j.acioi 

Tell us what are your blasting troubles. 
' Let's help you cut your cost per ton 
and speed-up production. 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. 


Wilmington, Delaware 

The Du Pont American Industries Are: 

E. I. da Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, Del., 


Da Pont Chemical Works, New York, 


Da Pont Fabrikoid Co., Wilmington, Del., 


The Arlington Works, 735 Broadway, New York, 


Harrisons, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa., 


Da Pont Dye Works, Wilmington, Del., 





.Ink 6, I'JIH 

MINING «..d Scientific PRESS 


A Perfected Calculator - 

^* the i\ew 




Hand figuring is obsolete— you do not permit out-of-date methods in the 
mine or mill. Why allow time wasting pencil calculation in the office? 

The MARCHANT Pony Special "A" meets the need for a convenient calculator which 
may be easily carried by the mining engineer and others whose work often requires a 
portable instrument. 

It possesses all of the features of speed, accuracy, and simplicity of operation which have 
made the Standard MARCHANT a general favorite. 

It may be easily carried— weights but twelve pounds— measures eight by twelve inches at 
the base. It is absolutely accurate — all work is automatically proved. 

The Top Register Dial tear 

a distinct new feature 


gives a double check on every calculation. The figures placed on the setting 
levers are registered on the top dial also — every step is visible to the operator. 

Investigate this new MARCHANT Pony Special "A." Mines, mills, and 
smelters have found- it invaluable. Tonnages, averages, percentages, and 
costs figured easily, quickly, and accurately. 


Test the MARCHANT in your own office 
Let us prove its worth on your own work 
Send the coupon today 


Machine Co. 

Dept. P 
Oakland, Cal. 
Drexel Bldg., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Please send complete 
information on the 
Marchant Calculator 

Marchant Calculating Machine Co. 

Emeryville, Oakland, California 

Name . 

Eastern Sales Office: 

Drexel Bldg., Philadelpia 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July (j. 1918 

—in the daily grind of actual service 

Day in and day out under all sorts of conditions. COCHISE DRILLS are cutting drilling costs 
to a minimum. 

Economical air consumption — great power and long life are the outstanding features of 
COCHISE DRILLS. A miner who has run a COCHISE will give it preference over any 
other type. 

Size for size COCHISE ROCK HAMMERS have other drills beaten for effectiveness and 

They will drill greater footage — use less air and stay underground longer than other types. 

Our claim to much greater footage at less air consumption is not idle talk. 

We are ready to prove this to your own satisfaction. 

COCHISE DRILLS must make money before you pay any ont. 

Arrange with us for a free demonstration on your own property 
Write today for descriptive bulletins 

Cochise Machine Co., 

Los Angeles California 

The new home of the 
Cochise Machine Com- 
pany — a result of the 
demand for Cochise 
products. Every detail 
of the manufacture of 
Cochise Drills is the 
work of experts. 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


The Cochise Line Includes 
the Rock Hammer, Cochise 
Piston Drills, and Stopers 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 


CRUSHERS lead because they are the result of a demand for a stronger 
and more durable crusher than has yet been put upon the market and 
one that would handle larger quantities of rock and ore without, the 
attendant difficulties encountered in some of the older and somewhat 
antiquated types. 

patented ball and socket, self-aligning eccentric that can be run for years 
without the eccentric rebabbitted. This item alone will more than pay 
the interest on the crushing plant, to say nothing of the increased capacity 
which is the result of a constant eccentricity. 

This is only one of the many important features found in the KENNEDY 
CRUSHERS. Our catalogs contain illustrations and descriptions of 
the latest and most modern GYRATORY CRUSHERS. While we have 
not attempted to imitate other makes, we have not departed from the 
settled practice in the general design of GYRATORY CRUSHERS; 
we have applied modern and up-to-date mechanical features to the 
principal working parts, which will be at once recognized and appre- 
ciated by the skilled operator and engineer as being vastly superior to 
anything that has yet been designed. 

Bulletin Xo. 2 on the GEARLESS FINE CRUSHER will be very interesting to you. as it 
describes fully this very superior FINE CRUSHER. You should acquaint yourself with 
this new equipment ; it will prove a revelation. 

Collins & Webb, inc. 

Manufacturing Engineers and Machinery Dealers 

412 E. Third St., 

Los Angeles, Cal 

Julj 6, L918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


in Their Class 

The Isbell Concentrator 

leads, because 

ll will treat a mixed pulp direct from grinding screens as coarse as 6 mesh without pre- 
liminary classification and save both the slime, fine and coarse concentrate. 

l'ses absolutely no cross wash-water, therefore no loss of slime. Saves the cost of classifiers, 
si/.ers. settling tanks, vanners or "slime tables," with their necessary power and transmis- 
sion, mill floor space, etc. 

Has a capacity with recovery equal to the average of four of the cross wash-water type of 
tabb — treats -30 to 100 tons per 24 hours. 

Most substantially constructed concentrating table ever made — the Isbell patented head 
motion is simplicity itself — self contained, self oiling and trouble proof. 

The Isbell Action is Different 

The motion of the deck produces a stratifying action at once — 
the gangue on top, the mineral at the bottom. The concentrate is 
drawn off from the bottom as soon as formed through a series of 
hydraulic cut-outs — an exclusive patented Isbell feature. The 
riffle system guides the concentrate toward the cut-outs while the 
gangue is discharged off of the end of the deck, a clean tailing. 





and System 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 


The K & K Flotation Machine in a typical plant. 
Note the compact get-at-able-ness of the entire 




From pulp to concentrate — and no lost time. A continuous 
operation is afforded during which separation and dis- 
charge take place. Note the typical installation above. 
The feed enters at one end of the machine, the tailings 
being discharged at the opposite end while the concentrate 
is discharged over the lip of the "frothing chamber" into a 
suitable launder. Everything necessary to complete separa- 
tion is accomplished in one operation. 

If you are considering the installation of flotation equipment you 
cannot afford to overlook the K & K. There have been many in- 
stances where it has turned flotation from a failure to a success. 
Our metallurgical department had made a study of the difficulties 
presented by different ores which hitherto were not considered amenable to 
flotation. We have valuable information on the treatment of carbonate ores 
and have worked out many knotty problems by flotation. 

Let us aid you with the information we have secured. Write today for our new and 

complete catalogue. 

Southwestern Engineering Co., 

523-526 Wesley Roberts Bldg., 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

Juh G, 11)18 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

A Complete Flotation Unit 

read] tor business the minute you set it up. Connect up with power — 
Introduce your flotation feed and the machine does the rest. No pre- 
agitators, compressors or other auxiliaries required. Automatic control 
requiring little or no attention. 

Large Capacity 

Largest machine treats 80 to 150 tons per 24 hours; 
smaller sizes also made. The K & K cycle of operation 
delivers the concentrate in the shortest possible time — 
therefore the high capacity. 

Low Power Consumption 

Requires but 6 to 8 H.P. — no violent churning or agita- 
tion with the K & K. The rotor is the only moving part 
and is mounted on ball bearings producing minimum 
friction losses. 

Low Up-keep Expense 

There is practically nothing to wear out about the K & K. 
The only wearing parts are the riffles which are easily 
and cheaply replaced. 

Small Floor Space 

The K & K requires about half the space for installation 
needed by other machines — only 4%xl5 ft. for the 
largest size. Also very little head-room is needed. This 
has made its use possible in many cases where larger 
apparatus would have caused considerable expense for 





MINING and Scientific PRESS 

•lulv 6, t91"8 




Scleroscope and Physical tests show these balls to be 1 5 
to 20% better than standard type balls now available. 

Prompt delivery. Send us your order now. 
Samples on request. 


I 62 S. Anderson St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

July 6, 1918 

MJMNG and Scientific PRESS 




In Mine, Mill, and Smelter Operations 

Where you have 8 or more men employed in spreading waste dumped from cars 
the Jordan Spreader can be used economically in their place and anything dumped 
from cars such as ore, slag, tailing, fuel, etc., may be handled with the Jordan. 

It Entirely Eliminates Gang Labor 

As a saver of money, time and labor, the Jordan Spreader is in a position by itself. Mov- 
ing and Spreading all classes of material up to 75,000 cu. yds. a day at a cost of \ mill 
per cubic yard it displaces hundreds of men at a cost that is insignificant. 

One man and a train crew operate the Jordan Spreader 

It is built to last a life time. The upkeep and repairs are insignificant. Many Jordan 
Spreaders have been in use for more than twenty years. 

Send for a catalog and let us tell you what 
Jordan Spreaders will do on your particular work 


The JORDAN SPREADER is made entirely in our own shops 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 

Belt Conveyors 

The Dodge line of equipment for the continuous 
handling of materials by belt or bucket is most com- 

Dodge service in the elevating and conveying 
field is comprehensive and is exceptional because of 
our wide experience also in other and closely re- 
lated branches of transmission engineering. 

The intensively specialized facilities of the Dodge 
companies concentrate, upon the production of each 
pulley, bearing and other part of conveying and 
elevating installations, the highest engineering and 
manufacturing skill. 

Many distinctive features, such as interchange- 
ability of parts, special facilities for adequate and 
positive lubrication, and other refinements of design 
— coupled with general excellence of detail and 
finish — insure smooth and continuous operation. 

Upkeep costs thereby are minimized perceptibly, 
and efficiency is established at the high standard 
rigidly maintained for Dodge installations of every 

Whether your requirements in the elevating and 
conveying line are large or small you will find, in 
Dodge equipment and in Dodge service, values 
important to elevator and conveyor users in all 
branches of the mining industry. 

See your Dodge Catalog tor details 

Dodge dales and Engineering Company 

Distributor of the Products of Dodge Manufacturing Co. 

"Everything for the Mechanical Transmission of Power" 
General Office and Works : Mishawaka, Ind. 

Sales and Engineering Service Station: 
814 Newhouse Bldg., Salt Lake 


Acetylene Lamp 

Highly regarded 
wherever used — 

"With a Wolf lamp there is less time wasted in the 
mine. The next property I get will sure have the 
Wolf Lamp in preference to any other." 

"Your Wolf lamps are used exclusively in the Daly 
Mine * * * it is the only practical and successful 
carbide lamp that will stand up and give the satis- 
faction the Wolf does." 

"'••'• Wolf lamps operating at a total cost of 
2 J cents per 10-hour shift." 

This is what three users say — there are scores of 
similar instances. 

The Wolf Acetylene Lamp is sturdiness personified. 
It. is made of drawn-steel and heavily tin-plated or 
made of sheet-brass. 

The burner is of such excellent quality lava that 
one man has constantly used a single tip for four 

Gives a brilliant light, burns cleanly, operates most 
economically, is entirely dependable, and is reason- 
ably priced. 

We can furnish two or two thousand 
lamps. Write for details and quotations. 

Wolf Safety Lamp Co. 

of America, Incorporated 

76 Washington St. - New York City 

July 6, L918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

No Matter What Your Crushing Problem 

We illustrate our Type B Crusher, made in the following sizes: 15x48", 
15x60", 24x48", 24x60", 30x48", 30x60", and 30x72", with one piece cast 
steel frame of box section, water-cooled cast steel pitman, and water- 
cooled main pitman shaft bearings. 

This is only one of five types of jaw crusher which 

we make in 36 sizes, ranging from the little 7" x 10", 

weighing 8000- ft. up to the Giant Crusher, having 

a jaw opening of 66 n x86", and 

weighing 680,000- ft. 

They're all fully described in Bulletin 
J-2. it's just off the press. 

Engineering & 


30 Church Street . 
1414 Fisher Building 

New York 
. Chicago 

■■■III llllllllllB— M—i— — i—W— M— ■— MUM— ■— ■ 


The highest efficiency in sharpening and 
shanking steel is only obtainable with the Model 
8 "Waugh" Sharpener. In actual service it has 
demonstrated that it produces perfectly worked 
bits and shanks in the shortest possible time 
with the minimum consumption of air. 

Not only will it use less air at equal pressures 
than other machines, but it will operate effec- 
tively on lower pressures than are required by 
machines of similar capacity. 

The illustration shows one of two Model 8 
"Waugh" Sharpeners at the Empire Copper 
Company's mine, Mackay, Idaho. 

New York EI PaBO Seattle Salt Lake City 

San Francisco Houghton Butte Joplln Los Angeles 

Canadian Rock Drill Co., .Ltd., Sole Agents 
Toronto Cobalt, Ont. Nelson, B. C. Vancouver 



: bat OHi'/llM 
MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 

Prompt Deliveries Of 

"Western 'Engines 





Through increased facilities and increased 
production we have been fairly successful 
in keeping pace with the extremely heavy 
demands made upon us during the past 
year for "Western" Engines. 

We are able, therefore, to offer you rea- 
sonably prompt deliveries of "Westerns 
of standard size and design, from 1 2 to 
320 H. P., using as fuel gas, gasoline 
and fuel oils of very low gravity. 

Write or wire us immediately your re- 
quirements, stating sizes of engines 

Send for Bulletin No. 0-7 

Western Machinery Company 

900 N. Main St. Los Angeles, Cat. 

U. S. A. 

I ," l :: | i || !ii«::: ,|l '5''"5!il|!!»'"» 

in,, * 

4¥ * 

"aiiM 1 ''"""*,, 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


■ I n ; I n n 1 1 1 1 n 1 1 m 1 1 n 1 1 1 1 n l n H ) H ) 1 1 1 1 1 1 H I H M II II I M I ) 1 1 1 ) I U 1 1 1 M I ] 1 H 1 1 1 1 1 1 W I H I n n I m n n 1 1 1 m i n m 1 1 n 1 1 u i n m u i m i u 1 1 1 1 1 1 m m i [ 1 1 1 1 i u 1 1 1 u n 1 1 1 1 rrrr 

i iiiiiiiiii 

. 72 Gp r.Gseniat, ?ve !7ns iaJ/a tJoniir: 

ii ii i u ii m iii m ii i iim i iimi iIIII min i II I IIIIIIII mil n minim i miiiiniiiiiinnmiinn i ni i n i i i i i ii iii ii ii m ii i i in iii iim iiiiii |iiiii iii iim iiiii 

Powdered Coal Plant 

( Holbeck System ) 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co. 



Pulverizing and Distributing 600 Tons of Coal per Day 
to 5 Reverberatory Copper Furnaces. 


iiiniim i 

.- ; aiiiiiniiiii iiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiH :/-•_; 

•;#>-v i35 ;: $EGONb;Sll' : ; ' v SAN: FRANCISCO;' 

'■■-'- --■ --■'•- -.•---•- 1 j ■'• 

Jllllliinniiiiiiiiimi HiiuiiiiHiiiimriiiniiiiMiinifmiiniiiiitiiniiiniiiiniir 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 191» 





Eureka Hill Mining Co., Yankee, near Tintic, Utah. "Pacific" Tanks in Foreground 

The Strongest Link 
in the Chain of 


A. Few oi our Repeaters 

Bullfrog M. & M. Co. 
Goldfield Cons. M. & M. Co. 
Alaska Gastineau M. Co. 
Anaconda Copper M. Co. 
Costa Rica Union M. Co. 
Sperry Flour Co. 
W. P. Fuller & Co. 
Paraffine Paint Co. 
Canadian Western Lumber Co. 
Portland Flouring Co. 
Alaska Treadwell G. M. Co. 
Pacific Gas & Electric Co. 
Arizona Eastern By. Co. 

We want to make you a Repeater. 
Begin by a letter NOW! 

== 50.000 Gal. "Pacific" Tank on a 75-foot 
= Steel Tower. MOORE & SCOTT SHIP- 

If you're 100% 

Prove It 
BUY W. S. S. 



30.000 Gal. "Pacific" Tank on a 
60-foot Wood Tower. GENERAL 
CHEMICAL CO.. Nichols. Cal. 

302 Market Street 

902 Trust & Savings Bank Bldg. 

If yon're 100% 


Prove It 
BUY W. S. S. 


MningscenL Press 




A ?" .0. JKItor 
• iV ALB. ^soridlf £dttor 

' ' t/XYZ, Assistant Miter 


Published at 420 Marhst St, San Frandxo, 
6u tht Dewsv Publishing Company 


C. T. HUTCHINSON. Manager 

E. H. LESLIE, eoo Fkher llda.. Chicago 

A. S. BREAKEY. MM Woolwih Bdo„ tfew Fori 

Science has no enemy save the ignorant 

Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 6, 1918 

$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 





The passing of James Douglas, the dean o£ the 
mining profession in America; outline of his 
career; co-operation with T. Sterry Hunt in metal- 
lurgy invention; identified with Phelps, Dodge & 
Company; developed some of the largest copper 
mines in the world; distinguished also as a his- 
torian; his influence on exchange of technical in- 
formation; his democratic ideals. M. & S. P., July 
6, 1918. 


Steps toward preparedness in making America eco- 
nomically self-sufficient; function of the TJ. S. 
Tariff Commission; the policy of protection; a 
tariff to promote a benevolent peace; testimony 
on the status of antimony, mercury, and tungsten 
industries; decline in production after the War in- 
evitable without tariff restrictions; present pro- 
duction limited by lack of guarantees; need of the 
War Minerals bill. M. & S. P., July 6, 1918. 




Tables of production and prices; cost of Quick- 
silver production in America, Spain, and Austria; 
low-grade ores and low recovery in this country; 
protection needed to develop large low-grade ore- 
bodies; metallurgic improvements; outline of the 
condition of mines and stocks on hand by J. H. 
Mackenzie; cost of production; German-owned 
mines idle; guarantee of prices for a period needed 
to stimulate production; development of large low- 
grade mines depends on protection. M. & S. P., 
July 6, 1918. 


Testimony of Walter R. Ingalls 

Fears that mines of copper, lead, and other metals 
might fall within the operation of the bill through 
control of accessory metals; thinks no stabilizing 
of the market is necessary; Government has all 
the authority it needs; no necessity for Govern- 
ment intervention in producing such things as 
magnesite, mercury, or tungsten; Government 

should go out and get what it needs, as would be 
done in business; has observed no desire anywhere 
to hold up the Government; objects to price-fixing. 
M. & S. P., July 6, 1918. 


Total Government expenditures from July 1, 1917, 
to May 15, 1918; sources and amounts of revenue; 
advances to our Allies; estimated requirements. 
M. & S. P., July 6, 1918. 


By W. Tovote 19 

A 'poor man's' copper district; 20 years experience 
shows large returns per man from small rich 
veins; ore contains copper and gold; desirable flux- 
ing quality. M. & S. P., July 6, 1918. 


By Ernest Levy 21 

Practical discussion of causes of breakage, and 
points on cable that most often fail; methods of 
inspection; rules for maintenance of cables. M. & 
S. P., July 6, 1918. 


Account from a Germano-Hispanic source of con- 
dition of the aluminum industry in the Central 
Empires; a new type of deposit in Alta Hesse; re- 
cent metallurgic improvements. M. & S. P., July 
6, 1918. 


By Duff A. Abrams ... 

Experimental data showing great increase in 
strength of concrete from proper proportioning of 
water; sloppy concrete is weak. M. & S. P., July 
6, 1918. 


M. & S. P., July 6, 1918. 





THE MINING SUMMARY. :....'. ■';-. . . 28 






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MINING and Sfci«rtiE<oPR£8S 

July 6, 1918 

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July 6, 1918 

1VKNIING and Scientific PRESS 

TVTEVER since the Declaration of Independence has the 


Fourth of July been celebrated so worthily. On the 

142nd anniversary the United States is making good the 
Declaration by fighting for its own safety and for the 
safety of the allied democracies against a tyranny as 
much worse than that of the German-English King, 
George III, as it is more menacing to human liberty else- 
where. This Fourth is not only a national holiday, it is 
an international celebration in which 23 peoples partici- 
pate enthusiastically. 

TTOUSE Resolution No. 291, introduced by Mr. James 
-*•-*- H. Mays, of Utah, proposes to extend to oil-shale 
placer locations the Act suspending the requirements of 
annual assessment work upon mining claims for the years 
1917 and 1918. The wording is not specific as to how 
the exemption shall apply for the past year, but an 
amendment will probably cure this defect before the 
measure becomes law. 

A LUMINUM is so essential to the construction of 
-'*- aeroplanes that a vulnerable point in the German 
structure appears in the circumstance that her main de- 
pendence for bauxite is upon the mines near Sebenico 
and Derins in Dalmatia. Sebenico lies but a short dis- 
tance from the sea. If this source of supply could be 
■cut off the effect upon the size of the German air fleet 
•would soon become apparent. Elsewhere in this issue 
we publish a statement of German methods of reducing 
aluminum ores. 

TT'ROM "Washington we hear that the recent meeting of 
-*■ the Institute was an unqualified success. On the in- 
Titation of the Food Administrator the engineers dined 
at the Food Administration cafeteria. A number of 
speeches were made on patriotic effort, more particularly 
on the winning of metals for use in the War. Mr. Hoover 
himself spoke, we are informed, "most effectively." 
Other speakers were Messrs. Sidney J. Jennings, R. V. 
Norris, William L. Saunders, and Pope Teatman. A 
new section of the Institute was organized. 

TMPORTATION of 12,000 tons of ferro-manganese 
-*- from Great Britain has been authorized by the War 
Trade Board to offset the shortage of ore in this country. 
The American Iron and Steel Institute, through its sub- 
«ommittee on ferro-alloys, has recommended that the 

standard for ferro-manganese be reduced from th« 
present requirements of 78 to 80%. of manganese to 70%, 
and that spiegeleisen shall contain from 19 to 21%. It 
is proposed that the new standards be accepted as 'good 
delivery' under existing contracts, with suitable adjust- 
ment of tonnages and prices. These recommendations 
are made in order to conserve shipping and to encourage 
the utilization of domestic ores as far as possible. The 
importation of ferro-manganese, therefore, is only a 
make-shift until the supply from our own mines shall 
respond more fully to the needs of the steel industry. 

\ N interesting statement is made by Mr. G. J. Kap- 
■^"*- teyn, a Dutch engineer recently arrived in this 
country from Holland, that United States gold notes are 
in great demand in his country, whence they are smug- 
gled into Germany. The normal money-changer's value 
of American currency in Holland is 2.45 florins on the 
dollar; the present rate is 4.85. At the same time the 
rate for British currency is 13.6 florins per pound ster- 
ling, as opposed to 12.1 before the War. The inference 
is that the Germans are playing safe, and that they en- 
tertain a strong conviction that England and America 
will still loom large on the map when the smoke of battle 
has cleared away. Nevertheless, we think that the Ger- 
mans have not yet been punished as much as they de- 
serve, otherwise the premium on our currency would be 
higher. At the same time we note Mr. Kapteyn's earnest 
plea for a generous compromise peace with the Teuto«, 
from which it would appear that Holland is too close t» 
Germany to admit of seeing things from the Allied point 
of view. 

THE War-Minerals -bill, as passed by the House, is 
now before the Mines Committee of the Senate, 
where it has been held in abeyance pending the return 
of Senator Henderson. The House struck out the princi- 
pal clause, namely, that authorizing the President, 
through the Secretary of the Interior, to guarantee a 
fixed minimum price on specific minerals for a period 
not to exceed two years. It is expected that the Mines 
Committee of the Senate will restore this proviso, with- 
out which the Bill is emasculated to the point of use- 
lessness. A decision in this matter is due at any moment, 
our hope being that an alternative clause, embodying the 
one deleted by the House, will be added, so as to give 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 

effect to the original purpose of the Bill. Elsewhere in 
this issue we publish the testimony of Mr. Ingalls, whose 
opposition to the Bill is noteworthy. If he made out a 
much poorer ease than Mr. Manning, who testified for 
the Bill, we may assume that he was handicapped by 
the weakness of his case. 

"DAFFERTY, FRANK A., Armagh, Ireland, is the 
-*-*- first name in a recent casualty list. He was a cor- 
poral and was "killed in action," fighting in the Ameri- 
can Army. "We salute this good citizen ; it is he, and 
others like him, that will solve the Irish problem. "When 
Irishmen are fighting and dying for the cause of human 
liberty, whether they be enrolled under the American 
or the British flag, they are making good the claim to 
Home Rule, and they are shaming those that stay at 
home to make political trouble at a time when complete 
unity of effort is essential. "When a man is in a fight, 
for a right cause, he is impatient of a friend that stays 
out of it, and he has no use for his friend if he fail to 
come to his aid, no matter what the reason — least of all 
politics. The Irish have a sense of humor ; they will see 
that so long as other Irishmen are fighting in France it 
is absurd for their comrades to remain in Ireland talk- 
ing. "Come on, boys, the water is fine!" Don't wade 
in the shallows of a domestic squabble, but plunge like 
brave swimmers into the deep waters that will wash the 
world free from Prussian bestiality. 

A T a time so critical, when our heart-strings vibrate 
^*- continually to news from the battlefields in Europe, 
it is a pity that the editors of our daily papers do not 
place the selection of head-lines in the hands of grown 
men — that is, mentally grown. Most of the head-lines 
appear to be concocted by ignorant boys. We read 
"Austrian Line Broken," as in truth it was two weeks 
ago, but the head-line we quote referred to a local skir- 
mish. If the British make a successful raid, the 'Huns 
are Hurled Back"; if our American boys are successful 
in an affair of outposts, it is "Another U. S. Victory"; 
if the French advance a thousand yards on one flank, it 
is "Germans Crashed by the French," although con- 
currently the other flank may have been compelled to 
retire several miles. We have had some notable suc- 
cesses lately, especially on the Italian front, and our own 
Army is beginning to make itself felt in no uncertain 
way, but it is only childish to exaggerate every little 
affair in which our men or those of our Allies are suc- 
cessful. The daily exaggeration of bits of good news 
destroys the true perspective of the great events that we 
are witnessing through the turbid medium of newspaper 
correspondence. It is time for editors to appreciate the 
dignity of history in the making. 

are couched in language that indicates methods of 
reasoning utterly different from the rest of the world. 
There is such a failure to recognize facts as we see them 
that these German pronouncements might as well be pub- 
lished in Mars as in the Allied countries. The Kaiser 
says that the War is due to the Anglo-Saxon ambition 
to dominate the world; Von Kuehlmann says that Rus- 
sia is the culprit. At first England was chiefly to blame, 
because she- did not remain quiet when the German 
armies used Belgium as a road to Paris; now England 
is only third in blame, the first place being given to 
Russia and the second to France. The German Secre- 
tary of Foreign Affairs says that Germany asks for "a 
free existence within the boundaries drawn for us by 
history. ' ' What historian is to decide ? Treitsehke ? The 
reading of history has manifest subjective limitations. 
Germany desires "the freedom of the seas." Our no- 
tion of freedom is not the same as the German, and that 
is why we are fighting. The German idea is unrestricted 
submarine piracy, ours is that the seas shall be free to- 
peaceful commerce. Germany desires "overseas pos- 
sessions corresponding to her greatness and wealth." 
She has shown striking incapacity to administer her 
colonies. The vaunted greatness of Germany is being 
prostituted to brutal aggression and to bestial warfare; 
her wealth was used for. insidious propaganda and the 
secret penetration of her neighbors; we recognize no- 
claim for dominion based on the superiority suggested, 
on the contrary we hold that her actions have proved her 
entirely unfitted to control peoples other than her own. 
It is satisfactory to note a recognition of the fact that 
the end of the conflict "can hardly be expected through. 
purely military decisions alone," but the blatant boast 
of the Kaiser and his generals has been for four years, 
that the "good German sword" was going to settle the 
question. Just now it is the purpose of the Allies to 
prove that there are better swords than the Germans,, 
and that free men fighting for liberty can use them not 
only to defend themselves but to cut through the 
sophistries and insincerities of the Potsdam conspirators, 
who now stand unmasked and unashamed before the 

lVTO peaceful settlement of the issue between the Allies 
- 1 - " and the Enemy is possible so long as the leaders of 
Germany talk in terms that to us are incomprehensible. 
The recent speech of the Kaiser and the speeches made 
in the Reichstag by Von Kuehlmann and Von Hertling 

James Douglas 

Edmund Garrett, the editor of the 'Cape Times,' said 
that two things made life worth while : friends and the 
hope of being effective. He achieved both, although he 
died at 42. A few days ago there passed James Douglas, 
at the age of 81, after a long life as effective in service 
as it was rich in friendships. Born at Quebec, the son 
of a physician, he became a resident of the United States-. 
in 1875. He began his career as a professor of chemistry- 
in his native city and early became associated with 
Thomas Sterry Hunt in developing the hydro-metal- 
lurgy of copper, one result of which was the invention 
of a process that holds an honored place in the history 
of the art. Later he became mining engineer to the- 
founders of the Phelps Dodge Corporation, and guided! 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


ih. in in the development and exploitation of copper 
mines iu Arizona, and the South-West generally, until 
he heeame identified with some of the biggest and most 
successful mining enterprises in the world. His stand- 
ing as an engineer was recognized by his being twice 
elected president of the American Institute of Mining 
Engineers, and by other honors, including honorary de- 
grees from universities. Despite the preoccupations of 
a successful professional career, he found time to write, 
not only many valuable technical papers, but several 
pamphlets and books of a scholarly character, such as 
'Old France in the New World' and 'New England and 
New France.' He was keenly interested in the history 
of America on both sides of that boundary which needs 
no forts to guard it; more than this, in his own person, 
he illustrated the solidarity of sentiment and the unity 
of purpose that now animates the three great democ- 
racies of the world. James Douglas was sagacious rather 
than smart, he was wise rather than clever, he was the 
James Bryce of mining ; like that distinguished Scottish 
author and diplomat, he had a kindly humor, a keen in- 
sight into the character of men, a philosophic outlook on 
life, and an unfailing kindness for those less fortunate 
than himself. How many there must have been during 
the last few days that stood up to say, "He helped me 
when I was a young fellow," "He encouraged me in 
my work," "He gave me the suggestion that led to my 
success." Blessed are the old when they leave such a 
trail behind them — a trail on which the forget-me-nots 

When the newspapers announced his passing, one 
spoke of him as a "copper magnate," another as a 
"millionaire." How he loathed such terms! Magnates 
and millionaires are cheap compared with such as he. 
They may, like him, be magnificent in their financial 
benefactions, for he endowed universities and hospitals, 
but he gave much more, he gave the priceless gift of 
human sympathy, as warm as it was intelligent. He 
was unassuming, simple in manner, unaffected, he pre- 
ferred the Mr. to the Professor or Doctor that was his 
by right, he was unfailingly courteous, in a way that 
we call old-fashioned because it has become uncommon 
in the rough and tumble of modern life. He was a gen- 
tleman of the old school, to whom belonged peculiarly 
"the grand old name of gentleman, defamed by every 
charlatan, and soiled by all ignoble use." As a mining 
engineer he held to his ideals, setting an example of the 
most stimulating kind during half a century of profes- 
sional work. He took a strong stand on a matter vital 
to technical progress: he was opposed to secrecy in the 
arts. Twenty years ago he attacked the "mistaken 
reticence" that leads metallurgists to hug their experi- 
ence to themselves; he contrasted "the wasteful effects of 
secrecy" with "the nobler practice of mutual helpful- 
ness." True to his own preachment, he gave freely 
from his individual store of knowledge, to his acquaint- 
ances as to scientific societies in formal assembly. He 
agreed with Bacon in holding "every man a debtor to 
his profession, from the which as men of course do seek 
to receive countenance and profit, so ought they of duty 

to endeavor themselves by way of amends to be a hrlp 
and ornament thereto." A help and an ornament to his 
profession he was. These to his memory. 

The Tariff Hearing on Metals 

The most important result, so far, of the calamitous 
end of our trust in international harmony has been to 
reminds us of Washington's warning to be prepared. We 
have discovered also that a vital condition for national 
protection is economic self-sufficiency ; we have found 
how perilous it is to depend upon supplies of potash from 
Germany, of nitrate from Chile, of chromium from New 
Caledonia, of antimony from China, and of manganese 
from Brazil, Russia, and India. With the utmost desire 
on the part of England, France, and Brazil to help us 
in this emergency, the scarcity of shipping renders their 
goodwill of small avail; we are forced to develop, hur- 
riedly and inadequately, our own latent resources. The 
argument that flows logically from this is that we should 
encourage the development of every essential material at 
all times by a consistent use of the tariff. That was the 
thought lying back of the hearing conducted by the 
United States Tariff Commission last week in San Fran- 
cisco, on which occasion the status of the antimony, 
quicksilver, and tungsten industries was considered. 
This is looking toward the future, when the fighting is 
over, when we may lay our plans for a better ordered 
economic system. The chairman of the meeting, Mr. 
W. S. Culbertson, called attention to the scope of the 
activities of the Commission, with the desire to extend its 
usefulness. Because a hearing is given to the representa- 
tives of some particular industry the inference must not 
be drawn that immediate steps will be taken to establish 
a duty upon the article concerned. As now constituted 
the Tariff Commission is purely advisory to Congress; 
its duties are to collect and collate data that may serve 
as a guide to Congressional legislation; it performs no 
star-chamber functions, but gathers its information 
openly and records it for the use of the people. The time 
may come, and should come, when a more scientific or- 
ganization of government will result in giving to a 
tariff commission the duty of adjusting the tariffs them- 
selves according to fixed rules for equalizing competi- 
tion, but this transcends any conception that yet seems 
to have entered the minds of our law-makers. That is 
for a wiser and saner future, when we shall honestly and 
seriously endeavor to establish a benevolent peace 
throughout the world, instead of the cut-throat peace 
before the War that offered Germany an opportunity to 
levy unjust tribute upon all nations. Our present duty 
is to proceed as if altruism were a forgotten ideal, and 
to shelter ourselves under protective laws. To this end 
we must remember that the Tariff Commission is a per- 
manent institution ; that its headquarters are at Wash- 
ington ; and that it seeks all the information obtainable 
regarding every industry. Its activities are not confined 
to public hearings, like the one just held on the minor 
metals; it welcomes data that any producer may choose 

MtttfNG and Sc^ifi^Ff^ 

July 6, 1918 

to submit, by letter or otherwise, at any time. The 
trouble with the mining of antimony, tungsten, and to 
some extent with mercury, these being the metals dis- 
cussed at the conference with the Commission in San 
Francisco, is the erratic character of the orebo'dies, and 
it was clearly shown by the evidence that a relapse to 
the inactivity existing before the War is inevitable un- 
less protection be accorded. Details of the testimony on 
antimony were presented in our issue of last week, and 
a summary of the evidence on quicksilver and tungsten 
appears elsewhere in this number. The special problem 
presented by quicksilver is the treatment of low-grade 
ores. Unless that can be done successfully the industry 
will languish. Mr. L. H. Duschak has just completed a 
valuable study of the metallurgical methods adaptable 
to low-grade ores, and we hope to publish it shortly. He 
shows that a 90% recovery is practicable here as well as 
in Austria, whereas American practice today returns 
only about 75% of the total mercury content of the ore. 
Mr. H. C. Davey, of the Guadalupe mine, in California, 
showed that as much as 75% of the costs of production 
were chargeable to exploration. An increase in the per- 
centage saved would alter that figure, but we may accept 
the statement of Mr. H. W. Gould, of the New Idria 
company, that a specific duty of $35 per flask, in addition 
to the existing tariff of 10% ad valorem, is essential for 
ensuring the industry against decline. The average 
grade of Californian deposits is about 0.4%, while the 
Spanish ores, after sorting, contain 14%, a grade un- 
attainable in this country. 

The market for antimony has always been erratic. 
This is not the result of sudden fluctuations in consump- 
tion so much as because any metal that normally occurs 
in small detached orebodies is unattractive to capital; 
production therefore depends upon the occasional work 
of men who do not find it worth while to make it their 
exclusive business. This has been true of tungsten as 
well as of antimony. The discouragements incident to 
uncertain and unsteady output soon cause a decrease in 
deliveries until the market presently reveals that the de- 
mand has distanced the supply. The price and the out- 
put thus play a game of battledore and shuttlecock. The 
low prices before the War nearly extinguished the anti- 
mony industry in this country, because the unstable con- 
ditions previously mentioned disheartened the American 
miner, so that the dependence of the world for its sup- 
plies fell upon countries where a superabundance of low- 
priced labor was available. There may be more anti- 
mony in China than in the United States, but coolie 
labor is the controlling factor. Mr. C. Solomon Jr., a 
smelter of antimony, declared that a duty of $10 per 
ton would not prevent the Chinese from shipping it 
hither; he advocated a bounty of 3 cents per pound to 
the American miner, and 5 cents to the smelter, in order 
to encourage domestic production. It is well to point 
out, however, that the chief difficulty has been the un- 
certainty of a sustained price at a remunerative level; 
therefore no response in production comparable to the 
rise in quotations has taken place. The same is true 

regarding chrome and magnesite. A tariff sufficient 
to stimulate initiative in producing these metals in large 
quantities must needs be much, higher thai file duty 
requisite for sustaining such an output once it has be- 
gun. This e'mphasizes the urgent need of passing the 
War Minerals bill with the price-fixing authority re- 
tained. The Government is now protected against los» 
in accumulated stocks by the Act approved by the 
President on May 10 of this year. That disposes of on« 
of the arguments offered by members of the House 
against a guarantee. It transpired, also, at the hearing 
on tungsten, that the activity of firms owned and con- 
trolled by Germans has been most pernicious in bottling 
up many of the tungsten mines of the country, the favor- 
ite scheme being to buy promising properties and keep 
them idle. German concerns, under the plea of pacifism, 
before we entered the War, bought all the tungsten that 
was offered them, and refused to re-sell, except under the 
obligation of old contracts. This was to save the souls 
of Englishmen from the sin of killing Germans! Suck 
tactics helped materially to force the price to its abnor- 
mal height. Once again the Teuton miscalculated, for 
when tungstic acid finally rose to more than $100 per 
unit the resources of the country proved to be enor- 
monsly greater than had been expected. It was impos- 
sible to corner the market. After we declared war all 
stocks were practically commandeered, including those 
in German-American warehouses, but restriction of the 
output was then attempted through acquiring owner- 
ship of the leading sources of supply. The War Min- 
erals bill specially provides means for destroying this 
kind of obstruction by the Enemy. 

Large deposits both of mercury and tungsten ore exist 
in the United States, and a suitable guarantee for the 
disposal of the product at a remunerative price, coupled 
with continuing protection under a tariff, would lead to 
exploitation on a scale great enough to ensure an output 
that would make us independent of importations from 
other countries. That seemed to be the sense of those who 
testified at the hearing, and it indicated the double re- 
quirement of passing the emergency War Minerals bill 
and of adopting a sane protective policy. At the present 
moment, as shown by Mr. J. H. Mackenzie, we are actu- 
ally accumulating stocks of tungsten, but we must b« 
careful not to draw false conclusions from that fact. 
We must remember that the richer deposits, by their 
very nature, are precarious, and also that the larger, 
low-grade, and more dependable resources, with few 
exceptions, remain untouched. In most cases where big 
low-grade deposits are left unexploited the cause is the 
same as that which retards the production of other minor 
metals, namely, the capital expenditure would be so large, 
whereas the persistence of remunerative prices through a 
period of years is so uncertain, that the provision for 
rapid amortization thus made necessary, coupled with, 
high taxes, render expansive ventures too perilous for 
careful business men to undertake. The assurance of our 
supply of these minor metals depends primarily on the 
immediate enactment of the War Minerals bill. 

July 6, 1918 

MfMK'C and Scientific PfcfeiS 

The Production of Quicksilver and Tungsten 

As Discussed Before the United States Tariff Commission at San Francisco 

On June 26 the status of quicksilver in the United 
States was discussed at a puhlic conference before the 
tJ. S. Tariff Commission. "W. S. Culbertson presided, 
and Guy C. Riddell acted as metallurgical adviser. 
There were more than forty present, exclusive of officials. 

The following table summarizes the output and prices 
during the past five years : 

Year Flasks 

1917 36,351 

1916 29.932 

1915 21.033 

1914 16,548 

1913 20.213 

Average price 
per flask 

H. W. Gould of the New Idria company represented 
most of the Californian producers and one in Texas. He 
▼iewed the post-war outlook with some concern if the 
present tariff is to apply. War-prices have stimulated 
prospecting and development in this country, although 
the principal increase in production is from the old 
mines. America cannot compete with the higher-grade 
ores and cheaper labor of Austria, Italy, and Spain, in 
normal times. The average cost of producing mercury 
in the United States is between $70 and $75 per flask. 
The Almaden mines in Spain yield mercury from ore 
averaging 11%, at a cost of $16 per flask. These de- 
posits are owned by the Spanish government, but the 
output is contracted to the Rothschilds in London at £7 
per flask. London has been considered the controlling 
market. The industry in Europe has been fostered by 
the governments. Metallurgical methods in Austria and 
Italy are efficient, but not so in Spain. The ore-reserves 

at Almaden are good for 40 years, on the basis of an 
output of 1000 tons of metal per annum. The cost in 
Austria and Italy will always be lower than in America, 
and those countries will be able to dump metal in America 
at less than $40 per flask. The ore deposits in Cali- 
fornia are small when compared with those in Europe. 
The main orebody at Almaden, Spain, carries 14%, and 
subsidiary orebodies 2f%. The average grade in Cali- 
fornia is 0.4%, equal to 8 lb. per ton of ore. The Italian 
content is about 1%; in Austria 0.85%. The Scott fur- 
nace is recovering 75% of the Californian output. Pro- 
duction after the War is likely to be much lower than 
before, owing to lower grades of ore being worked, these 
being about half as rich as in 1914, owing to the high 
prices. The New Idria and the Sulphurbank mines in 
California concentrate 300 tons daily each, but the losses 
are excessive. Mr. Gould sees no economic future for 
these properties. Mechanical concentration yields a 
product containing from 3 to 50% mercury. The re- 
covery is as low as 50%,. The costs at New Idria in- 
creased from $47.50 per flask in 1914 to $68 in 1917, 
covering an output of 11,000 flasks per year. The re- 
serves of ore in the United States are not considered ex- 
tensive. Labor costs account for 43%. of the New Idria 
output, wages having increased 75% in three years. 
When the costs in California are compared with those in 
Europe — $75 here as against Spanish metal imported at 
$40 per flask — it is comprehensible why the producers 
suggest a duty of $35 per flask in addition to the present 
10%, ad valorem tariff to maintain the present American 


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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 

output. The current price is $105, compared with $35 to 
-$40 prior to the War. 

Edmund Jussen, of the New Almaden mines, Cali- 
fornia, stated that his company handled ore from which 
6 lb. was actually recovered, against 220 lb. in Spain. 
The geology at New Almaden, California, is similar to 
that at New Idria, and the costs are $90 per flask, based 
on the ore actually mined. The Cottrell precipitator is 
used to bring down the dust prior to the condensation of 
the mercury. The temperature of the gas passing 
through the Cottrell treater is too high to admit of con- 
densing the metal. The Senator mine, of the New Al- 
maden company, is 600 ft. deep, the old mine 2000 ft., 
and the New Idria 1200 ft. on the dip of the vein. The 
best incentive for the industry will be an assured price. 

Clifford G. Dennis considered that the efficiency of 
labor at the two mines he supervised in California (the 
St. Johns) and Nevada (the Mercury) has decreased very 
little. Conditions at New Idria are more favorable than 
at other mines in this State. The average cost at all 
mercury mines in the United States over a period of five 
years was $50 per flask, indicating a loss of $15 per flask. 

Murray Innes of the Oat Hill and Oceanic mines took 
issue with Mr. Gould regarding the question of ore-re- 
serves, and thought the deposits in America extensive. 
If a fair price were assured for the metal we could keep 
up the output, otherwise Europe could flood the market. 
Mr. Innes thought the average ore in this State does not 
carry 8 lb. per ton. The future is uncertain, owing to 
the War. Metal sold to the Government by several pro- 
ducers has not been paid for in several months. 

E. B. Crane of the Black Butte mine in Oregon con- 
sidered that insufficient prospecting has been done to 
ensure the future output. In the case of his mine the 
suggested duty of $35 per flask would be too low. A 
new concentrating plant is now at work, recovering 85% 
from a soft disseminated ore carrying 4 lb. per ton. 

H. C. Davey of the Guadalupe mine, California, 
thought that producers should enlarge their vision so as 
to consider consumers. The high-grade cheap-labor in- 
terests in Spain could dump metal here, and a tariff 
could not prevent it. The Spanish ore is evidently sorted 
up to the 14%, previously cited. Owing to the pockety 
nature of the deposits, prospecting accounts for 75% of 
underground costs in America. There are large bodies 
of low-grade ore in California. 

W. C. Crittenden, attorney for several quicksilver com- 
panies, took exception to statements concerning the quan- 
tity of ore available in this country. On account of the 
uncertain future no capital can be raised for developing 
prospects. When the War is over the demand for ful- 
minate will drop considerably. Europe has increased its 
output, and a flood of cheap metal will threaten our mar- 
ket. A reasonable price for Vhe metal is necessary to 
prevent this. E. de Golla of the Etna mine corroborated 
Mr. Crittenden's remarks. 

George Roeth of the Great Eastern mine gave a resume 
of quicksilver mining in California, stating that the 
average grade through many years was 0.5%. 

C. E. Humbert of the Culver Baer Mining Co., Sonoma 

county, said that half of the men engaged in such opera- 
tions are prospecting and half are mining. All the cost 
of looking for ore should be charged to mining. If the 
future were assured, capital might be interested. 

Andrew Efccca of the Western Mercury Co., Sonoma 
county, considered that it was impracticable to charge 
capital with the cost of prospecting in the case of a 
quicksilver mine. There is plenty of ore here, but some 
protection is neeessaiy. The grade in his mine is 10 lb. 
per ton. The total cost is $68.49 per flask, including de- 
pletion charges. Only the best ore is extracted on ac- 
count of present conditions. At the Helen mine in Lake 
county, as low as 3 lb. per ton made ends meet. 

C. W. Haas, selling agent for several Californian pro- 
ducers, said that there had been no imports for 18 
months. (F. L. Ransome here interposed to say that a 
total of 710,000 lb. came from Mexico in 1916 and 1917.) 
His firm did import Spanish metal. There should be a 
duty put on the metal. When prices were high there 
were many offers from England, but when the price 
dropped these ceased. 

Charles Bondies of the Study Butte Mining Co., Ter- 
lingua district, Texas, said that there were large de- 
posits in Mexico. 

Leslie Oliver, of the California Cap Co., a consumer, 
said that at present the consumption of mercury as ful- 
minate is large, but substitutes are in use for detonators. 
The powder manufacturers are keen to have the produc- 
tion maintained. Substitutes for fulminate are effective, 
but they will not exclude mercury; they require some 
fulminate to detonate them, although they reduce the 
amount of fulminate required as much as 75%. Sub- 
stitutes were so cheap prior to the War as to equal mer- 
cury at $41 per flask. No Ordnance Department, how- 
ever, will accept substitutes for detonators in shells. 

L. H. Duschak of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, who has 
been making a metallurgical investigation on mercury, 
said that a survey of the deposits in this country is under 
way. The present recovery in California is from 75 to 
80%, but 90%, is practicable. At Idria in Austria the 
recovery is about 90%. Fuel consumption in the Her- 
reshoff furnace is 1J times greater than in the Scott 
type ; it makes more dust. The scope of concentration is 
limited, but furnace treatment will hold its own. 

W. W. Bradley, of the California State Mining Bu- 
reau, gave excerpts from a new bulletin entitled ' Quick- 
silver Resources of California.' He exhibited a map of 
the State showing the quicksilver belts. From 1850 to 
1917 a chart indicated three periods of large production 
—1861 to 1869, 1875 to 1883, and 1914 to 1918— concur- 
rent with low prices, immediately following high prices. 
Normally the United States used 25,000 flasks per an- 
num, against an output of 20,000 flasks, the difference 
consisting of imports. Half of the metal in peace time is 
used for fulminate. It is an essential metal at all times, 
and the industry should be fostered, protected, and main- 
tained. There are undeveloped deposits in this State. 
The present duty of 10% ad valorem is not sufficient to 
protect the demostic industry. Spain is the greatest 
factor in the world 's markets. 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

H. W. Gould added that the Santa Barbara mine, in 
the Iluancnvoliea district of Peru, closed since 1789, is 
being re-opened by B. E. Fernandi of Lima. It pro- 
duced 1,500,000 flasks up to 1790, this being more metal 
than any other mine in the world has yielded. It may 
be a factor in the market. 

Murray limes added, from conversation with H. C. 
Bnckminster of the New Idria company, that there is 
practically no quicksilver in New York today. If it were 
not for the Government action in fixing the price for 40% 
of the output at $105, the present price would be $150 
or more. 

F. L. Ransome detailed the uses of mercury, namely, 
in drugs, electric apparatus, batteries, vermilion, amal- 
gamation of gold and silver, measuring-instruments, 
paints for ship's bottoms, cosmetics, for floating lights in 
lighthouses, and in power-plants (a new use). Substi- 
tutes can be used in place of mercury, but their cost may 
be too high. An estimate of American requirements for 
1918 is 36,166 flasks for all purposes. There are five 
producers in Texas, four being in the Terlingua district 
where the ore is considerably richer than in California, 
much being mined that yields 4%. Most of the high- 
grade ore now has been extracted. 

G. McM. Ross gave some of his experiences in the use 
of quicksilver in the treatment of gold and silver ores. 
He did not favor a tariff, but a bounty on the metal. 

Charles G. Yale, of the U. S. Geological Survey, said 
that the gold mines of America used 100,000 lb. of mer- 
cury per year in catching the metal, 45,000 lb. of which 
is used in California. The Kennedy mine at Jackson, 
with 100 stamps dropping, used only 1275 lb. last year, 
equal to about 0.007 lb. per ton of ore. 

The hearing on tungsten was held on June 28. There 
were over thirty present. 

Production in the United States has been as follows : 

Ton« of Q0% Wo» Avornre price 

V .Mr ii. U.S. per Unit 

1008 <>Tl »5.70 

1000 1.810 0.30 

1010 1.820 7.60 

11111 1.334 6.00 

1012 1.330 6.30 

1013 1.537 7.30 

1!'14 000 7.3D 

1015 2.332 15.40 

1016 6.849 33.50 

1917 4.800 20.80 

1018 (estimated) 4,000 to 4,600 $16.00 to 20.00 

J. H. Mackenzie, at one time connected with the Atolia 
Mining Co. in California, said that the production of 
tungsten in 1918 would be less than in 1917 and the 
imports would be greater. For the first four months of 
1918 the receipts were 2382 tons of 60% concentrate. 
Some of the imported materials is impure, but it com- 
mands a ready sale. The imports come chiefly from the 
Orient, Mexico, Portugal, and Bolivia. The last-named 
deposits are from placers and lodes in the mountains. 
In 1917, 4880 short tons was imported. Portugal pro- 
duces 3000 tons per year. That country has fixed the 
price at about the same as the present American prices, 
namely, $20 to $24 per unit. Some Korean mines pro- 
duce tungsten as a by-product [notably the Soctarie 
mine of the Seoul Mining Co. — Editor.] Prior to the 
"War the United States used little tungsten. Atolia for- 
merly shipped concentrate to Germany. Mr. Mackenzie 
attributes the drop in output to the drop in price due to 
accumulated stocks. The ferro-tungsten stocks of 16 
consumers on May 1, 1917, were 517,572 lb. ; a year later 
they were 545,575 lb. ; ore and concentrate, 1,134,379 lb., 
and a year later 2,370,219 lb. was in stock; high-speed 
steel stocks in May 1917 were 3,555,257 lb., and a year 
later 5,269,958. Reducing all to a 60% basis 3,690,720 
lb. was on hand May 1, 1917, and 5,757,640 lb. a year 
later. Between 900 and 1000 tons of concentrate was in 
Eastern warehouses on May 1, 1918. His opinion is 



MINING and ScientiBc 

July 6, 191& 

that there will not be much change in the market this 
year. Consumers' wants for 1918 are 11,575 short tons 
of 60% ¥0 3 . The newest use of the metal is for aero- 
plane engine-valves, containing 4 to 10% tungsten, em- 
ployed in the steel valves and seatings; it makes them 
wear better. A number of producers stated that it was 
a. matter of price alone that would increase the output. 
At least $35 per unit was necessary for this. The 
American deposits contain substantial tonnages of 0.5 
to 0.75% ore, too low at present prices to interest capital. 
Colorado has no large deposits of low-grade ore, that is, 
below 1%. The highest grade being mined by the Atolia 
eompany is between 2 and 8% ore. This mine is worked 
to a vertical depth of 500 ft. This is not considered a 
big resource, as the bottom levels do not look so well as 
the upper. The future output of this country will come 
from California and Nevada. The Nevadan ores carry 
from 1 to 3% ; those near Bishop, California, about 1%. 
The cost per unit of 60%. concentrate in Colorado is 
twice that of California and Nevada. The peculiar 
mining necessary is responsible for this. The operating 
eost at Atolia is about $8 per unit. The total cost of the 
Bolivian product is $15.75 per unit, laid down at New 
York; and $11.60 from China. No Burma ore comes to 
America at present. That country, Bolivia, and America 
produce similar quantities. The Burma cost is $12.25 
per unit. The world's consumption of tungsten is 
21,000 tons, and the reserves are probably not more than 
this total, that is, assured. The British and French 
governments are trying to arrange with the United 
States to allocate the world's output, for the period of 
the War, but the terms have not been settled by this 
country. None of the Allied countries find molybdenum 
satisfactory as a substitute for tungsten in steel, al- 
though the Germans must be using it. The average re- 
covery of tungsten by concentration is 75%, Stage- 
crushing and more careful classification will help to im- 
prove this. Tungsten minerals are not amenable to 

W. W. Bradley of the California State Mining Bu- 
reau gave a list of the known tungsten prospects and 
producers in this State. Californian production has 
been as under: 

Tear Tons Value 

1917 2.458 J3.068.331 

1916 2.270 4.571.621 

1915 962 1.005,467 

1914 180.576 

1913 234.673 

Inyo, Kern, Nevada, and San Bernardino are the 
producing counties. The last is the richest, on account 
of the Atolia mine, which accounts for 50% of the 
State's total. The Inyo County deposits may be called 
disseminated; the ore carries under 1%. Four mills 
are at work near Bishop. Apart from Atolia and 
Bishop, the output of California is from small mines. 
Losses in slime are probably responsible for the present 
low recovery. The possibilities of finding ore in this 
State are good, provided the market remains favorable. 

F. L. Ransome gave Mr. Hess' figures of cost as $6 
per unit at Atolia, $10 at Bishop, $5 near Toulon, Ne- 
Tada, and $20 at Boulder, Colorado. G. B. Ackerman 

gave some information on the Nevada deposits. Costa 
near Sodaville have been $5 per ton. This was in min-. 
ing high-grade scheelite. Mineral and Humboldt coun- 
ties contain big deposits. Production in Nevada fell-off 
after the priiffe receded from $40 per unit. In 1915 the 
output of Nevada was 55 tons, and 689 tons in 1916. 
Joe Beane, who had knowledge of the property at Soda- 
ville, stated that it is costing $16.85 per unit at the pres- 
ent time. The ore averages 4.2% tungstic oxide. 

Samuel Kahn, representing H. M. Byllesby & Co. of 
Chicago, said that his firm became interested in a mine 
near Lovelock, Nevada, in 1916. They are concentrating 
custom ore from the region, including the Mill City dis- 
trict. His firm considers that a higher price would 
stimulate production in this district. 

F. W. Griffin, of the Tungsten Mines Co., considers 
that the future of the industry lies in the low-grade ores. 
His company at Bishop, California, is milling 0.5% ore. 
If a price of $28 to $30 were assured for some years, pro- 
duction should be maintained. The tariff should be ar- 
ranged toward this end. Freight on concentrate to the 
East is $35 per ton, plus the recently increased rate. 

P. J. Osdick, producer at Atolia and president of the 
Rand Mining District Association, read a statement pre- 
pared by this Association. The stabilizing of the market, 
the elimination of middlemen or dealers, and the licens- 
ing of buyers, samplers, assayers, etc., is desired. The 
production of the Band- Atolia district has declined since 
July 1917. Only $20 per unit is offered by the one buyer 
in the district. Martin Conroy interposed here, ex- 
plaining that the local assayers gave a lower return than 
assayers in other centres. Between the broker and as- 
sayer the small miner did not receive his full value, he 
being at the mercy of these dealers, whose Eastern con- 
nections are not known. A great deal of leasing is done 
in this district, the leases being on a royalty basis from 
15 to 50%. The two companies that had a regular out- 
put received several dollars per unit more than did the 
lessees. Waldemar Schmidt explained that royalties are 
on both a cash basis and on a sliding scale, depending on 
the price of the metal. He also said that the Atlas 
Crucible Steel Co., of Dunkirk, New York, eventually 
gets the product of the small mines. 

R. A. Kinzie of the Tungsten Mines Co., Bishop, Cali- 
fornia, considered that the local deposits were larger 
than those in San Bernardino county. The future of 
the industry, as in other metals, depends on the low- 
grade formations. Near Bishop they are garnetiferous 
and are the lowest grade in the world. The Tungsten 
Mines, Standard Tungsten, and Round Valley companies 
are mining similar ore. The deposits do not persist; so 
far nothing was found below a depth of 260 ft. The cost 
at Bishop is $21.80 per unit, including operation, capi- 
tal, interest, and depreciation. A fair depreciation 
charge for a tungsten mine is 50%. Joseph Beane stated, 
in support of this, that several companies that had spent 
up to $375,000 in Nevada had suspended work in less 
than a year. The cost at Bishop is between $5 and $6 
per ton of ore milled. A preferred price would be $25 
to $30 per unit. 

July 6. 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

The WaivMinerals Bill 

Testimony of WALTER R. INGALLS, Editor of the 'Engineering & Mining Journal', Before the Committee on 

Mines of the House of Representatives 

Mr. Ingalls : Mr. Chairman, I have heen asked to 
come down here and express my opinion ahout this bill. 
As I understand it, the prime purpose of the bill is to 
increase the supply of certain minerals, but more espe- 
cially the manganese ore, pyrite, and chrome ore. The 
bill enumerates many other mineral substances of which 
the production is already at the maximum and whereof 
we have a surplus. For example, it enumerates the 
metal antimony, which at the present time is in the 
same depressed condition that are lead, zinc, and many 
of the major minerals. The production of other min- 
erals that are included in this enumeration has already 
been so stimulated that we can say today that there is a 
superfluity rather than a deficiency. 

There are other minerals mentioned in the list whereof 
it is extremely doubtful whether we can do anything 
whatever to increase the production in this country. 
Take, for example, tin. I understand that in the original 
draft of this bill it was contemplated to include copper, 
zinc, lead, and other major minerals which have since 
been excluded. I do not think the phraseology of this 
bill does exclude them. The bill speaks of the ores of 
arsenic and the ores of sulphur, for example, and our 
ores of copper are frequently ores of arsenic, and our 
ores of zinc are very largely ores of sulphur. So, if you 
think that in the first paragraph of this bill you are 
excluding zinc, copper, and lead, and perhaps even gold 
and silver, do not be too sure of that. 

The Chairman: Do you not think it would only be 
by a stretch of imagination that you could get that in- 
terpretation in this bill? 

Mr. Ingalls : Most distinctly, yes. Our zinc ores, for 
example, are regularly ores of sulphur. 

The Chairman : Do you call a mine where zinc and 
copper are being mined as the principal ore with a by- 
product some other kind of ore, or do you call them 
zinc and copper mines? 

Mr. Ingalls : "We call them zinc and copper mines. 

The Chairman : Of course, we do not want to include 
them here. 

Mr. Ingalls: "We commonly designate mines by the 
predominant mineral, but there is scarcely an important 
mine in this country which does not produce many sub- 
stances from the same ore. 

The Chairman: Certainly, that is true. But are 
they known in mining law or in ordinary mining under- 
standing, and in common usage and technical usage, or 
any other kind of usage — they would not be called ores 
in this particular mine, would they? Of course, you 
might find a little mixture of that kind in any ore you 
get out, and probably in some you would find them as 

by-products; but would it be your opinion that they 
would be included under the terms of this bill? 

Mr. Ingalls: I think they might. I think it would 
be desirable to make your language so specific that they 
would not be included. 

The Chairman: Of course, we do not want them 
to be. 

Mr. Everett Sanders : "Would you suggest that we 
include by specific terms copper, zinc, lead, gold or sil- 
ver, or anything of that sort 1 

Mr. Ingalls : I do not think we need any help at this 
time in the gold or silver mining or lead mining. 

Mr. Sanders: But, considering the proposition from 
a technical standpoint, do you think the section ought 
to exclude certain of those things in order to make it 
perfectly clear that they were meant to be included? 

Mr. Ingalls: I do. 

Mr. Courtney "W. Hamlin : Do you think that by the 
use of the expression here that arsenic would, by any 
reasonable interpretation, be included in the mining of 
copper ? 

Mr. Ingalls : "We have a large production of arsenic 
in this country. "We do not need to do anything to in- 
crease that production. I do not know of a single pound 
of arsenic, however, that is obtained from any ore except 

Mr. Otis "Wingo : Your idea is that if we provide for 
control over arsenic in order to exercise that control 
completely we would have to take control of the copper 
mine from which you would get it? Is that your idea? 

Mr. Ingalls : You certainly would. 

The Chairman : Let me call your attention to this 
proposition : That does not necessarily mean if you have 
a super-abundance of arsenic in this country being pro- 
duced that the Government would do anything except 
possibly look out for its distribution, and so on; that 
the Government would not go in and mine arsenic when 
there was a super-abundance of it being produced. 

Mr. Ingalls : I should hope not. 

Mr. "Wingo : "Would you think this, that the question 
of control of the arsenic lies in the State? I am not 
familiar with those things, but for illustration, let us 
say, that arsenic was being used in steel production, and 
we had undertaken to control the price of steel. Do you 
not think it would be a matter of fairness in order to 
stabilize the market so that these people would have 
some assurance as to what the prices of these different 
materials that enter into that production will be? Would 
that be a proper and a fair thing to do ? 

Mr. Ingalls : I do not think we need any stabilizing 
of the market. I think that efforts in that direction are 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 

more likely to be mischievous than otherwise. 

Me. Wingo : You do not believe in price fixing ? 

Mr. Ingalls : Absolutely not. 

Mr. Hamlin : Am I correct in saying that arsenic is 
a by-product of copper? 

Mr. Ingalls : Of copper ores. 

Mr. Hamlin: You say if we control the production 
of arsenic we would have to control the copper mines. 

Mr. Ingalls : I do not see how else you could do it. 

Mr. Hamlin: Suppose the Government would take 
control of oleomargarine. You do not mean that that 
would give them the power to control the whole cattle 
industry, from the farm up on through to the packers ? 

Mr. Ingalls: I wish you would cite some analogy 
which is more in my line. 

Mr. Hamlin : Oleomargarine is a by-product of the 
cattle business; you know that? 

Mr. Ingalls: Yes. 

Mr. Hamlin : If we were to undertake to control 

Mr. Sanders: I do not think oleomargarine is a by- 
product of the cattle business. 

Mr. Hamlin: Is not oleomargarine a by-product of 
the cattle business ? "What is it made of ? 

Mr. Sanders : It is made out of a great many things. 

Mr. HiMLiN : It is a by-product of the steer, is it not? 
Is that not a fact ? 

Mr. Ingalls : I do not know about that. 

Mr. Hamlin : I understand that oleomargarine, a sub- 
stitute for butter, and the very best quality we can get, is 
made from certain portions of the beef and is manufac- 
tured by the packers at Chicago and everywhere else. 
The point I want to get at is this: Is it not true that 
while arsenic may be extracted from copper ores, that is 
done only in negligible quantities; that is, compared to 
the principal amount of copper produced? 

Mr. Ingalls : It is relatively small. 

Mr. Hamlin : Negligible. 

Mr. Ingalls : Kelatively small. 

Mr. W. Frank James : Let us take Mr. Douglas, for 
instance, who is the president of a company owning and 
operating a copper mine. Do you think because they 
manufacture some arsenic that this bill is so broad that 
under its terms the Government would control his entire 
output of copper unless there was some amendment 

Mr. Ingalls : I think that the mine administration, 
under that authority, might step in and attempt to con- 
trol the whole output. 

Mr. James: You think it would not only control the 
market on arsenic, but his entire copper product? 

Mr. Ingalls : They probably would not undertake to 
control the price of the copper output, but they might in- 
directly undertake to control the way he was doing his 

Mr. James : Do you mean to say that in order to get 
some arsenic they have to go down there and take control 
of his copper mine and run his business, and then turn 
it back to him again. 

Mr. Ingalls : It seems to me that is true. 

Mr.- James : You do not think that is the intent of the 
bill, do you ? 

Mr. Ingalls : I do not think it is. 

Mr. Hamlin : What proportion of the arsenic that 
we use do we produce in this country? 

Mr. Ingalls : The production is possibly 4000 or 5000 
tons a year. 

Mr. Hamlin : "What percentage of that which we con- 
sume do we produce in this country now ? 

Mr. Ingalls: I think we produce all our arsenic. I 
think there is a capacity to produce a superfluity of 

Mr. E. S. Bastin: The production is about 60% of 
the consumption at the present time. My understanding 
is that we are not self-sufficient at the present time, but 
that, however, if a contemplated smelter is built by the 
Anaconda Copper Co. we are likely soon to become so. 

Mr. Hamlin: About 60% now? 

Mr. Bastin : Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ingalls: You are talking about a smelter being 
contemplated by the Anaconda Copper Company. 

Mr. Bastin : I understand they are building a plant 
to recover arsenic, or that they have plans drawn up for 
a plant which will yield an output that will practically 
make us independent, but that we are not now inde- 

Mr. Ingalls : Very likely that is so. The Anaconda 
Copper Co. has been the largest producer of arsenic for 
years, and if our production has lately been insufficient, 
the Anaconda Copper Co. has stepped into the breach 
and supplied it. Our raw materials for the production 
of arsenic are probably superfluous. 

Mr. Hamlin : What is the relative production of 
arsenic and copper in this country ? 

Mr. Ingalls: The production of arsenic to copper is 
a mere speck. I suppose that the annual production of 
arsenic is in the neighborhood of 5000 or 6000 tons a 
year, while our production of copper last year was 
1,800,000,000 pounds. 

Mr. Hamlin : So the amount of arsenic, as compared 
with the amount of copper, is quite negligible. 

Mr. Ingalls : A mere speck. Then, in the matter of 
investigation as a means of increasing the production and 
eliminating wastes in tin and in tin scrap and other 
things, I do not think that this bill confers one particle 
of authority in addition to what is already being ex- 
ercised by bureaus of the Government. In the matter of 
commandeering supplies when necessary, the Government 
is already doing that. We do not need to have any more 
authority. Coming back to the main purpose of the bill, 
the increase in the production of manganese ores, pyrites, 
and chrome ores, the production of those ores is already 
being stimulated feverishly under the influence of high 
prices. Our production is increasing every month by 
leaps and bounds. It may be necessary to do more. 
Some of our friends say it is, and I will not dispute that 
proposition. Please understand I am not opposing the 
purposes of the bill. But if that is the purpose, why not 
go directly at it and say that we hereby appropriate to 

Julv 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


the Secretary of the Interior the sum of $50,000,000 with 
which to go and get manganese and pyrites. It seems to 
me that what is in mind in the bill is excellently illus- 
trated by the ease of chrome, which we set substantially 
from nowhere except in California. In California there 
are numerous small deposits which have been worked, 
and the effect of increasing production so long as they 
are reasonably near the railroad might be good. In 
order to increase the production of chrome ore it is neces- 
sary to go to more remote deposits and build in there 
branch lines of railways or highways for bringing out the 
ore, which it is represented that private capital is un- 
willing to do because of the uncertainty of the market. 
Very well, then, let the Government, through the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, or any other proper medium, back 
those people for that specific purpose. But why guaran- 
tee a price to everybody, including those w : ho are already 
working their mines at a profit ? Let them alone. 

The Chairman : Do you think it will be the intention 
of this bill, or anybody who was administering it, to 
guarantee a price to the people who are supplying suf- 
ficient quantities of these ores at proper prices which 
might be discovered after an investigation by the bureau ? 

Mr. Ingaixs : How else are you going to do it ? 

The Chairman : If you say they are already receiv- 
ing a profit and they are working their mines to the full- 
est capacity and getting plenty of ore out of them, do 
you think the Government would do that? 

Mr. Ingalls : I should hope not. 

The Chairman : I would say I would not be for the 
bill if I thought they were going to do that. Nobody con- 
nected with this committee or with the Government 
imagines for a moment that such a thing would be done. 

Mr. Ingalls : It seems to me that this bill has got to 
lie fixed in order to take care of that. 

The Chairman : We have got to trust men with some 
judgment and common sense in those things when it 
comes to a matter of that kind. Certainly we have more 
confidence in the Government than to believe that the 
Government officials would do such foolish things as that. 
Do you not think so ? 

Mr. Hamlin : What mineral mentioned in this bill is 
now being produced in sufficient quantity with a pros- 
pect of being able to meet the increased demand occas- 
ioned by the War ? Will you please name those you think 
are in that category ? 

Mr. Ingalls: So far as antimony is concerned, our 
main supply comes from China. 

Mr. Hamlin : I do not think you understand my ques- 
tion. I got the idea from your statement that we had 
included in this hill certain minerals that are produced 
in this country in sufficient quantities to meet the present 
demands, with a prospect of meeting future demands, 
at a profit. I asked you to name those and not to name 
those which are not produced in this country. 

Mr. Ingalls : We are producing sufficient arsenic ; we 
are producing sufficient magnesite ; we are producing 
sufficient mercury; we are producing sufficient molyb- 
denum; we are producing sufficient tungsten. 

Mb. Hamlin: And you think the prospects are good 
enough so that we can trust to the future for the supply 
of any increased demands that may come upon these 
mines, that they will be able to meet them t 

Mr. Ingalls: I do not see any necessity for inter- 
fering with those mines, either with assistance or by re- 
straining language. 

Mr. Mahlon M. Garland : It was explained here by 
some one that it was necessary to increase the output 
because of the fact that we have to supply our Allies, 
and also that it is necessary to relieve the ships that are 
carrying that stuff from China now, but that the more 
special need is to supply our Allies, and that while we 
were getting enough for this country the demands for 
these things by our Allies are increasing. 

Mr. Ingalls: The use and importation of many of 
these minerals is a very small tonnage business. In this 
whole list the only big tonnage imports are those of 
manganese ores and pyrites. 

While it is true that the bulk of our antimony comes 
from China, the total use of antimony is but a relatively 
few tons, and it is heavy freight, and it comes in ships 
that are bringing light shipments, and it is very ques- 
tionable whether the exclusion of such a small tonnage 
would really accomplish anything. How much money 
ought we to spend in this country to develop very lean 
and poor antimony mines in order to save the bringing 
in of a very few tons of antimony from China, which 
would probably come along in a ship that is bringing 
something else anyway? 

Mr. Wingo: Suppose we were to put an embargo on 
those light Chinese things we do not need in this country 
and which are now being brought over in ships on which 
our antimony comes, and that it is desired to save all of 
that shipping. As I understand it, the rule now is that 
1 ton of ore can make way for about 5 tons of food. As 
I understand it, that is what they figure on. What 
would you do in order to make up the deficit in any of 
these different metals which are necessary, even though 
they may be necessary only in a small amount; how 
would you go about doing tljat? 

Mr. Ingalls: I should say in the first place that the 
premise is impossible. We could not put embargoes on 
everything. We could not put an embargo on tin, be- 
cause we would not get any tin. 

Mr. Wingo: I said we might put an embargo on the 
light things coming from China, which you mentioned 
and which are unnecessary. Evidently we get a great 
deal of stuff from China which we do not need now, and 
the need for ships is so great that if an embargo has not 
been placed on them it should be. Suppose we eliminate 
all that stuff, and we find that the need for ships is so 
great upon the Atlantic coast that they find it necessary 
to take the ships which have been bringing that un- 
necessary stuff across the Pacific and bring them around 
to the Atlantic coast for the purpose of furnishing sup- 
plies to our Allies and to our own men. Then prac- 
tically all of the supply of antimony that has been used 
to meet domestic needs in this country would be thus 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 

shut off, and we would be shut off from the supply we 
got from abroad? 

Me. Ingalls: If you are going to do that, the only 
thing you could do would be to work our lean mines and 
get what you could from them, regardless of the expense. 

Mr. "Wingo : Could not you develop new antimony 
deposits or develop some that are already known of and 
are undeveloped? 

Me. Ingalls: Before the War the normal average 
price for antimony was in the neighborhood of 8 cents a 
pound. At the present time the market price is a little 
over 12 cents a pound. Although that, in figures, is a 
high price, relatively it is a low price, because it simply 
measures the expansion that we have had in everything. 
In the early days of the "War antimony rose to something 
like 45 cents a pound. For long periods of time it was 
up in the forties, and it failed to stimulate our antimony 

Me. Wingo : Did it not open up any new mines ? 

Mr. Ingalls : Not to speak of. 

Mr. Wingo : What do you mean when you say "not 
to speak of"? Did it open any that you know of? 

Me. Ingalls : I think that during that period the old 
mines in Arkansas were operated spasmodically, but 
there were no antimony mines in this country operated 
sufficiently to make any material production. 

Mr. Wingo : Where was it in Arkansas where they had 
old mines which had been worked prior to that time, and 
what deposits were there that had ever been worked be- 
fore the War? 

Mr. Ingalls: I cannot tell you the names, but there 
are some old antimony mines in Arkansas. 

Mr. Wingo : Old antimony deposits that have been in- 
corporated and driven down to demonstrate that the 
antimony was there ; but was there ever any ore shipped 
in commercial quantities from Arkansas prior to the 

Mr. Ingalls : I think so. 

Mr. Wingo : Why do you say it is impossible for us 
to put an embargo upon non-essentials? If it is neces- 
sary to put an embargo upon the ores we are getting 
from China, why do you say it is impossible for us to put 
an embargo on these other things in order to save the 
shipping for foods and supplies to our Allies and our 
men, and then by that very process encourage the open- 
ing up of old mines, as you suggested, and new, un- 
developed deposits ? Why do you say it is impossible for 
us to do that? You said it was impossible. 

Mr. Ingalls: I said it was impossible to put a gen- 
eral embargo on those things, which was your proposi- 

Mr. Wingo : I did not say general embargo. I said a 
special embargo on these unnecessary things. Why is 
that impossible ? Are we not doing that very thing now ? 
Has not the President of the United States put an em- 
bargo on various things? Have you not overlooked the 
fact that the prime purpose is to save ships which are 
now being used to carry such things as these light un- 
necessary things which come from China? In order to 

encourage the opening up of undeveloped deposits of 
such things ought we not encourage capital to go in and 
develop them and not let it be left broke by a sudden and 
unexpected cessation of the War? 

Mr. Ingalls : You make it a business proposition. The 
question is whether it is better to save one ship or two and 
use the labor of many hundreds of men and much ma- 
terial in order to get something out of an uneconomical 

Me. Garland : Take the case of pyrites. As I under- 
stood it from the statements that have been made here, 
it requires 5 ships to bring the pyrites we use in this 
country now from Spain. Is there any way of relieving 
that ? Pyrites are very cheap, as a rule, and there are a 
great many mines in this country, are there not ? Are we 
doing anything in the way of developing pyrites mines 

Mr. Ingalls: Yes. 

Me. Garland : Are they able to mine pyrites at a profit 
at the present time ? 

Me. Ingalls: The prices are high. The stimulus of 
high prices is increasing the production of pyrites. We 
have also, other means of increasing our production of 
sulphuric acid, namely, through the wider use of zinc 
blend, and even through the use of brimstone. Mind 
you, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, I am not opposing 
the principle of this bill, or the desire to increase the 
production of these minerals and metals by a govern- 
mental subsidy or bonus. I do advise that the bill say 
more specifically what it aims at, and create more spe- 
cifically an authorization to the Secretary of the Interior, 
or some bureau of the Government, to go out and get 
these things, as would be done in business, and so let our 
industry, that is well able to take care of itself, let that 
part of our industry alone. 

Mr. Gaeland: I see your point there, as you have 
stated it. I mentioned pyrites because it was stated here 
that we could save a large tonnage by getting it in this 
country. We are now getting pyrites at a price that 
recompenses those producing it in this country, but not 
enough of it. Your idea would be that if there is a 
pyrite mine located where that stuff can be secured, but 
which is a long distance from a railroad, that the Govern- 
ment should step in and build a road instead of raising 
the price or guaranteeing the price for that mineral. 

Me. Ingalls : Yes. 

Me. Gaeland: It seems to me that looks reasonable, 

Me. Ingalls : If the Government wants to do that. 

Me. Gaeland: If they want the pyrites, they would 
have to. 

Me. Ingalls : The normal increase in the market price, 
the advance in the market price, has automatically in- 
creased the production of these substances, and at the 
same time it has curtailed the consumption of things that 
are unnecessary. Take, for example, the matter of 
chrome ore — the advance in price and the increased pro- 
duction of chrome ore. At the same time it has or will 
decrease the use of chrome ore for refractory material. 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 





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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6. 191S 

It will give an available supply of chrome ore for the 
manufacturers of ferrous alloys and ferrous chrome, and 
for the people who are now using them for refractory 
material, and they can also use magnesite, of which we 
have an ample supply. Magnesite serves quite as well 
for their purposes, and there is a point in the price 
where they will do it. 

Mr. Garland : The point made by gentlemen who ap- 
peared here on the first and second days of these hear- 
ings was that it was necessary to speed this matter up ; 
that it is absolutely necessary to do this at once ; and that 
they cannot wait for the development in the manner in 
which you speak, and therefore the necessity of this bill. 

Mr. Ingalls : Very well. Simply say to the Secretary 
of the Interior — I speak of the Secretary of the Interior 
because I agree with my friend Mr. Douglas that the 
industry has confidence in the Secretary of the Interior 
and his bureaus, and we do not have confidence in com- 
missions that are stepping in to take a part in our in- 
dustry — say to the Secretary of the Interior, "Here is 
$50,000,000, and with that go out and get manganese or 
pyrites or chrome ore in any way you see fit, because we 
want it in a hurry." 

Mr. Garland : I see the point you are making. 

Mr. Hamlin : Then suppose the producers would get 
together and say to the Government, "You will have to 
pay us a certain price," which was an unconscionable 
price, "because you cannot get it anywhere else." Then 
you would leave the Secretary of the Interior at the 
mercy of the producers when he comes to expend that 
$50,000,000. What are you going to say then? 

Mr. Ingalls: You contemplate the organization of a 
combination ? 

Mr. Hamlin: I contemplate that that is within the 
range of possibility under that scheme, and I also con- 
template that without this law or some similar provision 
these sources that are now producing quite sufficient 
quantities of certain of these vital necessities might do 
that for the purpose of enhancing the price or reducing 
the amount of production so as to create an artificial 
demand. That is within the range of possibility. It has 
been done before, and, unfortunately, we have some 
people who might do it again. 

Mr. Ingalls : We are conducting a very great mining 
industry. These matters of manganese ore and chrome 
ore are very important, but in comparative magnitude 
with other branches of our mining industry they are 
relatively insignificant. I have not observed any desire 
or any effort on the part of anybody to hold up the Gov- 
ernment. On the contrary, my own observation has been 
that everybody is patriotic and that everybody is com- 
petitive, and I cannot conceive that anyone who had a 
production of manganese ore would fail to sell it as 
quickly as he could at the going price. 

Mr. Hamlin : Let us hope that is true. But do you 
not think that in these times of national stress and peril 
it is the part of wisdom and statemanship to do every- 
thing that is necessary to be done to be able to control 
any situation that might arise, and if these parties are 

patriotic, as we all hope they are and as we have every 
reason to believe they are, they could not and would not 
complain at any Government restrictions or control? 

Mr. Ingalls: If that condition arises, the President 
would simply%tep in and commandeer the supply, as he 
has already, through the various departments, com- 
mandeered supplies of other needed substances. 

Mr. Hamlin: That is just like surgery. We prefer 
to apply the less heroic remedies, unless it becomes neces- 
sary to perform a capital operation, and this bill seeks to 
provide a way so that it may be less disturbing to the 
business interests of the country by regulating it, and 
then everybody will understand how to take it and it 
will not be necessary to resort to radical measures. 

Mr. Wingo : Is not this the trouble, that we have been 
following your plan for 12 months, and I do not sup- 
pose anybody is satisfied with the progress that has been 
made. Is not this one of the measures by which we can 
proceed to do directly what we want to do and speed up 
things and get what we want right now and go ahead and 
win the War ? 

Mr. Ingalls : There has not been the stimulus of high 
prices in connection with these particular things until 
quite recently. 

Mr. Wingo: In some instances there have been some- 
cases, in extreme instances, where the Government has 
not gotten much help, except in the way of depleting the- 
Treasury. But I think all industries ought to remember 
this, that we cannot shut out privateers altogether. The 
fact is that we have not gotten to the point where we have 
a sufficient supply in this country and must shut off all 
the tonnage which is used in importing that stuff, so that 
we can use that tonnage in carrying the most important 
things to Europe. Is not that the practical thing, and 
can we meet that by an academic eulogy of the thing 
which I admire as much as you do, and that is the law of 
supply and demand. I have very great respect for the 
law of supply and demand. I am a great believer in that 
myself, but we have reached the point where our custom- 
ary economic theories fail, and so is it not our duty to 
try something else to see if we cannot get better results ? 

Mr. Ingalls: My observation has been that our cus- 
tomary economic theories have not failed. 

Mr. Hamlin: It is a Very serious situation, which 
from all reports seems to be confronting us now, so far 
as our shipping goes. You realize that, do you not? 

Mr. Ingalls: Surely. 

Mr. Garland : I would like to have the gentleman go 
on and state what he would further advise along those 
lines, by way of amendment ©f the provisions we have in 
the bill which is before us. 

Mr. Wingo : That is the point I was trying to get at. 
You are a practical man and we want to have the benefit 
of your suggestions. If this is a plan that is unnecessary 
and that will not work, tell us some other plan that will 
help to speed up the matter and save the shipping. 

Mr. Ingalls: I should say as a practical plan that 
the best method would be to create a United States Min- 
ing Corporation, with all the capital stock owned by the 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


United States Government, with sufficient capital to ac- 
complish the purpose thai is desired, and, in general, 
instructions should go out to increase the production of 
manganese and pyrites and to go out and get that If it 
were not desired to do that I should say simply appropri- 
ate for the use of the Secretary of the Interior the sum 
of $50,000,000, or whatever is deemed desirable, with the 
simple instructions to go out and get these minerals. 

Mr. James: At what price? 

Mr. Ingalls: In any way he can. If you want a 
thing very badly, the price does not cut much figure. 

The Chairman: That would require commandeering 
to get that stuff, would it not? 

Mr. Ingalls : I do not see why it would require com- 
mandeering. It would simply be an ordinary business 

The Chairman : You mean you would send the Secre- 
tary of the Interior out with $50,000,000, send him out 
throughout the country to buy the necessary war ma- 
terials ? 

Mr. Hamlin: At any price? 

The Chairman : At any price. 

Mr. Ingalls : I would send him out to get the ma- 
terials in any way he could get them. 

Mr. Hamlin : At any price he sees fit to pay ? 

Mr. Ingalls : At any price he sees fit to pay. 

The Chairman : If they asked him $2 for a pound of 
an article which was ordinarily worth only 50 cents, he 
would pay that amount; is that your idea? 

Mr. Ingalls : I assume he would be properly advised. 

The Chairman: But he would have to buy it. Tou 
said you would not commandeer it, but you would buy 
it. You could not take a man's property under your 
plan. If you go to him and say, "I want so many 
pounds of pyrites, ' ' and he had it, and he said, ' ' I will 
not sell it to you except at a certain price, ' ' the Govern- 
ment would have no power to get it except by paying 
the price he asked for it. Do you not think the Govern- 
ment in that case ought to have some right to fix the 
price, which would be reasonable and afford the man who 
was mining the mineral a reasonable profit? 

Mr. Ingalls : It seems to me the natural competition 
among producers would give the Government the ma- 

Mr. Wingo : Let us assume that we have shut off the 
imports in order to save the shipping. Then suppose a 
man would say, ' ' I want to help you, but I cannot afford 
to go into this thing, to put in money for improvement 
and take a chance on the War stopping suddenly. I 
would like to get my capital back, but under your propo- 
sition I would not get my capital back and would not 
get a reasonable return for the capital, considering the 
time it had been used." Do you think it would be a 
practical thing for the Government to do that, and do 
you think you would get the results? Do you think that 
men would feel that their patriotism required them to 
take that chance and to do that thing? Would not the 
Government get better results if we were to say, "We do 
not ask you to risk anything, but if you will put in the 

money necessary to open these deposits, we will guarantee 
you such a price for a certain length of time, and it. will 
be a safe venture for you, and you ran start al it without 
risking your fortune and everything you have in it." . 

Mr. Ingalls: I suppose we could do that by contract. 

Mb. Wingo: Is not that what this hill practically does? 
We say to the Secretary of the Interior, "Here is $50,- 
000,000. You go out and encourage the opening up of 
these deposits in this country and guarantee such a price 
for such a length of time that will make it an attractive 
proposition, ' ' and would not that encourage the' very sort 
of thing you are talking about and encourage the sort of 
men you are referring to? Is not that what the bill 
proposes to do in a practical, direct way ? 

Mr. Ingalls: I think that is what you have in mind! 

Mr. Wingo : That is what I want to get at. 

Mr. Ingalls: I think that is all right, but what I 
would like to see would be for you to protect that part of 
the industry that can take care of itself and do not give 
anybody the right to come in and interfere with things. 

Mr. Wingo : I beg your pardon. I think you said you 
would be in favor of taking over the project. 

Mr. Ingalls : No. 

Mr. Wingo : I thought you wanted to organize a 
United States mining corporation to go into the general 

Mr. Ingalls: I would have that corporation go into 
business as anybody else. 

Mr. Wingo : Do you not think that a United States 
mining corporation, organized with $50,000,000 of stock, 
would have a negative or depressing effect upon private 
producers? Does not a large corporation of that kind 
always depress the smaller man and make him more 
cautious in his investments ? Can you conceive of a more 
powerful corporation than a United States Government 
mining corporation, clothed with all the powers of the 
Government back of it? 

Mr. Ingalls: I do think it would be a good business 
for the Government; I do not believe there would be 
any profiteering by anybody. 

Mr. Wingo : Certainly not, if you have socialism in 
this country. If you had that, you would shut out 
profiteering, except profiteering in controlling the Gov- 
ernment. We would be trying to be directors of the 
governmental corporation. Is not the practical thing 
now to encourage the development of this stuff so that 
men will go out and get it and bring it to the Govern- 
ment? If that is the thing to do, and if we have not 
done it, what language would you suggest by way of 
change in this bill to make it more practical ? 

Mr. Ingalls : I would change that language that gives' 
anybody the right to interfere with a mining business 
that is being efficiently conducted at the present time by 
its private owners. 

The Chairman : Will you please point out where that 
is done in this bill ? 

Mr. Nathan L. Strong: As I understand it, your 
criticism of this bill grows out of the conception that it 
is proposed to stabilize the general market rather than 
to render aid to the individual. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 

Mr. Ingalls: I understand it so. 

Me. Garland: Why would it not be proper if you 
make an increased price for any article to have all of 
them participate in it? 

Mr. Strong : I interpret your idea that way. 

Mr. Ingalls : I am under that impression. 

Mr. "Wingo : Do you think it is more practical for the 
Government to build a railroad for the benefit of this 
producer than to make a contract with a man and say it 
will take a sufficient amount of this stuff — say that it 
will take a certain amount of this material at a certain 
contract price for a certain number of years that will 
justify the man in making this expenditure, or do you 
think it would be better for the Government to build a 
railroad for him? Then, what would you do with the 
railroad, give it to him? Or would the Government 
operate the railroad when the necessity for it passes ? 

Mr. Ingalls : It would come to the same thing. 

Mr. James: Suppose the price of copper was not a 
sufficient price to make up the expenses? Would it not 
be better for the Government to guarantee a price to the 
copper miners than to take an undeveloped property and 
run a railroad from the mines and let properties already 
developed lie ilde? 

Mr. Ingalls: I have no doubt that ifithe Government 
would let things alone we would have plenty of copper 
and everything else. 

The Chairman: Right on that line, we have not 
plenty of these articles now in our own country, have 
we? We are not producing them? 

Mr. Ingalls : We have not right now sufficient manga- 
nese, sufficient pyrites, or sufficient chrome ore. This is 
an emergency that has come on within a few months. 
> The Chairman : That is what we have to meet, this 
emergency that is on us. 

i : Mr. i Ingalls : You have to meet this emergency. The 
stimulus of high prices will help you meet the emergency. 

The Chairman: Supposing shipping is interfered 
with between here and Spain, or between the United 
States and the point where we get our manganese, as it 
is now being interfered with, and the need for ships is so 
great for the purposes of carrying food and other sup- 
plies to Europe, so that we are deprived of those articles 
that are necessary. The emergency is here ; what are we 
going to do about it? 

Mr. Ingalls : What is anybody going to do ? 

Mr. Chairman: We are going to try to meet it by 
provisions of this bill. 

Mr. Ingalls : Private capital is already trying to meet 

The Chairman : But they have not yet met it. 

Mr. Ingalls: They are further on the way to meet it 
than anything which will be done under this bill. 

Mr. Wingo : Would this bill accelerate or retard their 

Mr. Ingalls : I should say it would do neither. 

Mr. Hamlin : Then it will not harm anything ? 

Mr. Wingo : You think it is a harmless piece of legis- 
lation, then? 

Mr. Ingalls: So long as the Government does not 
interfere with our industries and they are being success- 
fully prosecuted, it is immaterial and it is harmless. 
It may be helpful. 

The Chamman: Will you point out where this bill 
would interfere, if you please ? We would like to know 

Mr. Hamlin: Is it not the licensing feature of this 
bill which you most object to? 

Mr. Ingalls : That is one feature. 

Mr. Hamlin: Is not that your real objection? 

Mr. Ingalls : The bill is full of— 

Mr. Hamlin (interposing) : Regulatory provisions? 

Mr. Ingalls: Regulatory provisions of that character 
which afford some new commission authorization to come 
in and interfere. 

The Chairman: Let me ask you this question: Do 
you believe in war time that everybody ought to be 
turned loose to do just as he pleases, or has the Govern- 
ment the right to come in and regulate the absolute 
necessities in war times? 

Mr. Ingalls: The Government has an absolute right. 

The Chairman : Do you think they ought to do that 
as a matter of safety for the country and for the success- 
ful prosecution of the War, or ought everybody to be 
turned loose to do as they please ? 

Mr. Ingalls : I am afraid that some of the things the 
Government has done in the way of regulating, with 
special reference to our industry — 

Mr. James (interposing) : Is not your real objection 
to this bill the fact that you are afraid this bill is simply 
a stepping stone to another bill to take care of the copper 
and iron industries? Is not that your real objection? 

Mr. Ingalls : No. 

Mr. James : You are talking about mines already de- 
veloped, and all these things have been already devel- 
oped. The crisis is here. We have heard that from Secre- 
tary Lane and Mr. Baruch. The question is what are we 
going to do now that the crisis is here ? If this bill will 
not take care of it, what plan will you suggest? 

Mr. Ingalls : I have not disputed that ; I have simply 
advised confining attention to those matters in whick 
the crisis exists. 

Mr. Hamlin: If the present conditions are satis- 
factory, and we ought not to interfere in any way with 
them if you are right about that, this crisis would not 
have arisen, would it? If private capital and private 
industries engaged in these things are and had been 
equal to the emergency this crisis that is now conceded to 
be upon us would not have come, would it? 

Mr. Ingalls: The crisis is absolutely artificial. It 
becomes necessary to cut off certain importations. That 
is a condition which nobody in the normal market can 

Mr. Hamlin: Certainly. It comes as the result of 
abnormal conditions throughout the world, for which we 
are not responsible. Now, then, what is our duty, as 
Members of Congress, under these existing conditions? 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Ought we not to do something to try to meet this ab- 
normal condition f 

Mr. Ingalls: I admit that. 

Mb. Ha.mi.ix: Perhaps I have not understood you. 
The drift of your idea as it has impressed my mind is 
that we ought to do nothing. I understood you to say in 
answer to Mr. Wingo that we should not pass this bill, 
that private capital will take care of the situation if we 
will leave it alone. 

Mr. Ingalls : I beg your pardon ; you have misunder- 
stood me. 

Mr. Wingo : That is the impression I got. 

Mr. Ingalls: You have misunderstood me in that. 

Mr. Hamlin : What is your remedy ? 

Mr. Ingalls : Where you have misunderstood me is in 
this: I' said private capital under the stimulus of high 
prices is already doing a great deal in these particular 
things. I said I am informed by the gentlemen who 
framed this bill that it is necessary to do something more. 

Mr. Hamlin : Then, if high prices have already stimu- 
lated private capital, how could the Government step in 
and say to those same people, "We will guarantee you 
that the prevailing prices shall not drop below a certain 
point and interfere with the present stimulation of high 
prices. We are not fixing the maximum; we are only 
fixing the minimum." Ought that not to contribute to 
this stimulation? 

Mr. Ingalls: Yes. 

Mr. Hamlin: Then how could you object to that? 
That is what this bill does. 

Mr. Ingalls: If people are already producing these 
things and do not need a guarantee of the minimum, why 
is it necessary to give it to them ? I admit it is my under- 
standing that this bill does that. 

The Chairman: Only if necessary to get the article. 

Mr. Ingalls : I believe there is a difference of opinion, 
that some think the guaranty may only be to some people 
and not to other people. 

Mr. Hamlin: Not to be to some people, but it may 
affect some particular mineral and perhaps might not 
apply to others. 

Mr. Ingalls: You are going — 

Mr. Hamlin (interposing) : For instance, there is 
manganese produced in sufficient quantities so that the 
President finds that probably it may not be necessary 
for him to take any action in regard to that particular 
ore. But we give him the right to do it if it becomes 
necessary. But there is another ore which is mentioned 
in this bill and it becomes necessary for him to do that 
in order to stimulate it, and he is given the right to do. 

Mr. James : It says, in section 14 : 

"That whenever the President shall find that an 
■emergency exists requiring stimulation of the production 
of necessaries, and that it is essential that the producers 
of necessaries shall have the benefit of the guaranty pro- 
Tided for in this section, he is authorized, from time to 
time, reasonably and as far in advance as practicable, to 
■determine and fix and give public notice of what under 
specified conditions are reasonable guaranteed prices iii 
order to assure such producers a reasonable profit. ' ' ' 

You do not suppose that applies to manganese; if we 
air producing more than we need, that there is going to 
be any stimulation given by the President in that situa- 
tion for the production of manganese? 

Mr. Ingalls: That is the way I read the bill. 

Mr. James: It says "whenever the emergency exists," 
and it would not exist if we were producing all we need. 

Mr. Ingalls: No. 

Mr. James : Then it would not apply to manganese. 

Mr. Ingalls: Take the case of magnesite. The pro- 
duction is already increased, and some people have gone 
into the business and made large outlays under existing 
commercial conditions. Are you going to make a guar- 
anteed price to them on top of that? 

The Chairman : Of course not. 

Mr. Wingo : It is only in those cases where, because 
of the uncertainty of the market, these mines do not 
attract -capital so that these deposits will be developed. 
We actually need them now. 

Mr. Ingalls: Then you say you will stabilize prices 
for some people? 

Mr. Wingo : No ; we are not doing that for the market. 
Take a practical illustration. Take, for instance, some 
of the things that are not being produced in sufficient 
quantities. There are men who are not willing to go 
out with the uncertainty of the market and develop those 
things, in the face of the fact that when the War is over 
and get back to normal conditions that property might 
not be a profitable proposition, and we would say to such 
men, "Would you be willing to put your money in a 
mine now, knowing that the guaranty that you would 
get would give you a reasonable profit on the capital 
which you would put in now, and which you might not 
be able to use after the War is over. ' ' 

Mr. Ingalls: I cannot answer that, generally. It is 
not a normal condition. We had the same condition in 
the zinc industry in 1916, where people put millions of 
dollars in a plant on preliminary figuring, with one 
year's amortization. 

Mr. Wingo : Suppose there is another place where 
private capital does not feel justified in going in and 
developing the ore. What are you going to do ? 

Mr. Ingalls : Let the Government provide the capital. 

Mr. Wingo : You believe in giving subsidies instead of 
stabilizing prices and guaranteeing a contract for a 
sufficient length of time to justify private capital going 
into it? 

Mr. Saunders: Doctor, I would like to ask your 
opinion about certain phases of this bill that you have 
not discussed and which, it seems to me, might lay the 
basis for some of the fears you seem to entertain. The 
thing which you fear more than anything else is that this 
regulatory bill, this legislation for the purpose of regu- 
lating these industries, may interfere with the industries 
and hamper them. Now, there are certain sections of 
this bill which I think might lay a foundation for that 
fear. Section 5, for instance, deals with the other parts 
of the situation. A good deal of the bill deals with the 
question of fixing minimum prices, and, of course, would 
encourage the industries; but there is another phase of 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6. 1918 

the bill which was not. meant to encourage the industries, 
but which was meant to regulate them. For instance, 
section 5 permits interference by the Government when- 
ever any royalty, charge, or commission or profit is un- 
just or discriminatory, and section 4 contains this lan- 

"That it is hereby made unlawful * * * to monopo- 
lize or attempt to monopolize, either locally or generally, 
any necessaries * * " 

And that means necessaries enumerated in Section 

"to engage in any discriminatory or unfair or any de- 
ceptive or wasteful practice or device, or to make any 
unjust or unreasonable rate or charge, in handling or 
dealing in or with any necessaries." 

In other words, the bill, in addition to providing a 
minimum price which would tend to encourage the in- 
dustries, goes ahead and gives authority to provide a 
maximum price, and is not that the feature of the bill 
which really forms the foundations for your misgivings 
about it? 

Mr. Ingalls : Very much so. 

Mr. Sanders : In other words, when you are fixing a 
minimum price, that tends to encourage production, and 
when you fix a price as a maximum price, if that price 
should happen not to be right, should happen not to be 
fair, that would discourage production. That occurred 
in the local industry when Dr. Garfield fixed a price 
which was not adequate for the small mines, particularly. 
Is not that the feature of the bill rather than the feature 
of the bill fixing a minimum price the one you have in 

Mr. Ingalls : I have that very much in mind. 

Mr. Sanders : What would you think about the pro- 
visions in the bill which permit the fixing of a price 
above which the producer cannot go and fixing the 
charges and commissions and royalties for all of this? 

Mr. Ingalls : I think it would be very dangerous. 

Mr. Sanders: "WTiat would you think about the pro- 
visions in the bill which permit the fixing of a price 
above which the producer cannot go and fixing the 
charges and commissions and royalties for all of this 1 

Mr. Ingalls : I think it would be very dangerous. 

Mr. Hamlin: Gentlemen, it is after 12 o'clock, and 
the House has met, and we will be needed over there. 

The Chairman: Mr. Ingalls, we are very thankful 
to you for your kindness in appearing here, and we cer- 
tainly appreciate it. 

Mr. Ingalls : Thank you, sir. 

Our War Finance Problem 

Magnesium may be estimated rapidly, according to N. 
Busvold, by precipitating it from a mixture of calcium 
and magnesium salts by the addition of an excess of lime. 
After filtering and washing with an excess of lime, the 
precipitate is boiled with an excess of oxalic acid, and is 
thus converted into the soluble magnesium oxalate. The 
total oxalic acid is determined with permanganate, and 
the free oxalic acid is titrated, using methyl red as in- 

Total expenditures of the Government from July 1, 
1917, to Mav 15, 1918, were $10,365,629,602. For the- 
period from January 31 to May 15, 1918, the average 
daily expenditure was approximately $39,000,000. On 
the assumption that the daily rate of expenditure for 
the remaining period of the fiscal year will be about the 
same as at present, the total expenditures for the re- 
mainder of the fiscal year would be $1,755,000,000,. 
making a total of estimated expenditures of $12,120,- 

In view of the fact that the daily expenditures have- 
been increased above the average, and in view of the 
fact that the operation of the war machinery is daily 
being extended, it has been thought advisable to add at 
least $150,000,000, which would make a total of $12,- 
300,000,000 as the total estimated expenditures for the 
present fiscal year. The ordinary revenues of the Gov- 
ernment, including Panama Canal tolls, less income and 
excess profits taxes from July 1, 1917, to May 15, 1918,. 
were $1,063,345,638. On the basis of the average daily 
receipts from January 31 to May 15, 1918, of about 
$4,270,000, this total will be increased to $1,260,000,000. 
Various estimates have been made as to the probable re- 
turns from income and excess profits taxes for the pres- 
ent fiscal year. They range from $2,700,000,000 to 
$3,500,000,000. The latest estimate of the Secretary of 
the Treasury of the probable return of these two taxes is. 
in excess of $2,700,000,000. On this basis the Treasury 
Department estimates that the revenue receipts of the 
Government as distinguished from proceeds of loans, 
will be about $4,095,000,000. Should this estimate of in- 
come and excess profits taxes be conservative, as many 
think, the receipts will be in excess of these figures. 

The total advances to our Allies from July 1, 1917, 
to May 5, 1918, were $4,251,329,750. During the period 
from January 31 to May 15, 1918, the average daily- 
advances to Allies were $10,670,000. On the assumption 
that the advances to our Allies will continue to the end 
of the fiscal year at the same rate, the total advances to 
them will approximate $4,750,000,000. If the total esti- 
mated advances to our Allies of $4,750,000,000 be de- 
ducted from the estimated total expenditures of the 
Government of $12,300,000,000, there remains $7,550,- 
000,000, which would represent our own governmental 
expenditures. On the basis of the above figures, the- 
percentage of total governmental expenditures to be met 
by taxes and ordinary receipts is approximately 33%. 
If the income and excess profits taxes yield a larger sum 
than has recently been estimated by the Treasury De- 
partment, this percentage will be increased. If the total 
estimated advances made to our Allies be deducted from, 
our total expenditures, it is seen that we will pay at 
least 54% of our governmental expenditures from or- 
dinary receipts and taxes. The deficit must be covered 
by loans. A part of our expenditures are for capital 
account and will finally yield revenue. — ' Guaranty Trust 

Julv 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Cunningham Pass District, Arizona 


The Cunningham pass country, in northern Yuma 
county, Arizona, recently has been attracting consider- 
able attention. This is less because of the amount of ore 
being milled than for the fact that the ore is high-grade 
and of excellent character for smelting. Three mines are 
now producing steadily, others are in process of develop- 
ment, and small shipments are being made by lessees 
from undeveloped properties. The district is about 10 
miles north of Wenden on the Arizona & California 

care to operate it, while prospective buyers were re- 
luctant to meet his price and terms. The mine has been 
worked intermittently since by lessees. The Critic is a 
shaft-mine. It was opened to the 400-ft. level and partly 
stoped, some good orebodies being overlooked. Lessees 
have operated it since with indifferent success, until J. 
Nohlecheck, about two years ago, opened several good 
ore-shoots, increasing the reserves steadily, while making 
regular shipments. 



branch of the Santa Pe system. It is part of the Ells- 
worth mining district. 

Cunningham pass is a low saddle in the Hareuvar 
mountains. The main traveled road from points in 
central Arizona to Parker used to lead through this pass, 
but in recent years a new highway has been constructed 
along the railroad, which now takes most of the through- 
traffic. The country is a typical semi-desert. Water is 
scarce and wells supply most of the drinking water. 
Small towns and settlements have grown wherever water 
has been found in sufficient quantity. Vegetation is 
scanty, the mesquite and palo verde being the principal 
shrubs, and some ironwood is found along the arroyos. 
, Mining near Cunningham pass dates back at least 20 
years. The Critic and the Bullard mines were started on 
rich surface-ores, and both produced for awhile. The 
Critic is credited with an output of $500,000 and the 
Bullard with $150,000. The Bullard was opened by four 
short tunnels, the longest being 320 ft., with a maximum 
depth of about 225 ft. vertically. Ore was also developed 
in two shafts. The ore-shoot in the tunnels was partly 
stoped and the mine closed because the owner did not 

Two years ago H. Barkdoll, superintendent of the Old 
Dominion Copper Mining & Smelting Co., at Globe, and 
his associates, acquired the Wenden Copper mine, sank a 
shaft 200 ft. deep, shipped ore and then closed. Ad- 
joining the Wenden are the Conrad claims, which were 
purchased by El Paso people who organized the Wenden 
King Mining Co. Considerable money was expended 
without much to show for the expenditure, and the enter- 
prise came to grief. Activity lagged again, until re- 
cently a rather remarkable showing was made in the 
Little Giant mine. Here two lessees had stoped out a 
small surface-shoot of high-grade copper ore, ranging 
from 2 to 15 in. wide. At 35 ft, this gave out, but the 
new owners acquired a lease and option and continued' 
sinking. At 75 ft. the vein suddenly widened to abeut 
two feet, and was followed for about 70 ft., yielding ore 
assaying from 15 to 20% copper. Sinking was resumed 
and the ore improved in value. A new level at 125 ft., 
driven for over 100 ft., revealed excellent ore, in some 
places being 40 in. wide. About 200 tons of ore was 
shipped from development work alone, which returned 
more than $50 per ton net. This new development has 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 

been widely advertised and a number of new companies 
and lessees are entering the district. 

Geology. The Cunningham pass country is worn down 
to the old gneiss or schist basement of pre-Paleozoie age. 
The schist is apparently derived mostly, if not exclu- 
sively, from intrusive rocks. Acid and semi-acid rocks, 
like biotite-gneiss and granite, prevail. The schist 
strikes N.60°E. and dips 25 to 30° to the north-west. 
Contorted and folded areas interrupt the uniformity. 
Paleozoic strata do not appear within five miles of Cun- 
ningham pass. The schistose complex has been invaded 
by intrusives. Two of these are prominent in the miner- 
alized area and have probably influenced the ore deposi- 
tion. They are: A granitic intrusion of the quartz- 
monzonite type, sending out numerous pegmatitie and 
aplitie dikes ; and a semi-basic to basic intrusive, ranging 
from coarse hornblende-diorite to dense porphyritic 
dikes, resembling diabase. The latter strike generally 
north-west, while the pegmatite dikes lie in all directions 
and are irregular in outline, forming a network of dikes, 
sills, and penetrations in the schist. Both systems of in- 
trusives are cut by the veins and sometimes are dis- 
tinctly displaced. 

The most important veins strike about 60 to 70° north- 
west and dip to the north-east. Flat and steep dips 
alternate, varying from 30 to 90°. Even reversals of 
dip have been found at places. Cross-veins striking N. 
30°W. are similar to the main-veins in character and 
mineralization. Others with a course from north to N. 
10°W. seem to carry more gold and less copper. Bedded 
veins with a strike about N.60°B. are ore-hearing, but 
likely to prove irregular. The chief importance of all 
the smaller veins is their enriching influence upon the 
main veins at intersection-points. Enrichment occurs as 
well in strike-intersections as in dip-crossings. 

Composite stringer-veins predominate, usually with 
one fissure that is likely to persist over considerable dis- 
tances. From the evidence available the veins must have 
been re-opened several times, and the principal fissure 
appears frequently in several displaced sections, joined 
by a network of stringers, giving the impression that the 
main mineralization shifted from one branch of an in- 
tricate fracture-system to another abruptly. The dis- 
locating fractures had a course about N.30°E. 

The mineralization indicates two distinct periods. The 
principal gangue of one period of mineralization is 
quartz, while the other period is characterized by iron, 
principally as hematite. Both are associated with cop- 
per and gold. The strong influence exerted upon the 
veins by the pegmatite dikes leads me to consider the 
pegmatite as responsible for the acid mineralization. 
The iron mineralization I attribute to the semi-basic in- 
trusives. Seams and veinlets of hematite are frequent in 
the pegmatite dikes, from which it appears that the 
pegmatite antedates the basic mineralization in the veins, 
and that considerable replacement of quartz by hematite 
must have taken place. The hematite has been altered 
to limonite superficially, but not to any large extent. It 
occurs massive and in its micaceous variety. The latter 
is considered a more favorable sign of ore. It is probably 

due to stress and pressure and is coincident with areas 
of folding and contortion along the veins. These fre- 
quently have produced a false secondary sehistosity, and 
often make the veins appear to conform to the sehistosity, 
where they •actually do not. Other gangue-minerals 
found are siderite, dolomite, and ankerite. Of these sid- 
erite is the most important and is closely associated with 
chaleopyrite. Possibly the hematite has been derived 
from siderite by metamorphism. Apparently post-min- 
eral barite is common; less frequent is calcite, which is 
probably secondary. The metallization introduced chaleo- 
pyrite and pyrite with accessory gold. Silver is found, 
but seldom exceeds two ounces per ton, while the gold 
ranges from $2 to over $50 per ton. The copper has 
undergone considerable secondary concentration. Chal- 
cocite, cuprite, and malachite are the principal products, 
while native copper, azurite, and chrysocolla are rarer. 
The ore generally assays higher than would he judged by 
its appearance, owing to a penetration of the hematite 
gangue by cuprite. Exceptional cuprite is found in 
perfect transparent crystals, accompanied by velvety 
malachite. The primary chaleopyrite is very pure and 
usually greatly in excess of the accompanying pyrite. 

The orebodies are roughly lenticular, and vary from 
stringers to about four feet in width. A series of lenses, 
joined by narrow stringers, has produced a maximum 
stoping-length of 450 ft., and about the same proven 
depth in the Critic mine, the most extensively explored 
property in the district. The Bullard has an ore-zone 
about 150 ft. long. Favorable places for ore are folded 
areas, pegmatite-contacts, and the vicinity of basic in- 
trusives. Intersection-zones increase the grade as well 
as the quantity of the ore. 

The average grade of ore shipped from the district in 
the past was about 18 to 20% copper with about $10 gold 
per ton. Chalcocite-stringers only a few inches wide are 
mined, and on being followed they will widen suddenly 
to several feet of solid ore and then contract again. 
While careful sorting is required where the vein is nar- 
row, the ore breaks remarkably clean in the bigger shoots. 
The number of men employed is small. A mine em- 
ploying 10 men and shipping 200 tons per month should 
make a good profit, as the net smelter returns are from 
$50 to $.70 per ton. The haul to "Wenden costs about 
$4.50 per ton by team, but is now being done for less by 
trucks. The roads are fairly good and the grades not 
heavy. The Jerome scale of wages prevails, but labor is 
not very satisfactory, because many people dislike the 
hardships of the desert. The Bullard has shipped over 
100 tons per month, working only two to three men, and 
the same ratio would be possible in most mines, if they 
were properly opened and employed power drills. Tht 
ore commands a ready market on account of its self- 
fluxing quality. The Clarkdale, Humboldt, Hayden, 
Sasco, and Douglas smelters have been receiving ore from 
the district. Cunningham pass is one of the few 'poor 
man's' copper districts in Arizona. 

Creosote has advanced to $2.10 per pound. The de- 
mand is active. 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Hoisting With Steel Cables 


Ropes generally break within the lower 150 ft, and 
marly always within the lowest 50, especially when the 
hoisting is done chiefly from the lowest level. This is 
due mainly to two causes, torsion and vibration. 

1. On raising the load the rope twists, and the shorter 
the loose part becomes the greater is the stress on the 
rope, owing to the amount of twist having an increas- 
ingly shorter length over which to be distributed, hence, 
when the rope is wound up the torsional stress is greatest. 

2. "When raising, vibrations are caused to run down 
the rope ; these on reaching the capping become reversed 
and run up the rope, and in places synchronize with 
those coming down; at these points of synchronization 
the strain is most severe. These points are situated 
within the lowest 150 ft., because at this distance the 
upward-going vibrations have diminished and died. 
Hence, the lower 150 ft. has become weakened ; in cases, 
therefore, where the bulk of the hoisting is done from 
the lowest level it is not advisable to change the rope, 
end for end, as such procedure would bring the weak- 
ened part of the rope into that position which requires 
the greatest strength. 

Another point of great strain is the two feet just off 
and immediately adjoining the drum, because here the 
rope has little room for movement, or for disposing itself 
to strain when the load is started from rest. 

Another point of great wastage of life is that part of 
the rope which touches the sheave-wheel when the cage is 
at rest, and when the cage hangs freely and does not 
stand on the chairs, in which event the weight is off the 
sheave except in very deep shafts, where the weight of 
rope is a large factor. 

The best method for prolonging the life of the rope 
is to cut from the lower end a length two or three feet 
in excess of the length of the arc of contact of the rope 
on the sheave-wheel when the cage hangs freely. This 
brings the two upper positions of weakness to new places 
where the strains on them will not be so great, and at the 
same time the better preserved parts take their places. 
Rapid hoisting, such as is usual in large coal mines and 
in the Rand mines, necessitates cutting off the cable every 
four or six months. One wire broken here and there is 
not a serious matter, but when several are broken in the 
same neighborhood the rope is dangerous. 

The following directions to the master-mechanic are 
useful : 

1. A weekly examination should be made of all ropes, 
cages, brakes, clutches, and sheaves, connected with 
hoisting appliances for raising or lowering men, and a 
test of the cage-dogs made. 

2. The draw-bolt and pin attaching the cage to the 
rope should be annealed at least once every six months. 
When the cages are changed it is advisable to have the 
draw-bolt annealed. 

3. Ropes should be greased at least once every month. 

4. Ropes should be re-elamped at least once every si\ 
months, a minimum of six feet of the rope being cut off 
each time. The portion cut off must be carefully ex- 
amined, both as to the exterior and the interior, tor eor 
rosion and breaks. 

5. Ropes should be discarded either when the number 
of broken wires in one 'lay' exceeds six, or when the 
wires on the crown of the strands are worn to less than 
65% of their original diameter, or when they show 
marked signs of corrosion, provided, however, that when 
such broken wires are reduced by wear more than 30% 
in cross-section, the number of breaks in any lay of the 
rope shall not exceed three. In any case, ropes should 
not be used for more than three years unless a piece cut 
from the clamping end has been tested by actual break- 
ing-test under supervision of a competent authority. 

6. Ropes should be securely fastened to the drums 
and, when in use, should never be fully unwound; at 
least one full turn must always remain on the drum. 

The 72 outside wires of the rope come to the surface 
once in every complete turn in the rope's construction, 
or in every 'lay,' as it is technically termed. With re- 
spect to external wear, the places in the rope that should 
be specially watched are those where the contact with 
the sheaves or guide-pulley occurs at acceleration or re- 
tardation periods of the hoist. These places are also 
likely to suffer more than others from internal wear, 
except perhaps that portion of the rope near the cage, 
which, although generally subjected to no wear from 
rubbing, yet is exposed to a corrosive effect as well as to 
the bending and shock stresses. In addition to these 
positions, attention must be directed also to that part of 
the rope which lies between the drum and the sheave 
when the load is at the bottom of the shaft, as also to 
those parts of the rope which come in contact with the 
flanges of the drum. 

Records of results of all the above directions should be 
kept either on regular forms or in a book provided for 
the purpose. 

Hoist-men should be warned that : 

1. Any defects should be reported immediately to the 
superintendent, master-mechanic, or other person in 
charge of the works at the time. 

2. Every morning, before hoisting or lowering men, 
each cage must he run a complete trip up and down the 
shaft, with a view to making sure that everything is in 
good working condition. 

3. The night-shift man should be required to make an 
examination daily of all parts of the hoist and to pay 
particular attention to the controller, brakes, clutches, 
and ropes. The results of such examination should be 
recorded on the form provided therefor, and placed on 
file at the mine office. 

4. After every re-clamping of the rope, every rope so 
treated should be run for at least four trips under full 
load, before being used for lowering or hoisting men. 

5. When a new hoisting-rope is put into use, it should 
be run for at least 10 trips under full load before being 
used for lowering or hoisting men. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 

Aluminum in Germany 

A hyphenated Spaniard, by the name of Rodolfo Goetz 
Philippi, writing for the 'Revista Minera Metalurgica y 
de Ingenieria,' of Madrid, professedly knows much con- 
cerning the detail of aluminum production in Germany 
at the present time. He affirms that the Neuhausen 
concern produced 10,000 metric tons of aluminum last 
year, using ores derived for the most part from the 
Austrian bauxite mines. These deposits are inferior in 
grade to those of France and Spain, but the German 
metallurgists are said to have so far perfected the proc- 
ess of extraction that large quantities of silica in the 
bath no longer entail the difficulties that were formerly 
experienced from an excess of that ingredient. The 
Neuhausen works are utilizing 80,000 hp. in the form of 
hydro-electric energy, and the house of Giulini Brothers 
is constructing a new aluminum plant in Bavaria on the 
river Inn, where a hydro-electric installation develop- 
ing 50,000 hp. is being erected. This concern is now 
producing metal assaying 99.75% pure as tapped from 
the furnaces. Mr. Philippi also states that the Neu- 
hausen works produce aluminum by means of the 
Moseicki process which involves the recovery of fixed 
nitrogen as aluminum nitride in the refining of the 
bauxite. This is leached, and ammonia is recovered from 
the liquor, while the alumina is precipitated. The details 
given are not sufficient to show how this differs from the 
Serpek process. It is evident, however, that the Germans 
are carrying the principles of conservation to a high 
degree in this industry. They are not missing so valu- 
able an opportunity as is presented in the refining of 
bauxite for utilizing coal slack in order to extract the 
fixed nitrogen evolved with producer gas made from such 
cheap fuel. So far this opportunity has been neglected 
in the United States, although we are hard-pressed for 
fixed nitrogen and the bauxite of the Southern States is 
nearly all produced within a few miles of coal mines 
where similar processes might be utilized. The fact that 
the Germans are able to employ low-grade bauxite is 
significant also. The United States has recklessly allowed 
too many of its trained metallurgists and chemists to go 
to the firing line instead of keeping them where they can 
do a higher good through promoting technical advance 
for the more effective conduct of the War. Germany 
seems to have been far-sighted in this regard, and it be- 
hooves us to attend with equal care to such vital prob- 
lems. "We are inclined to think that the resources of 
Germany were fully known before the War, but the letter 
on aluminum in Germany, cited above, gives an 
account of new discoveries of aluminum ores, thereby 
greatly augmenting the supply. The deposits recently 
found are in Alta Hesse, and "consist of nodules in the 
basaltic flows in the Vogelgebirge, the Spessart, and 
other mountainous areas containing similar rocks. The 
secondary hydro-aluminous silicates are so abundant in 
these lavas as to admit of crushing the rock and floating 
out a product rich enough in aluminum to serve as an 
ore. The alteration products formed in the basalt are 

said to exist chiefly as pisolitic nodules, varying from 
the size of peas to that of melons, while in some cases the 
change has progressed so far as to leave a mere skeleton 
of the original rock. The Austrian deposits are said to 
show a developed tonnage at the end of 1917 of not less 
than 19,000,000 tons, having the following analyses : 

High-grade, Low-grade, 

% % 

Al.O, 65.50 53.40 

SiO. 0.80 1.54 

Fe,O s 20.34 30.80 

Ti.O 3.07 2.00 

Moisture 11.62 12.00 

The lateritic deposits of bauxite worked at Giessen. 
Gruenberg, Lich, and Gelnhausen contain from 48 to 
52%, AL.03, and 26 to 34% Fe 2 3 for the reddish colored 
ores, and from 57 to 74% A1 2 3 with about 8% Fe 2 O s 
for the white product. We must credit Mr. Philippi 
with having commented approvingly upon the foresight 
of the American Aluminum Co. in securing a preponder- 
ating interest in the bauxite mines of Dutch Guiana. 
The same company is working the deposits on Canje 
creek in the Berbice river district of British Guiana. 
Similar deposits are reported from many points in Vene- 
zuela and from the outer edges of the great bowl of the 
valley of the Amazon, particularly in Colombia and 

Solder containing practically no tin is reported to 
have been discovered by the Germans. Tin there is scarce 
because none is mined in Germany and none can be im- 
ported. So, to provide a substitute, cadmium was tried 
first, large quantities of this metal being found in Ger- 
many. An excellent solder was made from 80% lead, 
10% cadmium, and only 10% tin. This, however, could 
not be used for making and sealing cans for foods, as the 
lead in contact with fruit acids produces poisonous 
salts. Bismuth, another metal found in Germany, was 
then tried. This, with cadmium and some other metals 
not revealed, formed a solder which is reported to be 
non-poisonous. It is almost free from tin. Germany's 
tin problem must be serious, for a recent Government 
decree has ordered the confiscation of the tin tops of 
all beer rings and stems. Even the church bells have 
been appropriated to a large extent for their metal 

The tungsten deposits of Essexvale, Southern 
Rhodesia are producing ore, thus far obtained from 
'rubble' or detritus on the surface. The sources of the 
tungsten minerals, wolframite and scheelite, have not 
been found. The granite rocks are cut by greisen zones, 
and typical greisen minerals, including quartz, fluorite, 
and topaz, are present; there has also been some miner- 
alization of the rock, with deposition of sulphides. 

The State of New South Wales, Australia, produces 
considerable molybdenite. The Kingsgate mine in the 
north-central region, contains both bismuth and molyb- 
denum. A recent yield from 101 tons of ore was 3804 
lb. Bi„S, ad 1297 lb. of MoS„ concentrates. 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


The Basic Principle of Concrete Mixes 


It is commonly stated that concrete is composed of a 
mixture of cement, sand, and pebbles or crushed stones. 
This conception of concrete overlooks one essential 
clement of the mixture ; namely, water. An exact state- 
ment of the ingredients of concrete would be : Cement, 
aggregate, and water. The last-named material has not 
yet received proper consideration in tests of concrete or 
in specifications for concrete work. 

Early users of concrete centred their entire attention 
on the quality of the cement, and practically disre- 
garded the characteristics of the other ingredients. 
During the past dozen years some attention has been 
given to the importance of the aggregate, but it is only 
recent^ that we have learned that the water also re- 
quires consideration. 

Tests made of the effect of size and grading of aggre- 
gates have shown that the reason why concrete of 
higher strength and durability can be produced from 
well-graded aggregate as compared with a poorly- 
graded aggregate is that the former can be mixed with 
less water. If this is not done, no advantage is gained 
from using a coarse, well-graded aggregate. The fol- 
lowing discussion shows that a similar conclusion can 
now be stated with reference to a rich concrete mixture 
as compared with a lean one : 

While the injurious effects of too much water in con- 
crete are apparent, tests made in this laboratory show 
that the fundamental part played by water in concrete 
mixtures has been overlooked in previous discussions 
of this subject. The relation mentioned above is empha- 
sized by a series of compression tests of about 1600 six 
by twelve-inch concrete cylinders made as follows : 

Cement to Aggregate 

Range of sizes 
of aggregates 


1 to 15 

1 to 9 

Ito 5 

to 14-mesh sieve "• 

Ito 3 
Ito 3 
Ito 3 
1 to 1 

to 4-mesh sieve 
to 1%-in. 
to 1%-in. 
to 2-in. 

7 different 
"for each, mix 
and aggregate 

Ito % 


The mixtures used covered a wide range, as did also 
the grading of aggregate and consistence. The aggre- 
gates consisted of two sizes of sand and mixtures of 
sand and pebbles graded to the sizes shown. The mix- 
ture is expressed in terms of volumes of dry cement and 
aggregate, regardless of grading ; that is, a 1 : 5 mix is 
made of 1 eu. ft. cement (1 sack) and 5 eu. ft. of aggre- 
gate as used, whether a sand or a coarse concrete mix- 

'Abstract from 'Concrete Highway Magazine.' 

This series gives valuable information on the effect 
of changing the quantity of cement, the size of the 
aggregate, and the quantity of water. The effect of 
many different combinations of these variables can be 
studied. One set of relations gives the effect of amount 
of cement using aggregates of different size and grad- 
ing ; another set of relations gives the effect of differ- 
ent quantities of water, varying both mixture and size of 
aggregate, etc. In all respects these tests bear out the 
indications of both earlier and later series. These tests 
are of interest in that they reveal for the first time the 
true relation between the strength and the proportions 
of the constituent materials in concrete. 

The figure shows the relation between the compress- 

.SO /.OO /.SO 2.00 2.5C 3.00 3.SO 4.00 

Wafer- Ratio to Vo/ume of Cement £f- X 

ive strength and the water content for the 28-day tests.. 
The water content of the concrete has been expressed 
in terms of the volume of cement, assuming that the 
cement weighs 94 lb. per cu. ft. Distinguishing marks 
are used for each mixture, but no distinction is made be- 
tween aggregates of different size or different con- 

When the compressive strength is platted against the 
water in this way, a smooth curve is obtained, because 
of the overlapping of the points for different mixtures. 
Values from dry concretes have been omitted. If these 
were used we should obtain a series of curves dropping 
downward and to the left from the curve shown. It is 
seen at once that the size and grading of the aggregate 
and the quantity of cement are no longer of any impor- 
tance except in so far as these factors influence the 
quantity of water required to produce a workable mix- 
ture. This gives us a new conception of the function 
of the constituent materials entering into a concrete 
mixture and is the most important fact that has been 
discovered in the studies of concrete conducted in our 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 191S 

The equation of the curve is of the form, 



where S is the compressive strength of concrete and x 
is the ratio of the volume of water to the volume of 
cement in the batch. A and B are constants whose 
values depend on the quality of the cement used, the 
age of the concrete, and the curing-conditions. 

This equation expresses the law of strength of con- 
crete so far as the proportions of materials are con- 
cerned. For given concrete materials the strength de- 
pends on only one factor, the ratio of water to cement. 
Equations that have been proposed for this purpose 
contain terms which take into account such factors as 
quantity of cement, proportions of fine and coarse 
aggregate, voids in aggregate, etc., but they have uni- 
formly omitted the only item that is of importance : 
that is, the water. 

For the conditions of these tests, equation (1) be- 

S = ^f-° (2) 

The relation given above holds so long as the con- 
crete is not too dry for maximum strength and the 
aggregate not too coarse for the given quantity of 
cement; in other words, so long as we have a workable 
mixture. Other tests made in this laboratory have 
shown that the character of the aggregate makes little 
difference so long as it is clean and not structurally 
deficient. The absorption of the aggregate must be 
taken into account if comparison is being made of dif- 
ferent aggregates. In certain instances a 1 : 9 mixture 
is as strong as a 1 : 2 mixture, depending only on the 
water content. The strength of the concrete responds 
to changes in water, regardless of the reason for these 

It should not be concluded that these tests indicate 
that lean mixtures can be substituted for richer ones 
without limit. We are always limited by the necessity 
of using sufficient water to secure a workable mixture. 
So in the case of the grading of aggregates. The work- 
ability of the mixture will in all cases dictate the mini- 
mum quantity of water that can be used. The reason 
a rich mixture gives higher strength than a lean one is 
that a workable concrete can be produced by a quantity 
of water which gives a lower ratio of water to cement. 
If an excess of water is used we are simply wasting 
cement. Rich mixtures and coarse, well-graded aggre- 
gates, are as necessary as ever, but we now know just 
how these factors affect the strength of the concrete. 

Practical use may be made of the curve in estimating 
the relative strength of concretes in which the water 
content is different for any reason. For example, a 
concrete mixed with 7.5 gal. of water (1 cu. ft.) to one 
sack of cement (allowance being made for absorption 
of aggregate) gave a strength in this series of 2000 lb. 
per square inch (a = 1.00). For x =1=0.80 (6 gal. of 
water per sack of cement) we have 3000 lb. per square 
inch; for 1 = 0.75 (5.6 gal.) 3300 lb. per square inch. 
Concrete in a 1:4 mixture (same as the usual 1:2:3 

mixture with a coarse sand) should be mixed with 5f 
to 6 gal. of water per sack of cement. The importance- 
of any method of mixing, handling, placing, and finish- 
ing concrete that will permit the work to be done with a 
minimum of* water is at once apparent. 

Assaying on the Rand 

As a subject for discussion by the Chemical, Metal- 
lurgical and Mining Society of South Africa, John 
Watson and Chris. Toombs contributed notes entitled 
'Assay Economics,' from which the following is ab- 
stracted : 

Litharge, the largest item of cost in assaying, is now 
made on the Rand. There is a doubt whether this sub- 
stance is being used for its proper function, that is, as a 
lead producer for gathering the gold in the charge being 
fused, also as a flux. Excessive quantities of litharge are 
used at times. It costs 60 shillings per 100 lb., equal to 
14.4 cents per pound. 

Sodium carbonate is also made on the Rand. It acts 
satisfactorily, and costs 12.5 shillings per 100 lb., or 3 
cents per pound. 

Borax has been found unnecessary if the furnaces are 
kept in good condition and at a high temperature. The 
lead button breaks away clean and bright from the slag. 
Substitution of fluorspar for borax was tried. The melt- 
ing-point of CaF 2 (1330° C.) is much higher than that 
of NajB^O,, and the fluorspar often caused the charges 
to boil over the crucible ; therefore it is not suitable. As 
a flux in reducing gold precipitate it acts well, replacing 
half of the borax. 

Corn-meal is an excellent substitute for charcoal or 
flour as a reducer. 

Crucibles are all made in South Africa. The East 
Rand Proprietary reports the following results: 

Crucibles used per crucible 
16.280 12.5 

9.300 21.9 

Opinions are divided on the use of part cement and 
part regular powder for cupels. The cement is decidedly 
economical costing 2 shillings per 100 cupels, or a half- 
cent each, but frequently the cupels crack. 

Tear Fusions 

1917 204.200 

1914 203.600 

Mineral production of Venezuela during 1917 was 
30,913 oz. of gold, 42,271 tons of copper ore, 54,072 tons 
of petroleum, and 20,165 tons of coal. The coal mines 
are all operated directly by the Government. The entire 
product was sold within the country at an average price 
of 24 bolivars ($4.63) per ton at the pit's mouth. The 
Ministry states that it is collecting data for a new law 
upon petroleum production, and urges that the present 
mining law be entirely changed. 

War-breads containing bran have been found to pro- 
duce secondary acid fermentations that are detrimental 
to health. To overcome the difficulty it is recommended 
that the dough be made with lime-water, the yeast being 
subsequently incorporated with the dough. 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


i I 


£*T . 


Financial Situation. — A. I. M. E. Affairs. — Telephone and 

The absence of any depressing war news has doubtless 
helped to maintain prices and, in some instances, to appre- 
ciate values during the past week. Further extensive selling 
of the two more recent issues of Liberty Bonds has, on the 
other hand, brought the market price near the low records 
of the year. The 4s now stand at 94, and the 4Js at 96. 
Treasury Certificates of indebtedness at the rate of $750,- 
000,000 are to be issued every two weeks, and will bear 
interest at 4*%. The fourth Liberty Loan is timed for 
October; the amount will be $6,000,000,000, according to 
recent advices; and the rate of interest will be the same as 
the last issue. The new loan will create a record if fore- 
casts prove reliable, the minimum being nearly $1,000,- 
000,000 more than the British loan of February 1917. The 
comparative magnitude of the financing of the two coun- 
tries may be considered from the fact that the British loan 
was placed 18 months after the previous loan. About the 
same time has since elapsed without any further call of this 
sort. The shorter intervals of time between Liberty Bond 
issues indicates the financial necessities of this Government, 
also that War expenses are increasing at a prodigious rate. 
On the other hand, it would seem that the financial necessi- 
ties have been over-estimated in the past, as indicated by 
the smallness of the last issue as compared with official 
forecasts of requirements made previously. Whether the 
$6,000,000,000 mentioned will be the sum asked for in 
October is far from certain, but it is evident that a larger 
call is unlikely. 

The new officers of the Executive Committee of the New 
York section of the A. I. M. E. are as follows: Allen H. 
Rogers, chairman; Forest Rutherford, H. C. Parmelee, vice- 
chairmen; H. C. Parmelee, treasurer; Walter S. Dickson, 
secretary; with J. E. Johnson Jr., F. T. Rubidge, and P. G. 
Spilsbury. The first meeting under the new regime was 
held at the Machinery Club on June 20, when the advisa- 
bility of continuing the meetings throughout the summer 
months was discussed, also the question of holding the 
meetings elsewhere. It was considered that the committee 
should call meetings when suitable or feasible. With regard 
to the place of meetings some spot more central to the 
homes of the majority of members was considered. Three 
practical suggestions were made. One was to the effect 
that the section should take advantage of the fact that a 
splendid collection of minerals was now housed in the 
Natural History Museum, and that the meeting should be 
held there after a dinner in one of the nearby hotels; 
another was that the Institute should follow the practice of 
the Mining and Metallurgical Society by holding the meet- 
ings at the club at Columbia University; and the third was 
that the dinner should be held in the vicinity of the Insti- 
tute headquarters on 39th street, and that the meeting 
should follow in the Engineering Societies building. In- 
accessibility of the Machinery Club after office hours is per- 
haps responsible for the small number of local members 
who attend the meetings. In these days of thrift and war 
economy the price ($1.75) of the dinner is no incentive to 

a large and representative gathering; but the committee has 
doubtless found it impossible to efficiently cater at a smaller 
sum. Members are welcomed to the meetings after the 
dinner, but the number who have the courage to join the 
gathering at this stage is so small as to be negligible. The 
business and technical sessions might well be held in a 
different room; and the suitability of the United Engineer- 
ing Societies building will doubtless receive due considera- 

After the last business meeting, members listened to an 
interesting lecture by H. J. Carroll, of the New York Tele- 
phone Co. on 'The Telephone and the World War.' The 
importance of effective field-telephone systems, especially at 
critical times, was dealt with realistically, and lantern- 
slides were shown; the particular adaptation of modern- 
warfare telephone installations in Mexico, Gallipoli, Italy, 
France, and Mesopotamia, was described in detail. One of 
the many modifications of the telephone of vital importance 
in modern warfare was an instrument, in appearance like a 
stethescope, for the purpose of detecting the working of 
enemy tunneling companies in the vicinity of trenches or 
underground passages. 

Notes on a Lyon County District. 

Copper mining has made considerable progress in this 
district during the past 12 months. Living conditions here 


are excellent, and the mines are within a few miles of Yer- 
ington and Mason. The former town is the seat of Lyon 
county and a centre for the agricultural ■ interests in the 
fertile Mason valley. Skilled labor and miners are in 

The Bluestone Mining & Smelting Co., at Mason, is ship- 
ping a considerable quantity of oxidized copper ore to the 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 

Thompson smelter; in addition to this it is now regularly 
shipping flotation concentrate to Utah smelters. The prop- 
erty of this company, formerly owned hy J. D. De Lamar, 
has recently changed hands at the reported figure of $1,500,- 
000, but this has not been officially confirmed. The new 
owner is the Dominion Reduction Co., with headquarters at 
Montreal and New York. Maurice W. Summerhayes, late 
of the Porcupine-Crown at Porcupine, Ontario, has taken 
over the management at Mason. A new 400-ton flotation 
mill has recently been completed, and started dressing sul- 
phide ore, which carries an average of 2 % copper. Plans 
provide for duplication of this plant, and it is intended to 
proceed with this new work almost immediately. 

Copper production of the Mason Valley Mines Co. for 
May was 1,759,728 lb., against 1,058,400, 1,455,200, 
1,253,000, and 1,536,600 lb. in the previous months of 191S. 

Acid Mine Water. — Manganese and Molybdenite. 

Generally speaking, mining in this district is unusually 
quiet. A number of the larger companies, including the 
Western Mining, Star Consolidated Mining, and Yak M. M. 
& T., have reduced their working forces. Good miners are 
scarce, but it is doubtful if more men would be employed if 
they were available. 

The new management (J. G. Hardy in charge) of the Yak 
Mining, Milling & Tunnel Co., representing the American 
Smelting & Refining Co., which on January 1 purchased a 
half interest in the property, is having great difficulty in 
draining the workings of the Cord and White Cap, the two 
most productive sections. These workings extend several 
hundred feet below the tunnel-level and include the largest 
lead, silver, zinc stopes in the district. The water, which 
seeps into the Cord and White Cap shafts through extensive 
deposits of pyrite extending from the Yak to the Moyer and 
flows into the large open area in these properties, has be- 
come strongly acid (SO,) and corrosive to pumping equip- 
ment. The trouble became pronounced early in the spring 
when surface water greatly augmented the natural flow in 
the lower Yak workings. The closing of the Moyer mine 
of the Iron Silver Mining Co., which had maintained large 
pumping plants in two shafts, also diverted a heavy flow to 
the Yak, giving the pumps at the Cord and White Cap an 
unusual burden. The water was more acid than in former 
years, and destroyed equipment almost as fast as it could 
be put in. As a result, the lower levels of both Cord and 
White Cap have been flooded. Additional plant has been 
secured from other local mines, and rapid progress is now 
being made in unwatering. 

M. L. Buchanan and associates have taken a lease from 
the Down Town Mines Co. on the A. V. property at the 
southern limits of the city in California gulch. A steam 
plant has been put in, and the shaft is being repaired. The 
A. V. has been idle for several years, but when last active 
was a large producer of manganiferous-iron. 

The May output of the Bohn on Carbonate hill was 700 
tons of manganese ore averaging 36% Mn, exceeding the 
April production by 200 tons. Extraction of silver-bearing 
iron ore was started last month, and a steady output is being 

Denver men interested in the Weldon property, between 
the Penrose shaft of the Down Town Mines and the Bohn, 
recently examined it for re-opening. The Weldon has not 
been active for nearly 20 years, 'and was flooded with the 
other Down Town mines in 19 07. Drainage at the Penrose 
has unwatered it. It is considered to be on the trend of the 
Bohn manganese shoot, and is surrounded by large ore- 
bodies under development in the Penrose and Grey Eagle. 
The possibility of resumption in the near future is one of 
the brightest factors in the present outlook of Leadville. 

Sinking at the Northern shaft of the Dold Mining Co. 

has been suspended owing to the increased demand for man- 
ganese being extracted from the mine. The shaft is 67 ft. 
below the old bottom level, and has cut a new shoot of high- 
grade manganese. The lower contact has not been en- 
countered and sinking will be resumed later to accomplish 
this. The NoYthern is now producing the largest quantity 
of manganese since its re-opening two years ago. The plan 
for establishing the Newell shaft as the hoisting centre of 
this property is again under consideration. 

During May the Climax Molybdenum Co. made two ship- 
ments of 25 tons of concentrate each, reported to be worth 
$200,000. Development at the mine on Bartlett mountain, 
as reported by the manager, J. H. White, is progressing 
most favorably. A large and steady tonnage of ore is being 
extracted through the upper tunnel, where ore-reserves are 
large. The new White tunnel, 200 ft. lower on the moun- 
tain-side, has been advanced to a distance of 500 ft. For 
its entire length it is in a solid ore. The tunnel will be 
equipped with electric-haulage system and made the main 
outlet channel of the enterprise. 

A bunk-house for 70 men and three residences have been 
erected at the mine, and at the mill a boarding-house and 
several cottages. Another unit will be added to the mill 
during June, increasing its capacity to 500 tons daily. 

Climax is considered to be the future mainstay of Lead- 
ville and will draw on the latter for all supplies. Should 
the Climax field be awarded to Lake county, in the suit 
pending between Lake and Summit counties, Leadville will 
certainly derive great benefit. 

■ Oil Development; — Labor at Porcupine. — Boston Creek. 

There is a marked revival of interest in oil and natural 
gas development, due to the success of the Union-Oil & Gas 
Co.'s operations in Dover township, near Chatham, Ontario. 
Some time ago oil was struck in a well 318 5 ft. deep. This 
has since been yielding steadily, and recently a second well 
sunk to 3277 ft. was producing about 400 bbl. daily. Eugene 
Coste, a well-known oil engineer who has visited the field, 
states that it presents every indication of persistency. The 
formation is the Trenton limestone, the same as that which 
has yielded large quantities of oil in the western Ohio and 
Indiana fields. This is the first time that oil has been ob- 
tained from this formation in Canada, the reason, in Mr. 
Coste's opinion, being that hitherto drilling has been too 
shallow to reach the oil strata. With deeper drilling large 
areas might be opened. Oil operators are preparing to act 
upon this theory, and many new wells will shortly be put 
down. A recently-reported find of oil on the Canadian 
Northern Railway, 70 miles north-west of North Bay, has 
resulted in the staking of a large number of claims in that 

The shortage of labor at Porcupine, which is seriously 
curtailing gold production, has been brought to the attention 
of the Canadian government. Mine operators hope that 
action may be taken to relieve the situation. 

The annual report of the Dome Mines for the year ended 
March 31 shows that 247,000 tons of ore was treated during 
the eight months the mill was in operation, compared with 
459,530 tons during the previous year. Total earnings were 
$1,030,758, and net profit $355,023; compared with $2,171- 
785 and $952,449 in 1916-'17. 

The Hollinger Consolidated is much in need of labor, its 
staff having lately been considerably reduced. It has de- 
clared a dividend of 1%. 

Diamond-drilling is under way at the Dome Extension, 
with the object of ascertaining the direction of the vein 

A new vein, 8 ft. wide, showing visible gold and telluride, 
has been found on the Miller Independence at Boston 
Creek, a little way north of present workings. 

.lulv 6, 1!'1S 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


General News of the District. 
By an agreement made between the Stratton'a Cripple 
Creek .Mining & Development Co. (The Stratton i 

and the Fiiulley .Mines Co.. Basket and Luce, discoverers 
.■i ill.' Basket and Luce vein In the American Eagles mine 
on Bull hill, have resumed work. The royalties from ore 
marketed will be deposited in escrow pending settlement of 
a suit between the two companies. The Findley company 
has brought suit to establish extra-lateral rights to the vein 
in question, from which the operators named, sub-lessees 
from W. L. Jamieson of Denver, the original lessee from 
the Stratton estate, have mined and shipped rich gold ore. 

A new vein for the Specimen mine has been cross-cut 
while driving from the 13th level of the Orpha May shaft to 
a point under the main shaft of the Specimen mine on Bull 
hill. The ore is of good shipping grade, but the vein will 
be left undeveloped until such time as the contract is com- 
pleted. The Specimen is a Stratton Estate property under 
lease to the Patterson Bradley Leasing Company. 

Development on properties of the United Gold Mines Co. 
during 1917 totaled 4538 ft., 3130 ft. has been completed 
in the first four months of 191 S. This work was performed 
by the company or its lessees at its mines on Bull and Iron- 
clad hills and Battle mountain. 

The financial statement for 1917 shows disbursements 
of $30,S96, receipts, $17,639, making a loss of $13,257. 
For the first four months of 1918 disbursements totaled 
$21,341 and receipts $19,836, making the loss for the pres- 
ent year, $1505. 

Two Tenderfoot Hill properties — the Queen Bess and 
Ella W — are again producing. The former is operated 
from the 1000-ft. level of the El Paso Gold King mine in 
Poverty gulch — a depth on the Queen Bess of close to 15 00 
ft. The ore on the Ella W. is mined near the surface. The 
Queen Bess ore is of 2-oz. grade; the Ella W. ore of low 

The Jackson or main shaft of the Gold Sovereign Mining 
& Tunnel Co., on the south slope of Bull hill, has been 
leased to Evan J. Williams and Ben Olsen, well-known 
here, who have been operating on the north end of the 
Cresson property adjoining. 

The Victory Gold Mining Co. is mining a good grade of 
ore on four levels of the Howard shaft of the Mary Mc- 
Kinney company on Gold hill. The same company is also 
shipping low-grade ore from the Beacon shaft of the Prince 
Albert group on Beacon hill. Both are leased properties. 

The Cold, n Crest mini- is being unwatered. II is also 
proposed to start the cyanide plant. 

General Notes From the Black Hills. 

Hill City. — H. H. Francis has made arrangements to 
resume work on his property near Oreville. It is expected 
that regular shipments of pyrite will be made. Motor- 
trucks will be employed in carrying the ore from mine to 
rail, a distance of six miles. The deposit is large and a 
considerable quantity could be shipped. 

The American Tin & Tungsten Co. expects to start work 
at its tin properties. The Cowboy mine will be further 
developed and with other properties in the vicinity should 
supply a steady tonnage to the concentrator. 

Keystone. — Regular shipments of copper ore are being 
made from the Blue Lead mine. Some machinery will be 
Installed to facilitate mine work. 

Deadwood. — Work at the Echo has been temporarily 
suspended awaiting the arrival of electric pumps to handle 
the water. The hoist and compressor have been moved 
from the main shaft to the new place of work, where lead- 
silver ore will be developed. A shaft will be sunk several 
hundred feet. The ore is high-grade galena, containing 
considerable silver. 

Canadian Mining Institute Western Branch Affairs, 

The annual meeting of the Western Branch of the Cana- 
dian Mining Institute, held at Vancouver on May 27, was 
well attended. It was agreed that steps would have to be 
taken to shake-up the organization. A Council was ap- 
pointed as follows: J. D. Galloway, Provincial resident en- 
gineer of Mineral Survey District No. 2, with headquarters 
at Hazleton; George Winkler, of Victoria; John Hunt, gen- 
eral superintendent of the Canadian Western Fuel Co., 
Nanaimo; Thomas Graham, general superintendent of the 
Canadian Collieries, Cumberland; N. Turnbull, professor of 
mining in the University of British Columbia; J. G. David- 
son, professor of physics in the University; A. B. Clabon. 
president of the Vancouver Chamber of Mines; E. A. Hag- 
gen, editor of the 'Mining and Engineering Journal' of Van- 
couver; Robert R. Bruce, manager of the Paradise mine, 
East Kootenay; S. S. Fowler, manager of the New Canadian 
Metal Co.; Oscar Lachmund, general manager of the Canada 
Copper Corporation; and E. E. Campbell, superintendent of 
mines of the Granhy Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co. 
R. H. Stewart, manager of the Sunlocn mines was made 
chairman, and W. Fleet Robertson, Provincial Mineralogist, 
vice-chairman. For the purpose of keeping informed on 
problems affecting every branch of mining it was decided 
that the Council should be given power to appoint sub- 
committees whose duty it would be to keep in touch with 
matters affecting the classes of mining work to which they 
were assigned and in the selection of which the special 
qualifications of the respective members would be the only 
consideration. These sub-committees will be as follows: 
coal, copper-gold, silver, lead and zinc, legislation, and mem- 
bership. At the meeting three interesting papers were read. 
One by Frederick Keffer, read by W. M. Brewer, resident 
engineer for Mineral Survey District No. 6, was entitled 
'Flotation Practice at Highland Valley Mines.' Another on 
'Petroleum in British Columbia' was by E. A. Haggen; and 
the third by E. E. Campbell, of Granby Consolidated on 
'Mining Operations at Anyox, B. C 

New Mining Regulations. 

Three amending acts, directly in the interests of men 
working in and around mines or smelters, were passed at 
the recent session of the British Columbia Legislature. 
These are entitled 'An Act to Amend the Labour Regulation 
Act,' 'An Act to Amend the Metalliferous Mines Inspection 
Act,' and 'An Act to Amend the Coal Mines Regulation Act.' 
The former provides for an eight-hour working day for all 
men employed "in, or about any coke-oven, smelter, con- 
centrator, or mineral-separation plant." The chief amend- 
ment to the Metalliferous Mines Inspection Act is that pro- 
viding for an eight-hour way to those employed under- 
ground, whose day will start when they leave the surface 
and end when they reach it again, as well as those employed 
on the surface. These two Acts will become effective on 
March 31, 1919. The amendment to the Coal Mines Regu- 
lation Act gives surface workers at coal mines the eight- 
hour day from March 31 of next year. New legislation also 
stipulates that inspectors of metal mines, after making 
their inspection, shall post the result thereof in some promi- 
nent place outside the workings, in order that the miners 
may be kept in touch with the conditions under which they 
are working. Another provision is that "every drill used 
in stoping in any mine where the character of the ground 
is such that dust is caused" by the work shall be equipped 
with a water-spray. 


ffofolNG and Scienrinc¥kE&> 

July 6, 1918 


Juneau. — As already mentioned in the 'Press' of June 22, 
owing to the shortage of labor, the Alaska Juneau company 
is to discontinue using ball-mills and start the pilot stamp- 
mill. The new mill cannot be run economically on a 1000- 
ton basis. The present plans are to crush coarse, stamp the 
ore, and convey it from stamps of the pilot mill to the tube- 
mills of the new mill, side-stepping the ball-mills. 

Skagway. — From a mine 80 miles from here, ore is being 
profitably carried to the Trail smelter, British Columbia, for 
reduction. The claims are the Venus group owned by A. 
M. Dewey of Spokane and a syndicate of Washington and 
Eastern men. He. says they have shipped $200,000 of ore 
in the last two years. This syndicate is also working a prop- 
erty on Prince of Wales island, from which gold-silver- 
copper concentrate is shipped to the smelter. 

Treadwell. — The Alaska Treadwell company is installing 
a 2-ton Heroult steel furnace, which has recently arrived 
from the East. With the addition of this furnace the Tread- 
well foundry will be the most modern foundry in Alaska. 
Other plant consists of two cupolas for iron castings, all 
being served by a traveling electric crane. A large quantity 
of scrap-iron and steel, accumulation of many years, is avail- 
able as raw material. The company is making preparations 
to mill the ore from its molybdenum mine at Shakan. Ex- 
tensive development has been under way for the past eight 


Globe. — The Iron Cap company paid 75 c. per share on 
June 29. 

Jerome. — This district seems to be again of more interest, 
as in the past week or two, three of the active prospects — 
Verde Combination, Pittsburgh-Jerome, and Calumet and 
Jerome — have exposed favorable formations. This, with the 
anticipated starting of the new smelter of the United Verde 
Extension, and the prospect that Jerome Verde will begin 
extraction of ore from the Maintop claim, all tend to create 
the same degree of activity and excitement that prevailed 
during the boom days of the fall of 1916. Now, however, it 
is not due to stock-gambling and blind speculation, but is 
the outcome of carefully following and keeping track of the 
extensive and systematic development work that has been 
carried on at the active properties during the past year and 
a half. 

United Verde Extension pays 75c. per share on August 1. 

Oatman. — Mine employees in this district are asking for 
an increase of 50c. per day. The companies offer 15c. The 
Federal mediator, H. Davies, is investigating conditions, 
and is to decide at an early date. His decision will be ac- 
cepted by both sides. 

Tombstone. — It is reported that material for the new mill 
at Douglas for the Phelps-Dodge Corporation is arriving 
daily, and that tests of the various manganese ores from 
Tombstone have proved satisfactory. 


Atascadero. — A large deposit of manganese has been dis- 
covered near this place in San Luis Obispo county. It 
occurs in serpentine, near a jasper formation. Two or 

three miles away is some chrome. The manganese is 8 to 
10 ft. wide, and the outcrop has been traced 300 ft. It is 
5 miles from rail, and a mile of road will have to be con- 
structed. G. W. Cross is to take charge. 

French Gulch. — The Crystal Creek power-house of the 
Hazel Creek Gold Mining Co., 8 miles from French Gulch, 
was destroyed by fire on June 27. The loss is $30,000. A 
short circuit was probably the cause. French Gulch and 
Tower House will be without power and light until the 
power-house is restored or until connection can be made 
with the Northern California Power Co. lines at the Glad- 
stone mine. 

Kennett. — On June 23 the 1000-ton ore-bins of the Mam- 
moth Copper Co., at the lower end of the gravity train, were 
destroyed by fire. The loss is given as $10,000, but deliver- 
ies of ore from the mine to smelter will be stopped until 
the new bin under construction is completed. 

Redding. — The hull of the American Gold Dredging Co.'s 
new boat on the Reid Ferry farm, across the river from 
Redding, will be floated in three weeks. It will take three 
or four months more to equip the craft. W. C. McBurney 
is superintendent of construction. 

Valley Springs. — Lyons & Ward are shipping a car of 

chrome per week from this railroad terminus. McAfee 

is also shipping some from here. The serpentine belt, in 
which the ore is found, is only a few miles distant. 

Weaverville. — The Lagrange hydraulic mine will have to 
shut-down early in July on account of shortage of water. 
This has been the driest season for years. 


Creede. — The Monon property, three miles from this 
place, is said to be the largest silver mine in the State. It 
is owned by the Monon Mining Co., but is being developed 
by lessees, A. M. Collins and Horace Wheeler. Ore was dis- 
covered on November 4, 1917. The shoot so far is 75 ft. 
long, 28 ft. wide, and assays from 40 to 200 oz. per ton. 
One hundred cars of ore returned $173,440. The present 
output is a carload daily. The property was first worked in 
1891, and has been leased to various syndicates since. 

Georgetown. — The new mill of the Colorado Central Min- 
ing Co. is working, dressing silver-lead-zinc ores. 

Telluride. — Included in the Tonopah Belmont Develop- 
ment Co. of Nevada report for 1917 is a statement of opera- 
tions of the Belmont Wagner Mining Co., which has an 
option agreement with the Wagner Development Mining 
Co. on its properties in San Miguel and San Juan counties. 
John M. Fox is superintendent. 

The mineral holdings aggregate 124 claims. The prop- 
erty of present greatest importance is known as the Alta 
group, 4 miles in a south-westerly direction fiom Telluride. 
Other properties are in or near Silverton. Prior to acquisi- 
tion by the Belmont, the Alta vein, a narrow but extremely 
persistent lode, with a reported past gross production of 
$1,500,000, had been developed by a series of tunnels 
aggregating 10,500 ft. in length. The lowest or 5th level 
followed the vein from surface for 3600 ft., and this, the 
furthest advanced of the levels, is yet some 500 ft. from the 
end line of the property. The greatest part of the ore 

July 6, 1318 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


occurring between No. 5 level, and to a height of 180 ft. 
above No. 2 level, had been extracted, but the remaining 
undeveloped vein area between the upper workings and 
surface is extensive, the vein cropping on Silver mountain 
rising to a maximum height of 8S0 ft. above the uppermost 
workings. The previous development of the St. Louis- 
Palmyra mine had been confined underground, chiefly to 
the St. Louis vein. On the St. Louis vein, four levels, 
aggregating 4500 ft. in length, have been driven, and the 
lowest of these, No. 4, which followed the vein for 2000 ft. 
was. roughly, 2500 ft. from the property line. The vein out- 
crops reach a maximum height of 1650 ft. above No. 4 
level, or somewhat over 1000 ft. above the uppermost vein 
workings. While extensive stoping has been done above 
the several levels, a considerable reserve tonnage of ore, 
the present principal value of the mine, remains blocked out, 
and a large further tonnage is indicated. The former 


No. O Alto Oro-Blr _ 

No. E Jaw Cruan»r For Alta. Oreo 

No. F Alto. Oro«[n dates 

No. O Alta Origin Trommol 

Ho. M St. LoulS Ora-BIn Gates 

No. I 3t.Loyl90r*fllr Trommel 

No. J Bolt-Convoyor to Mill Ore-Bin 

No. n Copvsyor WelOher 

No. 1 Mill Ore-Bin 

No. Z Oro-Oin Feeder* 

No. 3 Conveyor to Ball-Mills 

No. -» 2.-6'dol.X5' Boll-Mil'- 

No. 5 a.— Dorr Duplex Cleoe 

W" © 2- J-9 Prlmerv FlotBt' 

7 3- J- B ftouOner Flotation Celie 

6 I -J-B Clcorler Flotation Cell 

9 3-6' Callow Cones 

'O S- wnFley Concentrators 

.,_.n a-20'vic? Dorr Thickeners 

No. 12 Bolt-Elevator 

no. 1 3 I- lO'XIO' Cone-Bottom Tank 

No. II 2," Centrlfueal Pump 

No. 15 Rev 

No. 16 Centrifuge! Pump 

No. 17 Concentrates Conveyor-to 

No. 18 Concentrates Storage-Bin 

No. 19 Cbncentratea Trtmrfty - ( 
Ophir Loop R.R. Station 

owners of the property had planned a lower tunnel for the 
extraction of ore below the lowest workings of the St. 
Louis and Alta veins, and this, the Blackhawk tunnel, had 
been started — from a point on the level of the upper floor 
of the old mill, and 400 ft. below the lowest vein workings 
— and had been driven 600 ft. For the deep development 
of the St. Louis vein 4400 ft. of further tunnel work is 
necessary, and 8000 ft. of still further work will be neces- 
sary to develop the other promising veins at this horizon. 
The early resumption of the driving of this Blackhawk tun- 
nel was decided upon. George H. Garrey, consulting geol- 
ogist, in a report dated August 1, 1917, summarizes the ore 
tonnages and values as follows: In the St. Louis vein, 
90,987 tons of 'positive' ore, 43,947 tons of 'very probable' 
ore, 21,431 tons of 'probable' ore, 81,240 tons of 'possibly- 
indicated' ore, a total of 237,786 tons, of an average value 
of $10.96 per ton, and a gross value of $2,603,131. In the 
Alta vein, below the 5th Alta level, 13,604 tons of 'positive' 
ore, 34,010 tons of 'probable' ore, and 20,406 tons of 'possi- 
bly-indicated' ore, or a total of 68,020 tons averaging 
$11.13, and a gross value of $757,063. In the minor blocks 
of ore in the Alta vein between No. 5 and 1 levels, 4308 tons 

valued at $11.13, and a gross value of $47,948. The total 
reserves In the St. Louis and Alta veins, of all classes, are 
310,114 tons averaging $10.99 per ton, and $3,4.08,143 
gross. All values are calculated with gold at $20, silver at 
70c, lead at 5c, and copper at 20c In addition to reserves 
in place in the veins, there are impounded tailings esti- 
mated as follows: 130,000 tons of Alta tailing worth $3.70 
per ton, 20,000 tons at $10 per ton, 150,000 tons at $4.54 
per ton, and 25,000 tons of St. Louis tailing at $4.50 per 
ton. For an adequate financial return from the Investment, 
and because the developed ore-reserves seemed to warrant 
it, the installation of mining and milling equipment for a 
daily capacity of 300 tons was decided upon for immediate 
installation. An entirely new mill was considered, but be- 
cause the best situation was occupied by the existing old 
mill, and because a part of the old mill building could be 
made available for housing the new plant, it was decided to 
remodel the old structure, wrecking parts of it and erecting 
additions where necessary. New bunk and mess-houses for 
the men, store-houses and offices, cottages for married em- 
ployees, etc., were planned. 

The process to be used may be followed from the ac- 
companing flow-sheet. Production was expected to start 
by June 1. 

Westclifle. — The Westcliffe Mining & Milling Co. is erect- 
ing a mill at its mine, using the Koering cyaniding process. 
A start will be made with one Koering recovery-drum, equal 
to 60-ton capacity. The drum is being made by the Koering 
company at Salt Lake City, and will be ready for shipment 
about July 1. A. L. deSpain of Denver is consulting engi- 
neer for the Westcliffe company and will be in charge of 
the installation. 


Wardner. — After being a heavy lead and silver producer 
continuously since 1889, the Last Chance mine has reverted 
to the Bunker Hill & Sullivan company. This arrangement 
settles the apex dispute fought in the courts several years 
ago. By agreement the Federal Mining & Smelting Co., 
which owned the Last Chance mine, received 28,000 shares 
of Bunker Hill & Sullivan, and was given the right to work 
the Last Chance until the end of a period of five months, 
during which time the company operated at a loss. The 
Bunker Hill property surrounds the Last Chance. Immedi- 
ately upon closing down the latter the Bunker Hill offered 
jobs to all of the old employees. 


Baxter Springs. — This district in 1917 produced 10,184 
tons of blende and 596 tons of lead, valued at $698,270. 
The field only entered the producing list of the region last 
year. There are now four mills in operation, six others 
nearly complete, and by end of 1918 it is expected that 
twenty will be dressing ore. Baxter Springs has for many 
years been the leading agricultural town in the south-east 
corner of Kansas. Farmers for miles around made it their 
shipping and trading point. Because of the business thus 
derived Baxter Springs grew to be a substantial city, gain- 
ing in wealth and civic improvements. The discovery of 
great mineral deposits in the adjacent territory has brought 
a great transformation in the town, which now has a popula- 
tion of over 7000 people. 


Houghton. — Production of copper during June will ex- 
ceed that of May by at least 1,000,000 lb. The most re- 
markable feature about the whole situation is the fact that 
the mines are increasing outputs steadily, and are not 
taking on many new men. Miners are getting more pay, 
particularly those working on contract. May was a good 
increase over April, at some mines 25% more, with the 
number of men at least 25% from normal. The increase is 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 

due to greater labor efficiency. April saw a decided exodus 
of men. Many of. these men moved away because of tbe pro- 
hibition law; many moved as is customary in the spring. 
The falling-off was noticeable in January, but did not 
assume large proportions until April. Up to that time the 
departure of men was normal. The increase in output for 
May and the still greater increase for June is credited to 
prohibition in this State. Men now work every shift. 
Those on contracts have made very high wages. The num- 
ber of accidents has already been reduced to a low figure. 
During May the Seneca Copper Co. sank its shaft 208 ft., 
which is fast work. 


Joplin. — Production of the region last week was 7044 
tons of blende, and 1704 tons of lead. The average value 
was $51 and $94 per ton, respectively, making a total of 
$525,585. Missouri contributed $150,040. 


Butte. — On June 28, Judge Bourquin of the District 
Court issued an order releasing all moneys of Butte & 
Superior tied-up under the order of October 3, 1917, re- 
sulting from its suit with Minerals Separation over the flota- 
tion patent. Several millions are held, so resumption of 
dividends is probable. 

Corbin. — The Alta mine, 1200 ft. deep, is being un- 
watered. Water is pumped to surface through the Hewett 
shaft. A new drift was driven from the shaft under old 
workings and the water tapped by five diamond-drill holes. 
Copper ore is expected to be found in place of the great de- 
posit of silver-lead ore mined in the past, said to have 
yielded many millions of dollars. 

Iron Mountain. — On its 400-ft. level the Intermountain 
Copper company has opened 6 ft. of 12% ore for a length of 
200 ft. A. I. Goodell is the new manager. 

Jardinc. — A shipment of chrome ore from the Jardine 
Gold M. & M. Co. in Park county recently netted $25,674. 
Settlement was at the rate of $24.50 per unit. 

Kendall. — The Barnes-King company has acquired under 
lease the Mt. Pleasant gold prospect near its Shannon mine. 
The new property is considered very promising. 

AVickes. — Mt. Washington mine is sending to smelter 75 
tons of silver-lead ore daily. Ore is hauled in wagons to 
Wickes, 2* miles, where it is shipped on Great Northern 
cars to the Bast Helena plant. 


Belleville. — The Belleville Tailings Association has fin- 
ished treating the old mill tailing here in Mineral county 
and ceased operations. F. C. Beedle was manager. 

Goldfleld. — Miners employed by the Goldfield Consoli- 
dated, Atlanta, and other companies have gone on strike, 
demanding $4.50 per day, or $4 and a 10% discount on all 
supplies bought from the company store. The present scale 
is $3.50, with a discount of 5% on supplies bought. The 
Silver Pick, Red Hill, and other properties are operating on 
a $5 scale. 

Orizaba. — The Orizaba silver mine in Nye county is now 
controlled by C. S. Sprague and others, who control the 
Diamondfield Black Butte company of Goldfield. The mine 
has yielded ore worth $75,000 from above the 85-ft. level. 
Large quantities of ore are said to be in the mine and on 

Pioche. — The new 3-compartment shaft at the Prince Con- 
solidated is almost finished, and the hoist and compressor 
are being erected. 

Tonopah. — The weekly production of the district remains 
around 10,300 tons, valued at $175,000. 

The Extension treated 10,464 tons in May, yielding 1003 

oz. of gold and 101,182 oz. of silver, giving a profit of 

Dividends declared are as under: 

Amount per Total 

Company share, cents amount Date 

Belmont „ 10 5150,000 July 1 

Jim Butler ..." 7 % 128.852 

Tonopah Mining 7 Vz 75.000 July 3 

The East Divide Mining Co., composed of Tonopah and 
Goldfield operators, has purchased the Merced claim east of 
the Tonopah Divide mine at Gold Mountain. Surface indi- 
cations are said to be favorable for ore. 


Picher. — Production of Oklahoma districts last week 
was 4975 tons of blende and 1247 tons of lead, valued at 

A 500-ton mill of the Commonwealth Lead & Zinc Co., 
valued at $100,000, and out of operation since February, 
was burned on June 18. 

Quapaw. — West of this place water is a hindrance to 
mining, and a number of mine-owners are co-operating to 
drain the area. The Muskogee, Imperial, St. Louis, and 
others are interested. 

Tar River. — The Maxine company is to let a contract for 
a 400-ton gas-driven concentrating plant. Twenty-six drill- 
holes show fine ore at a depth of 205 ft., the face being 35 
ft. high. W. C. Miller is superintendent. 


Sierra Blanca. — Large pockets of high-grade wulfenite 
have been found by the Quitman Mining & Milling Co., 
eight miles west of here. When a process is devised a plant 
will be erected to dress the ore. 


Gold Hill. — In 'Economic Geology' for June the Gold Hill 
district of Tooele county is described by J. F. Kemp and 
Paul Billingsley. The Gold Hill is the principal mine of the 
Clifton district, and is shipping copper ore regularly to the 


smelter at Tooele. It is owned by the Western Utah Copper 
Co. The relation of the Gold Hill ore deposits to the general 
geological features of the district appears in the accom- 
panying sketch. A rim of sedimentary rocks, mainly lime- 
stone, surrounds an inner basin of granite. To the north, 
at Dutch mountain, and to the south, at Montezuma peak, 
this rim rises to 8000 ft. or more. The granite itself forms 
no eminences, but residual fragments of its sedimentary 
cover stand up in irregular groups of hills. From the con- 
tacts now exposed it is evident that the intrusive top of the 
granite was nearly flat, and it is further apparent that the 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


present erosion surface throughout the inner basin nearly 
coincides with this plane. The more deeply incisive valleys 
are all in granite, while the hilltops are always sedimentary 
rock. Gold Hill is the southern termination and highest 
point of a ridge of such sedimentary formation, which ex- 
tends as an easterly dipping belt of well-defined limestones, 
quartzites, and shales from the east flank of Dutch mountain 
for several miles to the south-east. The ridge is underlain 
by granite, which appears on both slopes, and it may be re- 
garded as a roof-pendant partly submerged in the intrusive 
rock. The orebodies of the Gold Hill mine are found with- 
in the limestone member of the succession, at a point where 
it is most intricately cut and enveloped by the intrusive 
granite. They are not immediately associated with the con- 
tacts. Occasionally a contact will exhibit a little cuprifer- 
ous pyrite intergrown with quartz, calcite, and garnet, but 
much unprofitable prospecting has demonstrated the small 
extent and low value of such occurrences. The important 
mineralization is found entirely within the limestone; and 
consists, at present, of porous iron oxides, carrying copper, 
and some lead, in the form of carbonates. No sulphides 
whatever remain, desert climate and hilltop location com- 
bining to carry complete oxidation below any levels yet 
reached in the mine. In all probability the original miner- 
alization was of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, and sphalerite. 
Thus the Gold Hill ore deposits fall within a familiar and 
important group, that of the pyritic replacements of lime- 
stone near a granite or monzonite contact, a group found at 
its widest development In the Warren district, Arizona. It 
is a representative of this group that the Gold Hill ore- 
bodies are chiefly of interest, for in occurrence and min- 
eralogy they have few unusual features. 

Milford. — The old Lincoln lead mine, 17 miles south-east, 
is to be drained by a 3700-ft. tunnel. The water will be 
used for irrigating good land nearby. A. McLease is in 
charge. A rece.nt shipment of ore averaged 25% zinc, 
10% lead, 1% copper, 5 oz. silver, and $1.20 gold per ton. 

Park City. — The Daly Mining Co. paid 10c. per share, 
equal to $15,000, on July 1. This makes $30,000 for 1918, 
and $3,015,000 to date. 


British Columbia 

Cascade. — The chrome deposits near Laurier on the Inter- 
national boundary have been purchased from R. Wolverton 
by W. J. Nicholls and others of Spokane. A considerable 
quantity of ore is said to be available. 

Grand Forks. — On August 1 Granby Consolidated pays a 
2*% dividend. This is equal to $374,962, making $10,- 
198,895 to date. 

Kamloops. — For the further instruction of prospectors, 
also to induce the location and development of the rarer 
minerals in the Province, the Hon. Wm. Sloan, Minister of 
Mines, has authorized the Department of Mines to secure 
complete exhibits of these minerals and arrange for their 
display in the centres of the six mineral survey districts into 
which British Columbia has been divided. The first of these 
exhibits has been opened by R. W. Thomson, at Kamloops. 
There will be others at Nanaimo, Prince Rupert, Hazelton, 
Revelstoke, and Grand Forks. 

Kaslo. — Permission has been secured from the Dominion 
government for the export from Canada to the United 
States of 5000 tons of manganese ore. The license applies 
particularly to the Curie property, near Kaslo, which has 
been opened recently and already has a considerable quan- 
tity ready for shipment. 

Revelstoke. — -The International Mining Convention of the 
Pacific North-West will be held here in July of this year. 
The arrangements include unusual and pleasant outings. 


Note: The Editor invites members of the profession to send particulars at their 
work and appointments. This information is interesting to our readers. 

3. K. Turner of Gold field is here. 

H. Foster Bain is expected here this week. 

F. W. Bradley spent the week-end at Atolia. 

Charles W. Goodale has been in San Francisco this week. 

Hennen Jennings received an honorary degree from Har- 
vard University on June 20. 

Guy C. Riddell was here last week as metallurgical ad- 
viser to the U. S. Tariff Commission. 

Forbes Rickard has returned to Denver from the inspec- 
tion of mines near Sumpter, Oregon. 

Edwin E. Chase has gone from Denver to Wickenburg, 
Arizona, to examine a mining property. 

J. S. Diller, of the U. S. Geological Survey, is in Cali- 
fornia investigating the chrome situation. 

Walter S. Brown is now in the research department of 
the New Jersey Zinc Co. at Pemberton, New Jersey. 

A. F. Kuehn has changed his name by legal procedure to 
Amor Frederick Keene. He is now at New York. 

William R. Jones is now manager, at Tavoy, in Burma, 
for the High Speed Steel Alloys Mining Co., Ltd. 

A. L. Queneau, who has seen active service with the 
French army, is now engaged as metallurgist in England. 

William C. Russell has just returned to Denver from an 
examination of the oil-shale fields of north-western 

F. L. Ransome, of the U. S. Geological Survey, attended 
the hearing before the U. S. Tariff Commission in San 

Earl T. Stannard, manager for the Kennecott Copper Cor- 
poration, was married to Miss Jeannette Condon on June 
11 at New York. 

A. Stansfleld, of McGill University, Montreal, is in Cali- 
fornia investigating electric smelting of iron ore for the 
British Columbian government. 

E. Harms, after sixteen years service with the Cia. Metal- 
lurgist de Torreon, Mexico, as manager and metallurgist, 
has resigned and is now at El Paso, Texas. 

Among the experts retained in the Utah Apex v. Utah 
Consolidated Apex suit are W. H. Emmons, Waldemar Lind- 
gren, George B. Wilson, and W. A. Wilson. 

John Sloan Stewart Jr., who was erecting the lead smelter 
for the Irtysh Corporation at Ekibastus, in Siberia, passed 
through San Francisco on his way to Mansfield, Ohio. 

J. Volney Lewis, professor at Rutgers College and the 
University of New Jersey, will devote a considerable part 
of the summer to professional work in the southern Ap- 

C. B. Clyne has been engaged as constructing engineer 
for the Compafiia Minera del Mirasol, which is operating 
the mines for the Cusi Mining Co., at Cusihuiriachic, Chi- 
huahua, Mexico. 

H. W. Bell has been appointed Deputy State Oil and Gas 
Supervisor for the Third district, which includes Santa 
Barbara and neighboring counties. Mr. Bell has been on 
the State Mining Bureau staff for some time as inspector 
and engineer. 

W. H. Parker was drowned while swimming the Sun 
river in Montana on June 22. He was only 27, a graduate 
of the Montana School of Mines, and had been working as 
a sampler in the Berkeley mine at Butte. He had been 
appointed recently safety engineer at the Great Falls Reduc- 
tion Works of the Anaconda company. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 


San Francisco, July 2 

Aluminum-dust, large and small lots, cents per lb 65 — 70 

Antimony (wholesale), cents per pound 15 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound, in carload lots 23% 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound, in small quantities 34 % 

Lead, pig. cents per pound 8.15 — 9.15 

Platinum, Government price, per ounce S105 

Quicksilver, per flask of 75 lb $120 

Spelter, cents per pound 11 

Zine-dust, cents per pound 17% 

'Antimony in 1916' has just been published by the U. S. Geological 
Survey. This country produced 4500 tons of 40% ore. valued at $40,580. 
Imports were 4742 tons of metal in ore and 9874 tons of metal in all 
forms. See page 899 of the 'Press' of June 39 for the antimony situation 
in June 1918. 


July 2 

Antimony, 45% metal, f .o.b. Calif ornia, per unit $1.10 

Chrome, 38 to 48%, California, per unit SI. 25 — SI. 50 

Magnesite, crude, California, per ton (nominal price) S7.00 — $8.00 

Manganese, domestic, 35 to 54%, f.o.b. South Chicago, per 

unit (Government price, effective May 29) $0.86 — $1.30 

Manganese, domestic, 35 to 54%. f.o.b. east of South Chicago, 

per unit (Government price, effective May 29) $1.01 — $1.45 

(Manganese, domestic, penalty of 50c. to $1 per ton for 
8% and up to 25% silica, and bonus of 50c. to $1 for 
less than 8 and 5%.) 

Molybdenite, per lb.. 90% MoS. $1.25 

Pyrite, per unit of sulphur, cents 28 

Tungsten, 60% W0 3 . California, per unit $24 

Tungsten, as discussed before the U. S. Tariff Commission at San 
Francisco, will be found on page 5 of this issue. 

Monthly averages 

Spelter is 


(By wire from New York) 
July 2. — Copper is unchanged. Lead is quiet but strong, 
inactive though higher. 


Below are given official (not Government) quotations, in cents per 
ounce of silver 999 fine. In order to make prompt settlements with 
smelters and brokers, producers allow a discount from the Government 
price of $1. hence the lower price. The Government has not fixed the 
general market price at $1, but will pay this price (as from April 23, 
1918) for all silver purchased by it. The equivalent of dollar Bilver 
(1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 pence per ounce (925 fine), cal- 
culated at the current rate of exchange. 


June 26 99.50 

" 27 99.50 

" 28 99.50 

" 29 99.50 

" 30 Sunday 

July 1 99.50 

2 99.50 

New York, London, 
cents pence 


Jan 56.76 

Feb 56.74 

Men 57.89 

Apr 64.37 

May 74.27 

June 65.04 




Average week ending 
May 21 99.50 

28 99.50 

June 4 99.50 

" 11 99.50 

18 99.50 

25 99.50 

July 2 99.50 



July 63.06 

Aug 66.07 

Sept 68.51 

Oct 67.86 

Nov 71.60 

Dec 75.70 


The TJ. S. government has ceased buying silver for the time being. 
Large quantities were purchased during the past few months. The Phila- 
delphia Mint is reported to be melting 1.200.000 silver dollars daily. Silver 
certificates outstanding on June 20 were $392,668,956, compared with 
8439.960,611 on May 1. 


On September 21. 1917, the Government fixed copper prices at 23.50c. 
per lb. for large lots, and 24.67 %c. for small lots, effective until June 1, 
1918. On this date the prices were re-fixed until August 15. 1918. 
Quotations in cents per pound are as under: 


June 26 23.50 

27 23.50 

28 23.50 

29 23.60 

30 Sunday 

1 23.50 

2 23.50 

Average week ending 
May 21 23.50 

28 23.50 

June 4 23.60 

11 23.50 

18 23.50 

" 25 33.50 

July 2 33.50 


Jan 24.30 

Feb 26.63 

Mch 20.65 

Apr 28.02 

May 39.02 

June 27.47 




July 25.66 

Aug 27.03 

Sept 28.28 

Oct 28.50 

Nov 31.95 

Dec 32.89 


Lead is quoted in cents per pound, New York delivery. Government 
metal receives 7c. per lb. until August 6. 





d or 







luoted < 

Average week ending 




11. . 

18. . 



35. . 




. 5.95 

, 6.33 

. , 7.26 


. . 7.38 

, , 6.88 

e. basis ol 


1917 1918 

7.64 6.85 

9.10 7.07 

10.07 7.36 

9.38 6.99 

10.39 6.88 

11.74 7.58 

80% metal, is 


it $95 


per ton 






at Joplin 




Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. New York delivery, 
in cents per pound. On May 25, 1918. the Government fixed prices until 
September for grade A spelter at 12c. per lb. for itself and the open market. 
Lower grades can make their own prices as usual. Sheet-zinc is fixed at 
15c, and plate at 14c. per pound. 

June 26 . 






Average week ending 






Jan 18.21 

Feb 19.99 

Mch 18.40 

Apr 18.62 

May 16.01 

June 12.85 








Monthly averages 



July 9.90 

Aug 9.03 

Sept 9.18 

Oct 9.92 

Nov 11.81 

Dec 11.36 


Zinc ore is $5 per ton stronger at Joplin, Missouri, second grades selling 
at $51. 


The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco, California being 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. The Government is taking 40% of the United States quicksilver 
output, paying therefor $105 per flask. Outside of this business the com- 
petitive market can make any price as usual. Prices, in dollars per flask 
of 75 pounds: 

Date I June 18 110.00 

June 4 110.00 " 25 110.00 

11 110.00 I July 2 120.00 

Monthly averages 


Jan 222.00 

Feb 395.00 

Mch 319.00 

Apr 141.60 

May 90.00 

June 74.70 




July 81.20 

Aug 74.50 

Sept 75.00 

Oct 78.20 

Nov 79.50 

Dec 80.00 



Quicksilver, as discussed before the U. S. Tariff Commission, 
Francisco, will be found on page 5 of this issue. 

Prices in New York, in cents per pound. These prices are nominal. 

Monthly averages 





1917 IS 




July .. 



Feb. . . 





Mch. .. 




Sept. . . 





Oct. . . 






Nov. . . 





.Inly 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Eastern Metal Market 

New York, June 26. 

Quotations, except those for fixed markets, are generally 
higher than a week ago, and all the markets are strong. 

Copper conditions are unchanged at Government prices, 
with demand on the increase. 

Tin is quiet, due to uncertainty as to the effect of the 
new freight rates. 

Lead is strong, but is under control at an agreed maxi- 
mum price. 

Zinc is moderately active, and higher in restricted offer- 

Antimony is quiet and unchanged. 

The principal news in the steel market is the result of 
the meeting at Washington on June 21, on new steel prices 
for the third quarter. No changes were authorized except 
on iron ore, which was advanced 45c. per ton to $5.50, 
effective July 1. Merchant producers of pig-iron hoped for 
and claimed that they needed an advance on account of in- 
creased freight charges, but they were disappointed. With 
this exception the decisions were satisfactory in the main. 
The entire industry is on a war-basis, with distribution 
solely in the hands of the Government. 


The demand for copper continues large, with that for 
war-uses on the increase, and less available for strictly 
domestic use. While the smelter output will probably con- 
tinue to increase, it is the opinion in the trade that it will 
be some time, perhaps several months, before this will be 
reflected in the output at the refineries. The question of 
price is still prominent. The belief and hope that an in- 
crease will be granted not later than August 15 on the 
present 23.50c. price still holds. Increased freight charges 
went into effect yesterday, and while the effect of this will 
not be felt at once, the ultimate result is claimed to be an 
increased cost of at least lc. per pound. It is understood 
tha: the War Industries Board is about to review the recent 
decision of the Price-Fixing Committee, but it is hardly 
probable that this will be finished before the end of July. 
It has been pointed out that no copper has at any time been 
sold at less than the maximum price of 23.50c. per pound, 
which would seem to prove that there is a real scarcity. 
This is perhaps all the more true when it is realized that 
grade A zinc has been sold repeatedly at less than the 
maximum price of 12c. per pound. It is stated that the 
maximum jobbing-lot price of 24.671c per pound for cop- 
per has been shaded to 24.50c. Exports of copper in May 
are reported as 28,889 tons, compared with 49,245 tons in 
May 1917. The total to June 1, 1918, has been 150,995 
tons, against 233,586 tons to June 1, 1917. This is a de- 
crease of 33 %. 


The market continues decidedly quiet. One cause is the 
question of the effect of the new freight rates. This un- 
certainty has checked trading. Much of the tin now comes 
by way of the Pacific Coast, and, as most of it is consumed 
in the East, the question of freight is important. The new 
rate is reported to be $1.25 per 112 lb. from the Pacific 
Coast to New York, but this is not yet settled. A rate 
based on the value of the shipments may prevail, in which 
case it would be $2,811. Rumors of a price-fixing policy 
are not seriously considered, and there is nothing definite 
regarding this. The spot price is maintained at 92c, New 
York. A steamer from the Orient, with 750 tons of Banca 
tin, has reached San Francisco. Already in June over 3000 

tons has arrived at Pacific ports and 480 tons at Atlantic 
ports, and there is 5000 tons estimated to be afloat. The 
London market has changed little in the week. 

The market continues strong, and if given full rein it 
would probably advance to considerably higher levels. 
Prices, however, are the same as a week ago, or 7.75c, 
St. Louis, and 7.821c, New York. The larger producers 
have mutually agreed, it is understood, on a maximum price 
of 7.75c, St. Louis, fearing, or perhaps realizing, that other- 
wise a maximum price will be fixed by the Government. 
Demand is strong, and this in normal times would create a 
runaway market, for the supply of lead is not equal to the 
demand. The requests for deliveries during the summer are 
reported as calling for probably more lead than can be sup- 
plied. According to the New York Metal Exchange the 
monthly price for lead in May 1917 was 10.911c. per pound, 
contrasted with 7.101c. for May this year. 

Since last week the market has continued to gain in 
strength, owing to various causes. On June 25 prime 
Western was quoted at 8.25c, St. Louis, or 8. 50c, New 
York, an advance of gc. per pound in the week covered by 
this letter. This is for June and July deliveries. For third 
quarter the quotation is 8.371c, St. Louis, or 8.621c, New 
York. This situation is due largely to the scarcity of offer- 
ings whenever any bids are made, the latter buying but 
little metal, a situation that has prevailed now for some 
time. Quotations as high as 8.75c, St. Louis, have been 
heard of. The entire situation is a strong one from the 
producer's viewpoint, and promises to continue so for a 
time at least. All Western smelters report trouble with 
labor, as well as serious operating conditions due to the ex- 
cessive heat in the regions lately. 


Chinese and Japanese grades are quoted at 13 to 13.121c, 
New York, duty paid, with 13.25c asked for small lots. 
The market is quiet. 


No. 1 virgin metal, 98 to 99% pure, in 50-ton lots, is 
fixed by the Government at 33c per pound, while for lots of 
15 to 50 tons, 33.10c. is established, with 33.20c. fixed for 
lots of 1 to 15 tons. Scrap prices are on the same basis. 

Ferro-manganese: The Anaconda Copper Mining Co. ex- 
pects to begin making ferro-manganese in August. Its out- 
put, when at capacity, is expected to reach 30,000 tons per 
year by the end of 1918. 

Iron: As mentioned above, the price of iron ore has been 
increased 45 cents per ton; following are the prices over a 
number of years: 
Year Per ton Year Per ton 

1908 S3.50 1914 $2.85 

1909 3.50 1915 2.80 

1910 4.00 1916 3.55 

1911 3.50 1917 5.05 

1912 2.85 1918 (new prices) 6.50 

1913 3.40 

Molybdenum and Antimony: There have been no devel- 
opments reported, and prices are unchanged and nominal 
at the levels last quoted. 

Tungsten: The market is quiet and nominal at $20 to $24 
per unit in 60% concentrates, and with off-grades sold at 
concessions under these levels. Ferro-tungsten is quiet but 
strong at $2.35 to $2.40 per pound of contained tungsten. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 6. 1918 

DividendslFrom Mines, United States and Canada 


Company and situation Metal 

Ahmeek, Michigan copper 

■ Allouez, Michigan copper 

Anaconda. Montana c.z.B.g. 

American Z. L. & S., United States, c.l.z.s.g. 

Atolia, California tungsten 

Arizona. Arizona copper 

Barnes-King. Montana gold 

Bmghani Mines, Utah l.s.g. 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan. Idaho. . . . l.s. 

Caledonia. Idaho l.s. 

Calumet & Arizona. Arizona copper 

Calumet & Hecla. Michigan copper 

Center Creek, Missouri z.l. 

Champion, Michigan copper 

Chief Con.. Utah l.z.s.g.c. 

Chino. New Mexico copper 

Cerro Gordo, California l.z.s. 

Copper Range, Michigan copper 

Con. Interstate-Callahan. Idaho.... z.l.s. 

Continental Zinc, Missouri z.l. 

Con. Arizona, Arizona c.s.g. 

Cresson. Colorado gold 

Daly, Utah 

Davis-Daly. Montana copper 

Dragon Con.. Utah c.l.s.g:. 

Duektown. Tennessee copper 

Eagle & Blue Bell. Utah l.c.z.s 

East Butte. Montana copper 

Electric Point. Washington lead 

Elko Prince. Nevada gold 

Empire, Idaho copper 

Engels. California copper 

Federal, Idaho l.z.a. 

General Development, U. S 

Golden Cycle. Colorado gold 

Grand Central, Utah l.s. 

Calumet & Arizona, Arizona copper 

Hecla, Idaho l.s. 

Homestake, South Dakota gold 

Inspiration, Arizona copper 

Iron Blossom. Utah l.s.g. 

Iron Cap. Arizona copper 

Isle Royale, Michigan copper 

Jim Butler. Nevada e.g. 

Judge. Utah l.z.c.s.g. 

Kennecott. Alaska copper 

Magma, Arizona copper 

Mary Murphy. Colorado g.s.l.z. 

Mass Con., Michigan copper 

Miami, Arizona copper 

Mohawk, Michigan copper 

Nevada Con., Nevada copper 

New Idria, California quicksilver 

New Jersey Zinc, New Jersey zinc 

North Butte, Montana c.s.g. 

North Star, California gold 

Old Dominion, Arizona c.s.g. 

Ontario, Utah s.l. 

Osceola. Michigan copper 

Phelps-Dodge, Ariz., N. Mex., Mex. c.s.g. 

Plymouth Con.. California gold 

Portland. Colorado gold 

Prince Con., Nevada l.s. 

Quincv. Michigan copper 

Ray Con., Arizona copper 

Rochester Mines, Nevada e.g. 

Shannon, Arizona copper 

Shattuck, Arizona c.l.s.g. 

Silver King Con.. Utah l.s. e.g. 

St. Joe Lead, Missouri lead 

Tamarack & Custer, Idaho l.s. 

Tennessee Copper, Tennessee copper and 

Tintic Standard. Utah l.s. 

Tomboy, Colorado g.s. 

Tonopah Belmont, Nevada e.g. 

Tonopah Extension, Nevada &.g. 

Tonopah Mining, Nevada e.g. 

Union Con., Nevada e.g. 

United Copper, Washington copper 

United Eastern, Arizona gold 

U. S. S. B. & M.. U. S., Mexico l.z.c.s.g. -I 

United Verde Copper, Arizona copper 

United Verde Extension. Arizona.. copper 

Union Con., Nevada B.g. 

Utah Con.. Utah c.l.s.g. 

Utah Copper, Utah copper 

Utah Metal, Utah l.c.g.s. 

Vindicator Con., Colorado gold 

Wellington Mines. Colorado ■ l.z. 

West End, Nevada s.g. 

Yellow Aster, California gold 

Yellow Pine. Nevada z.l. 

Yukon Gold, Alaska. Cal., Nev. . . . gold 


Coniagas. Ontario silver 800.000 5.00 

Con. M. & S.. British Columbia l.c.z.s.g. 419,098 25.00 

Granby Con. M. S. & P. B. C c.g.s. 150.004 100.00 1, 

Hedley. British Columbia gold 120.000 10.00 

Hollinger, Ontario gold 4.920.000 5,00 

Howe Sound. British Columbia.... copper 1,984,150 1.00 

International Nickel, Ontario n.c. com. 1,673.384 25.00 3. 

Kerr Lake. Ontario silver 600,000 5.00 

McKinley-Darragh, Ontario silver 2.247,692 1.00 

Mclntyre. Ontario gold 3.610.283 1.00 

Mining Corp.. Ontario silver 1.660.050 5.00 

Nipissing. Ontario silver 1.200.000 5.00 

Standard. British Columbia I.z.b. 2.000.000 1,00 

Temiskatning. Ontario silver 2,500.000 1.00 

Tough-Oakes. Ontario gold 631.500 5.00 

Abbreviations: g — gold, s = silver, c = copper, 1 = lead, z =: zinc. 

Note: Companies not included in the above list are requested to submit details. 

on receipt of the information. This table will V> published quarterly. 


54. 000 


" 75.666 

Shares issued 

Par value 

Paid in 1918 

















1 1.519.896 




\ £310.530 7% pfd. . . . 



























































































































































































13.480. S91 
























25 00 












10 00 














acid 391.498 no par value 































' pfd. 486.350 




com. 351.115 




300.000 no 

par value 











































" 7.710.666 




18.030 000 













Latest dividends 
Date Amount 

1918 82.00 


June 14, 

June 14. 

April 1 

Jan, 7 

May 6 

June 29, 

Oct. 15, 

June 15 

June 15, 

Jan. 2 

June 1 

June 10 

July r 

June 2 

April 2 

June 10. 

Dec. 29. 

May 24. 

July 1 

July 1 

Mch. 15. 

June 1 

Mch. 10, 

April 12, 



Jan. 20, 
June 25, 
July 29, 
June 29 
June 28 
June 29, 
Aug. 1 
May 15 
July 1 
June 29 
July 1 
June 10 
July 5 
June 28 

April 20 
Nov. 1. 
June 29 
June 29 
July 1 
Nov. 15, 
June 30, 
April 1 
June 20 
May 20. 
May 15, 
July 15, 
July 15, 
June 29 
Dec. . 10, 
July 20, 
June 15 
Mch. 30 

Feb. 2, 

July 2, 

Aug. 1. 

June 29. 

June 17, 

April 15, 

June 1, 

June 15, 

April 1, 

June 15, 

June 15, 

June 20, 

Oct. 15, 

Jan. 18, 

Jan. 15, 


. . . 1.50 


. . . 2.00 


. . 1.50 


. . 1.00 


. . . 0.42 


. . 0.10 


. . 0.50 


. . . 0.03 


. . . 2.00 


. . . 25.00 


. . . 0.05 


. . 6.40 


. . . 1.50 


. . . 1.00 


. . 0.05 


. . . 1.50 

1918. . . . 

. . . O.oO 


. . . 0.50 


. . 0.15 


. . . 0.10 


. . 0.10 


. . . 0.50 


. . 0.01 


. . . 0.96 


. . . 0.10 


. . . 1.00 


. . . 0.03 


. . . 0.05 


. . 0.05 


.. 0.0114 


. . 1.75 


. . . 1.00 


. . 0.03 


. . . 0.05 

1918 0.05 

1918 0.50 

1918 2.00 

1918 0.0214 

1918 0.75 

1918 0.50 

1918 0.07 

1918 0.12% 

1918 1.00 

1918 0.50 

1916 0.07 














1917 0.0214 

1918 2.00 

1918 0.75 

1918 0.02 

1917 0.25 

1918 0.50 

1918 0.10 


1918. .. 
1918. . . 
1918. . . 
1917. . . 
1918. . . 
1917. . . 
1918. . . 
1918. . . 
1917. . . 
1918. . . 
1918. . . 
1918. . . 
1918.. . 
1918. . . 
1918 .. . 
1918. . . 


1917 0.03 

1918 0.10 

1918 0.10 

1917 0.05 

1918 0.06 

1918 0214 








0.07 V, 




0.87 li 
























Changes in capitalization and new dividends will be entered 

July 6, mis 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 




The St. Bernard Mining Co., Earlington, Kentucky, has 
increased its capital from $1,000,000 to $1,500,000 for ex- 
tensions in operations. 

The National Aniline & Chemical Co., Buffalo, is having 
plans prepared for the construction of a new eight-story 
extension, about 145 by 225 ft., to cost $40,000. 

The Constitutional Lead & Zinc Mining Co., North Cen- 
tury, Missouri, plans to increase the capacity of its milling 
plant near Joplin from 250 to 500 tons per day. William 
S. Rogers is president and general manager. 

The Rachel Coal Co., Mannington, West Virginia, is plan- 
ning for the erection of a new power plant and compressor 
works, to replace the structures recently destroyed by fire. 
A new ventilation system will also be installed at the mines. 

The Midvale Steel & Ordnance Co., Widener Bdg., Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania, is planning for the construction of a 
large new plant at its Nicetown works, to be devoted to the 
production of large guns and kindred products for Govern- 
ment use. 

The Ferguson Steel & Iron Co., 1399 Bailey avenue, 
Buffalo, New York, will commence work at once on the con- 
struction of a new one-story steel addition, about 50 by 200 
ft., to its plant on Stanley street. Plans for the structure 
have been filed. 

The Lancaster Minerals & Mining Co., Lancaster, Pennsyl- 
vania, has been incorporated with a capital of $500,000 to 
operate lands containing ores and minerals. Harry B. 
Cochran, W. Prank Gorrecht, and John F. Smith, Lancaster, 
are the incorporators. 

The Central Smelting & Refining Co., Rider avenue, New 
York, has commenced the construction of a new smelting 
plant on Borden avenue, Long Island City, to cost about 
$50,000. It is proposed to rush the erection and place the 
works in operation at an early date. 

The Ozark Mining & Milling Co., Yellville, Arkansas, re- 
cently organized, is planning for the immediate installation 
of a new 100-ton concentrating mill at its lead and zinc 
properties. E. T. Stinchcomb, of Lehigh, Oklahoma, is 
president, and E. E. Scofield, Yelville, is engineer. 

The Maryland Chrome Co., Baltimore, Maryland, is con- 
sidering the installation of a quantity of new machinery 
and equipment at its chrome properties near Towson, Mary- 
land, to increase the present capacity. The company now 
has under development about 1000 acres. Frederick A. 
Dolfield is president. 

The Connecticut Zinc Co., operating near Cave City, 
Arkansas, has acquired about 2000 acres of manganese 
property along Cave creek, and plans for extensive opera- 
tions for production and marketing of the material. It is 
proposed to build a concentrating plant and to install a 
number of steam-shovels. G. A. Williams is in charge. 

Announcement has been made by the management of the 
Aetna Chemical Co. of the acquirement of property com- 
prising about 500 acres at Mount Union, Huntingdon county, 
Pennsylvania, as a site for the erection of a large new plant 
to replace the works at Oakdale, recently destroyed by fire. 

Construction on the new plant will be commenced at once. 
It has been decided to abandon the site at Oakdale. 

The Fairmont By-Products Corporation, Fairmont, West 
Virginia, is drawing plans for the erection of new coke 
works, using by-product coke ovens. The initial plant is 
estimated to cost about $1,500,000. The company was re- 
cently incorporated with a capital of $500,000 by O. F. 
Lough and C. E. Smith. 

The Donner Steel Co., Buffalo, New York, operating a 
plant on Abbott road, is planning for the erection of a 
large coke works to be devoted exclusively to production for 
the Government. The plant is near Beacon street, adjacent 
to the present steel works. A new one-story addition to the 
steel works is now being erected, to cost about $50,000. 

The Commodore Fluorspar Co., Hopkinsville, Kentucky, 
recently incorporated with a capital of $60,000, is planning 
for the operation of a plant for the production of fluorspar. 
An output of about 2000 tons will be made during the 
present year. The new organization will be under the 
management of the Southern Mineral Co., E. V. Rawn 

The Curtis Bay Copper & Iron Works, Curtis Bay, Mary- 
land, is planning for the immediate erection of three new 
buildings for the manufacture of copper and iron specialties, 
castings, etc. Plans for the structures, which will be about 
60 by 110 ft. each, are now in course of preparation. The 
company has recently been incorporated with a capital of 
$1,000,000, the main office being at South Baltimore. 
William F. Cochrane is chief engineer. 

The Princess Iron Corporation, Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, has been organized with a capital of $3,300,000 under 
the ownership of Frazier & Co., Broad street, Philadelphia. 
The company will acquire the properties of the Princess 
Furnace Co., Circle Ore Co., and Callie Mining Co., in the 
Glen Wilton district, Virginia. The blast-furnace has a 
daily capacity of 100 tons of high silicon-pig. With two 
brown hematite iron-ore mines, and over 1400 acres of land 
in this section, the company will engage in extensive opera- 
tions, and is considering plans for development. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. of San Francisco have issued a 
descriptive booklet dealing with the Meeseco belt-drive, 
which consists in the proper application of special resilient 
idler pulley, admitting of the use of short-centre belt-drives 
in many cases where speed-chain drives were formerly em- 
ployed. It saves space, length of belt required, and reduces 
the width of belt as much as 30%. There are many other 
advantages, which are fully described with the aid of illus- 
trations. It is a handsome catalogue, and gives instructions 
and diagrams covering the use of this appliance. 

The Sullivan Machinery Co. calls attention to its 'DR-6' 
mounted water-hammer drill in a bulletin 70-H, which gives 
details of construction and operation of this equipment, 
with illustrations showing its application above and below 

The Ingersoll-Rand Co. has just issued a bulletin on 
equipment for sugar factory and refinery service. It is 
handsomely illustrated. 


MIMING and Scientific >PMB8 

July 6, 1918 


In the desert country of Arizona where 
no water is available, the Sauerman drag- 
line cableway excavator is making a record 
in the economic handling of dry placer 

In all classes of dry excavating, as well 
as under water, the Sauerman cableways 
are handling material cheaper than Is pos- 
sible with any other form of excavator for 
this class of work. 

For Placer Mining, either wet or dry, 
Sauerman excavators afford the ideal 
means for dredging and handling gravel 
and dirt. 


It is not economical with many placer properties to equip with expensive dredges for handling 

Sauerman excavators afford the means of handling materials at an installation cost that is insignifi- 
cant as compared with that of the gold, platinum and tin dredges. 

Let us send you a description of a dry placer property's equipment which affords one of the most 
difficult types of placer operations where a Sauerman excavator is in successful operation. 



Manufacturers of Cableway Excavators, Power Scrapers and Cableway Accessories. 

Use Grease that has the "Vital 
Element" in it 

Graphite is recognized the world over as the ideal 
lubricant, because of its characteristic way of form- 
ing a frictionless veneer over rubbing surfaces. 


Waterproof Graphite Grease 

is composed of high-grade mineral stock and selected 
Flake Graphite. In addition to its excellent lubri- 
cating qualities, it is also very adhesive and is a sure 
rust preventative. 

Because of these qualities Dixon's Waterproof Grease 
is the most economical and efficient grease on the 
market for pump plungers, heavy gears, wire ropes, 
chains, heavy rolls and bearings. 

Write for Booklet* No. 141-W 
Made in JERSEY CITY, N. J., by the 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Company 





Are Not Affected by 

Muddy, Gritty Water 

The cylinder has large clearance and 
the plunger Is outside packed at the 
top. The suction and discharge valves 
are fitted with bronze taper seats and 
are easily exchanged by removing bon- 
nets. The Jack Head works altogether 
on the down stroke; the pump rod is 
made to weigh just half the amount of 
pressure exerted on the plunger so that 
the load is equal and uniform at all 
times whether on down or up stroke. 
In this way 

Balance Bob is Eliminated 

thereby increasing the efficiency and 
materially reducing cost of installation. 
These pumps are made with capacities 
of from 30 to 500 gallons per minute 
and for elevations up to 600 feet. 


Established 1850 
299 Fremont St. San Francisco. Cal. 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Service" is the cry of 1 

We are located here in the center of things, with twenty-five years 
experience and the largest stock of Mine, Mill and Smelter supplies 
in the southwest back of us and with an organization and facilities to 
give you the very best of service. 

We are glad 

to quote 








Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Foos Gas Engine Co. 
Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 
The Truax Manufacturing Co. 
United States Rubber Co. 
Hubbard Shovel Co. 

Our new 

catalog on 


Powell White Star Valves 
I T P Carbide Mine Lamps 



No. 3 Mill Partly Assembled. 
Made in three sizes: 15 to 30, 30 to 60, 80 to 120 tons per 24 hours. 


will "grind ore for a time, but the one that does 
duty year after year, that "dosen't eat its head 
off" thru repair cost and power cost is the 
Denver Quartz Mill. 

It is the "OP Reliable" in the ore milling world; 
its record proves it. 

Write for literature. 

The Denver Quartz Mill & Crusher Co. 

216-217 Colorado Bldg., 

Denver, Colo., U. S. A. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 


Under this heading announcements mav he made oj new and second-hand 
machinery or supplies, /or sale or wanted. The cost is five cents per word, 
including address. One dollar minimum order. Remittances MUST accompany 
order. Copy must be received by Saturday morning for the following week's 

CHROME ORE — Spot cash for chrome ore containing- 30% or more 
chromic oxide. If you control deposits of chrome ore it is your national 
duty to produce the ore. Send sample with description of deposit. We 
will analyze such samples and contract for your output. The ore is used 
in the manufacture of firebrick for steel and metallurgical furnaces and is 
a war necessity. American Refractories Company, Samuel H. Dolbear, Con- 
sulting' Engineer, 1412 Merchants National Bank Bdg., San Francisco, 
Calrfornia. tf 

FOR SALE — On easy terms, a large low-grade gold-silver property con- 
sisting 1 of fifteen claims, located in Custer county. Idaho. Immense ton- 
nage developed by over three thousand feet of drifts and cross-cuts. Other 
minerals, bismuth and wolfram. Write or wire. R. D. Leach, Box 300. 
Pocatello. Idaho. 7-13 

WANTED — A twelve-pipe Johnson-McKay quicksilver retort. Must be 
reasonably near transportation. Black Butte Quicksilver Mine, Black Butte, 
Oregon. 7-20 

FOR SALE — Thin metal and tin scrap. A substitute for heavier metal 
scrap as precipitant or smelter flux. Large quantity for immediate de- 
livery. Contracts for large or small quantities. Can load cars to capacity. 
Price on application. H. D. Staley, 132 Lick Bdg.. San Francisco. 

WANTED — Hauling contracts anywhere. Seven years experience with 
auto trucks in mountains and deserts." Can handle any proposition. Cali- 
fornia Auto Trucking Co., 860 Waller St., San Francisco. Phone Park 
5426. tf 

not been unboxed and never used. Sacrifice price. New in San Francisco. 
Address Excelsior Gold Mines Company, Forest Hill, California. 7-6 




2—6 ft. diam. x 10 ft. long, Allis-Chalmers Mills. 
Herringbone gears. El Oro lining. Designed 
for motor drive, but can be belted. Can be 
converted into ball mills by changing to chrome 
steel lining. In good condition. Offered at 
an exceptionally low price. 


6 — Miles 4 " standard black pipe 
3— " 3 " " 

3_ " 2\" 

K " n // tt tt it 


1—250 K.W. 2300 volt, 3 phase, 60 cycle Westing- 
1—50 H.P. 440 volt belted. 


60 H.P. type N, Fairbanks-Morse distillate en- 
gine, in excellent condition. 

90 H.P. Western distillate engine, with friction 
clutch. Almost new. Used less than 30 days. 

Southwestern Wrecking Co. 


FOR SALE — One hundred ton concentrating mill, crusher, rolls, jigs, 
trommels, Wilfley tables; also 2 — 9B. 1 — 7 and 1 — 5 Cameron sinker 
pumps. Address Box 008. Salida. Colorado. 7-20 

FOR SALE — 600 feet high -pressure pipe, double riveted, longitudinally 
designed, for 330-foot head; also 150 feet same pipe special bents. Pipe 
new and on railroad. Address P.O. Box 376. Grants Pass, Oregon. 7-20 

WANTED — Gas engine, two or three cylinders, vertical preferred; 120 
horse-power, for belt drive; California delivery. Address F. L. Sizer, 1006 
Hobart Bdg., San Francisco, California. 7-13 

FOR SALE! — If you want a property that will develop into a great cop- 
per mine, with comparatively small outlay of capital, I have it. Address 
John Slak, Mayer. Arizona. 7-13 

FOR SALE — Several gasoline hoists, 2-3-t-6-8 hp.; several belt, steam 
and electric hoists, water wheels, crushers, rolls and other machinery. 
U. S. Iron Works, Seattle, Washington. tf 

WANTED — Silver or gold property with positive demonstrated ton- 
nage commercial ore. Full particulars will be appreciated. Address Opp. 
859, Mining and Scientific Press. tt 


Two 90 h.p. WeBtera Distillate Duplicate Engines equipped to 
burn tops: with friction clutcbeB and Bosch magnetos. Installed 
one year ago, used 60 days; equal to new in every respect. Im- 
mediate delivery central Arizona points. Can furnish either cen- 
erators or compressors and make complete power plants. 


El Paso. Texas 


We are in the market for Western ores and mines of manganese, 
molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium and chromium. Submit analysis, 
estimates of quantities available, engineer's reports and maps. Blank 
forms supplied on application. R. M. R. Co., 639 Citizens National 
Bank Bdg., Los Angeles, California. tf 


Gasoline Locomotives 

J. D. Fate Company 



Treatise on Hydraulics-Tenth Edition 

By Mansfield Merriman 
665 PageB. Fully Illustrated. Price, $4.00 Postpaid. 

CONTENTS: Fundamental Data. Hydrostatics. Theoretical Hy- 
draulics. Instruments and Observations, Flow Through Orifices. 
Flow of "Water Over Weirs. Flow of Water Through Tubes. Flow 
of Water Through Pipes. Flow in Conduits. The Flow of Rivers. 
Water Supply and Water Power. Dynamic Pressure of Water 
Wheels. Turbines. Naval Hydromechanics. Pumps and Pumping. 
Appendix. Mathematical Tables. Hydraulic Tables (in text). 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

420 Market Street San Francisco 

.lulv 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



The cost of advertising for positions wanted is t cents per word per inser- 
tion, including addrea. Minimum order 60 cents. Jifplies forwarded without 
extra charge. Jtemittances must accompany order. Copy must be received Sat- 
urday morning tor the following week's issue. 

CARPENTER capable of taking- charge of mill construction as general 
foreman or superintendent. Have transit and some technical education. 
Wages no special object if conditions are right. Address PW 943 Mining 
and Scientific Press. 7-20 

WANTED — Position as mine blacksmith ; 20 years experience ; done 
everything lrom helper to shop foreman; will go anywhere; can give best 
Address PW 935, Mining and Scientific Press. 7-6 

of references. 


Send for Catalogues 
Mining and Scientific Press, 420 Market Street, San Francisco 

Industrial Engineering Co., Inc. 



Designers and Builders of 



Owners of Rights in the 

Perkins Non-Reversing, Up-Cast, Self-Cleaning 

Regenerative Reverberatory Smelting Furnace 

Increases Furnace Capacity 50 '. Reduces Fuel Cost 501 

The Perkins Furnace Co., Inc. 

587 Mills Bid?. San Francisco. Col.. U. S. A. 


All desirable types and sizes for Power Transmission, Hoisting, Hauling, 
Conveying, Cableways, Guy Wires, etc. Let us quote. 

San Francisco 

Rolph Mills Co. 

149 California St. 

Geo. C Moon Co. 

V; **•* tv**^ for all purooses 



We make a specialty in the installation of power plants, mining, 
milling and smelting machinery, foundations, buildings and re- 
inforced concrete structures. 

We wiU be pleased to submit estimates or supervise your con- 
struction work on a cost plus percentage :basis. 
Cable: POLHEMUS. Austin, Texas. « 

Complete Cyanide Mill 

Hoisting' and Surface Plant 

We offer for sale the complete 200- ton mining, milling and surface plant and equipment 
of the NEVADA HILLS MINING COMPANY, at. Fairview, Nevada 

This was considered the most complete plant in the State of Nevada, and briefly stated consists of 

Structural Steel Mill Building 
Asbestos Protected Metal Covering 
Steel Gallows Frame, Skips and 

Steel Ore Bin and Air Lifts 
150 H.P. Electric Hoist 
200 H.P. Electric Compressor 

20x12 Blake Crusher 
20 Stamps— 1200 lbs. 
Tube Mills 

Concentrating Tables 
Akins and Cone Classifiers 
Triplex, Duplex and Centrifugal 

Dorr Thickeners and Agitators 
32 Redwood Tanks 
Refinery complete 
Oliver Filters 
Slime Conveyor 
Air Compressors 
Boiler Plant 

Perrin Presses, etc. 

33 Alternating Current Motors 

12 Transformers 

Hoist House 

Blacksmith and Machine Shop 

Transformer House 


Boarding House 

Office Building and Equipment 

Assay Office 

14 Cottages 


We invite correspondence, and can offer an exceptional proposition to anyone in a position to purchase 
the plant as it stands. We suggest the use of the telegraph. Address communications to 

Nevada Engineering and Supply Company 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 


Announcements in this column are secured through the co-operation at \ 

many oj the largest mining companies in Vie United States. Advertisements \ 

under this heading wUl be inserted two times without charge. Additional in- I 
sertions charged at the rate of tc. per word, including address. 

TEMPORARY FREE REGISTRATION — While present heavy demand 
continues for well-qualified men in all branches mining', milling-, smelting', 
we will accept, without registration charge, applications for mining 1 or 
metallurgical engineers, assayers, chemists, etc., who are technical gradu- 
ates and who would accept salaries of $150 or lower. Desirable positions 
secured promptly. We have placed fourteen thousand men in positions, at 
salaries up to $6500 per annum. Established 15 years. Business-Men's 
Clearing- House, Denver, Colorado. tf 

WANTED — Mine shift-bosB with Bome knowledge of Spanish. Good 
climate and living- conditions. Salary $175. to be raised to $185 if serv- 
ices are satisfactory. Address PA 940, Mining- and Scientific Press. 7-6 

WINCHMEN wanted for gold dredging' property in South America; can 
nee several good men. Single men acquainted with river dredging- in 
tropical countries preferred. Transportation paid; two years contract; in 
replying state fully experience and monthly salary expected. Address PA 
©42, Mining- and Scientific Press. 7-20 

WANTED — Two millmen to run g-as engines and tube mill; $4.25 a shift. 
Address PA 939. Mining- and Scientific Press. 7-6 

WANTED — Young engineer of experience to do scout examination work 
for two or three months; salary $250 a month and expenses. Address PA 
945, Mining 1 and Scientific Press. 7-13 

WANTED — Experienced assayer and chemist for old established San 
Francisco office. Partnership eventually possible. Address PA 944, Mining 
and Scientific Press. 7-13 

MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS wants a permanent circulation rep- 
resentative in every mining 1 community in the world. Replies will be held 
confidential if desired. Address, The Manager, Mining* and Scientific Press. 

Used Mining Machinery 


1 — 12x20 Hercules Blake Type Crusher. 
1 — 14x24 Hercules Blake Type Crusher. 
1—12x16 Golden State Blake Type Crusher. 
1 — Gates No. Gyratory Crusher. 
1 — Style B Allis-Chalmers Gyratory Crusher. 
1— Radial Drill 3y 2 ' Arm. 
2— Vertical 20" Drill Presses. 
1—5x18 Allis-Chalmers Tube Mill. 
2 — 72x16 Return Tubular Boilers. 
2—72x16 Return Tubular Boilers with State Cer- 
1—40 H. P. Firebox Boiler. 
1—5x5 Allis-Chalmers Ball Mill. 


635 Stevenson St. 

San Francisco 



Engineers, Assayers , Chemists , Master*^ 
Mechanics. Electricians .Accountants... 



WANTED — We receive numerous calls for qualified mining; civil and 
mechanical engineers, and executives, commanding salaries of $250 per 
month and up; no charge for registration; all applications strictly con-' 


Placement Bureau, 

604 Mechanics Institute Bdg., 57 Post St., San FranciBCO 


Tear Out — Fill In — Hand Letter-Carrier — or Mail to Post Office 

to me on 

Kindly have letter-carrier deliver 

for which 1 will pay on delivery: 

$5. U. S. WAR-SAVINGS STAMPS at $. each 

25c U. S. THRIFT STAMPS ot 25c cock. 



vuturws STAMPS 

W. S. S. COST DURING 1918 


$4.15 I J,.ly $4 18 1 Oci. 

4.16 Atie. 4.19 Nov. 

4.17 1 Sept. 4.20 1 Dec 



S. S. WORTH $5.00 JANUARY 1. 


July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


General Offices 
166-H2 Perry St. 
New York City 


Fayetteville, N. C. 

Collins, Ga. 

Pine Flotation Oils 

Complete Stock Carried 
In Salt Lake City 

Georgia Pine Turpentine Co. of New York 

S. S. SKELTON, Western Mgr. 

P. O. Box 1994 

Salt Lake City 



High Speed Steel 

Tool Steels 

Alloy Steel Billets 

Alloy Steels 

Cold Boiled Strip Steel 

Steel Specialties 

Of All Kinds 


Spring Steels 

Welding Materials 











SALES offices: 

Birmingham. Ala.— Box 908. Chicago, III.— 512 1st Nat. Bk. Bldg. 

Columbus. Ohio— 607 New Hayden Bldg. Dallas, Tex— 1217 Praetonan Bid;. 

Minneapolis. Minn— 712 Plymotl Bids. Kansas City. Mo— 716 Scarritt Bids. 

New York City— No. I Broadway San Francisco, Cal.— 71 1 Balboa Bldg. 



For Every Purpose 

New Threads and Coupling! 

Hot Asphaltuni Dipped 

Second-Hand and New 

Screw Casings, Fittings, and Valve* 

Pacific Pipe Co. C*^) 201 Howard St., San Francisco 

ALADDIN and his wonderful lamp had 
nothing on us. For instance — you need a 
piece of machinery — an engine — a motor — 
a head-frame — anything. You wire us. Back 
goes a wire giving prices and detailed informa- 
tion. Want to know more about this Service? 


L cunabp Biiacmc 



For Lubrication of 
Mine Machinery 

SECURE a lubrication service for 
your mine equipment that is excep- 
tionally economical and at the same 
time highly efficient. 

Hoisting Engines 


Winding Machines 

Blower Fans 






This equipment when lubricated with 


will produce maximum results, operating 
with cool, easy running bearings — at a 
minimum cost. We have collected data 
in detail giving results of comparative 
lubrication tests on mine equipment 
which points out the great saving secured 
with Albany Grease. This data will be 
sent you on request. You can conduct a 
test on Albany Grease at our expense. A 
sufficient quantity of Albany Grease and 
an Albany Cup will be sent you without 
charge, upon receipt of your request. 

i Your dealer sells Albany Grease. If not, order direct. | 

Albany Lubricating Co. 

Adam Cook's Sons, Props. 
708-10 Washington Street 

■IflVnVV New York 

Established 1868 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 

$40,000,000 POTASH TAILINGS 

We <mn -approximately 8,000,000 tons of Tailings 
that will average 10 % K^O. They are crushed to minus 
100, are located at Colorado Springs, Colo. Lime beds 
on the property. These tailings are from Cripple 
Creek ore. A rare opportunity for anyone having a 
process for obtaining the Potash from Silicates. Will 
sell outright or lease to responsible parties. 




Brass, Bronze, and Aluminum Castings 
48-50 Clementina St.. San Francisco F. J. Carroll, Prop. 




Allis-Chalmers Co. Stearna-Roeer Mfff. Co. 

Chicago, 111 Denver Colo. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. San Francisco 
Frank R. Perrot, Sydney and Penh, Australia 


^:^^^^^^ag^g^^sa^^^^g%e%<^a^g^ggi»? ;, ^, 





604 Million St.. San Francisco, C&L 



Bucyrus Company 

1 — No. 5 Gates. 
1 — No, 2 Gates. 
1 — Gates Laboratory. 

Gyratory Crushers 

-No. 5 Austin. 
-No. 5 Symous. 

Jaw Crushers 

•5x30 Blake, Robinson-Rea. 

-11x15 Dodge, C. I. Works. 

-No. 3 — 7x11 Sampson. 

-13x24 Blake. Allis-Chalmers. 

-13x24 .Blake, McFarlane. 

-±&xt> Dodge. McFarlane. "New." 

-No. 4 — 7x10 Sampson. 

-7x10 Universal. 

-9x15 Blake, Denver Engineering' Works. 

-9x15 Blake, Ferretl. 3 — vxlO Blake. 

-10x20 Blake. Davis. 1 — ixlO Blake. Ferrell. 

-0x0 Denver Quartz. 1 — 5x10 Blake, McFarlane. 

-13x24 Nickel Steel Crusher Shafts for Blake. 

-10x20 Nickel Steel Crusher Shafts for Blake. 

-0x15 Nickel Steel Crusher Shafts for Blake. 

Crushing Rolls 

2 — 12x20 Davis Standard. 

1 — 12x20 .McFarlane Parallel, New 

l — 12x20 Colorado Iron Works. 

2 — 14x27 Davis Standard. 

1 — 14x27 McFarlane Parallel. New 

1 — 14x27 McFarlane Parallel. 5- 

1 — 14x20 Su-ams-Roger. 1- 

2 — 14x27 M<_Farlane Horizontal. 1- 

3 — JL4x30 A His -Reliance. 1- 

3 — 14x30 Alii a- Reliance. 

l — 8x20 Traylor Engineering Works 

1 — 12x12 Davis Standard. 
1 — 12x20 Stearns Roger. 

16x36 Davis Standard. 
10x40 Colorado Iron Works. 
10x30 Colorado Iron Works. 
lOx 3 Triplex Sample. 

Pulverizers and Mills 

-No. 2 Gardner Crusher. 

-3&X5 American Pulverizer. 

-3^j Ft. Huntington Allis-Chalmers. 

-5 Ft. Huntington Allis-Chalmers. 

-13 In. Symous Disc Crusher. 1 — 5 Ft. Denver Quartz Mill. 

-6 Ft. Huntington Davis. 1 — 3% Ft. Denver Quartz Mill. 

Ball Mills 

4x3 Standard Ball Mill, New. 3x3 Standard Ball Mill. New. 

5x4 Standard Ball Mill, New. 3 Ft. x 30 Standard Ball Mill, New. 

0x0 Standard Ball Mill. New Lining. 

5 1 ,&x6 Standard Ball Mill, New Lining. 

OxH Standard Ball Mill. New Lining. 

0x10 Standard Ball Mill, New Lining. 

0x12 Standard Ball Mill, New Lining. 

3ux21" Standard Laboratory Charge Mill, New. 

30x32" Standard Laboratory Charge Mill, New. 

Tube Mills 

54x12 Colorado Iron Works Tube Mill. 

00x14 Colorado Iron Works Silex Lining. 

00x15 Abbe Tire Type Silex Lining. 

72x12 Allis-Chalmers Silex Lining. 

o — 72x12 Aliis. Either Silex or El Oro. New Lining. 

66x34 Davis. Either Silex or El Oro, New Lining. 

5—66x16 Davis. Either Silex or El Oro, New Lining. 

48x14 Colorado Iron Works, EI Oro Lining. 

Stamp Mills 

6 Stamp. 350 lb. Prospectors Tremain Steam Stamp, Practically New. 
80 — 900 lb. Stamps, Mill Complete. 
100 — 1000 lb. Stamps. Mill Complete. 
20 — 850 lb. Stamps, Mill Complete. 
Extra parts for Stamp Mills, All Makes. 

Dorr Thickeners 

3 — 33 Ft. Dorr Thickener Mechanisms with Redwood Tanks 12 Ft. 

4 — 36 Ft. Dorr Thickener Mechanisms with Steel Tanks 12 Ft. Deep. 
3 — 24 Ft. Dorr Thickener Mechanisms with Redwood Tanks 12 Ft. 

2 — 24 Ft. Dorr Thickener Mechanisms with Wood Tanks 8 Ft. Deep. 
2 — 18 Ft. Dorr Thickener Mechanisms Only. 
1—22x8 Ft. Dorr Thickener. 
2 — lSxlO Ft. Dorr Thickeners. 

Dorr Agitators 

3 — Dorr Agitators with 20x20 Ft. Redwood Tanks. 
3 — Dorr Agitators with 18x15 Ft. Oregon Fir Tanks. 
3 — Dorr Agitators with 12x10 Ft. 8" Wood Tanks. 

Dorr Classifiers 

1 — Dorr Duplex Classifier in Steel Tank. 

2 — Dorr Simplex Classifiers in Steel Tank. 

1 — Dorr Simplex Classifier. Extra Long, in Steel Tank. 



July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



dry ore: concentrator 


After years of experimental work on all the common 
and complex ores of Copper, Lead, Zinc, Tungsten, 
Iron, Silver, Molybdenum, Chromium, Manganese, etc., 
we are able to guarantee an average extraction of 85% 
and better of practically every kind of concentrating 
ores — whether Sulphides, Carbonates or Oxides — while 
over 90% is constantly being obtained on many ores. 

Compare These Figures With What 
Your Mill is Doing 

Our exhaust or vacuum principle is a radical departure from every other process of concentration. It 
is not only scientifically correct, but can be absolutely controlled to any desired suction, detecting the slightest 
difference in weight between the rock and mineral contents, producing a perfect separation and Absolutely 

Handles every size from largest to dust. Rotation of cylinders tumbles the ore and rock, the suction 
draws the rock upward farther with each rotation, while the heavier concentrates fall downward and out of 
the machine in a constant stream. 

All metal construction. Add as many sections as desired. 

Whether you have an abundance of water for wet concentration or are in the desert, the Meyer Dry 
Concentrator is worth your thorough investigation. 

Send Us Prepaid: 10 lb. uncrushed run of ore; 20 lb. each of three sizes of crushed ore — coarse, medium 
and fine, as 16, 30 and 60 to 100 mesh; 15 lb. of unsized crushed ore. This saves unnecessary delay. Will 
return results — Then You Know. Our catalog explains everything 


8 cylinders, Model A. Capacity 25 tons per 
day. Our large models have capacities from 
8 to 20 tons per cylinder. 


Sole Manufacturers 


A M/VrLirp This station pump is a self-contained unit, . consisting of a twin six- 
All v/ 1 rlEiIv stage centrifugal, direct connected to a steam turbine.. It is fitted 
FY A MPT 17 (XE with flexible couplings and water-cooled marine-type thrust- 
EiAAlTli LiLi \Jl bearings. It is pumping 450 gallons per minute against a 
DVDOW TAPlTQrMVI head of 1560 feet, running at a speed of 2300 r. p. m. 
D I IVV/ll J A.VlViJV/11 and requiring 300 horse power. It was placed in opera- 
DCT I A DTT IXV ^ on J une 1» 1917, has been operating continuously since 
KLLi AdILi 1 I that date, often twenty hours a day for weeks at a time. 

Submit your pumping problems (o us. No obligation. Write today. 

Bypon Jackson Iron Works 

Sharon Building 
San Francisco 

■ . ■ ■ 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 

Zinc Dust 

Highest Grade for 
Mining Purposes 

Best Prices. 

Prompt Delivery 

Write or Wire. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Denver, Colorado 


Purchasers of 


Address 1012 Pierce Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

For the Purchase of 


55 Congress St., Boston, Mass. 


is a Real Money and Time Saver in Smelting 

Send for particulars. 




For twenty years metallurgists and assayers 
have looked upon Thompson Balances and 
Weights as the acme of precision. Made in 
a style and size for every purpose. 

Write for catalog 


Denver, Colo. 




St. Louis 



Mexican Representatives: 

Compania do Minerales y Metales 

Mexico City and Monterrey 

Dealers in 

Gold, Silver, Lead, 

Zinc and Copper Ores, 

Copper Matte, Copper and Lead Bullion 

Zinc Oxide and Zinc Dust 

California Perforating Screen Co. 

Manufacturers of perforated Sheet 
Metals of all kinds for Mining and 
Milling Machinery and other uses. 

416 Harrison St., San Francisco 


Scientifically made and accurately designed. 

We make every kind for every purpose. 
Send for our catalog for your files. 

CARY SPRING WORKS, 240-242 w. 291b Street. New York City 

Established in 1863 





Smelters, Beflners and Purchasers of 

Cold and Silver Ores, Gold Dust, Bullion and 
Native Platinum 

Producers of Proof Gold and Silver for Assayers 



Dwight or. Lloyd Sintering Company, Inc. 

Columbia Building: 29 Broadway, New York 

Cable Address : Sinterer-New York 

ATKINS, SCROLL & CO, Sac Francisco 








July 6, lf)18 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


United States Smelting, 
Refining & Mining Company 

55 Congress Street, Boston, U. S. A. 

Buyers of 

Gold, Silver, Lead, Copper and Zinc Ores, Matte and 

Furnace Products. 

Refiners of 

Blister Copper and Lead Bullion. 

Producers and Sellers of 

Gold, Silver, Lead, Copper, Spelter, Zinc Dust, Arsenic, 

Cadmium and Selenium. 

Operating Offices: 

912 Newhouse Building, Salt Lake City, Utah; Ken- 
nett, Cal.; Goldroad. Ariz.; 413 Republic Building, 
Kansas City, Mo.; 120 Broadway, New York; Pachuca 
(Real del Monte Co.), Mexico. 

Selling Offices: 120 Broadway, New York 

United States Metals Refining Company, 

Copper Smelter and Refinery, Chrome, N. J. 

Importers of Copper Ores, Mattes and Bullion, 

120 Broadway, New York 

United States Smelting R. & M. Exploration Co. 

For examination and purchase of Metal Mines, 55 Congress St., 
Boston, Mass. District Offices, 130 Broadway, N. Y.; 1504 Hobart 
Building, San Francisco, Cal.; Newhouse Building, Salt Lake City, 
Utah; 1027 First National Bank Building, Denver, Colo. 

International Smelting Co. 

New York Office: 42 Broadway 

Purchasers of 

Gold, Silver, Copper, and 
Lead Ores 



International Lead Refining Company, East Chicago. Indiana. 

Rariton Copper Works, Perth Amboy, N. J. 

618 Reams Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. 



Marketing of gold and silver bullion a specialty ; advances 
on same. Pays mining taxes on mining claims, and other- 
wise represents mining companies at Mexico City. 

APARTAD0 (P. O. BOX 1709) 513-513 THE MUTUAL BLDO.. 

The Empire Zinc Company 
Buys Zinc Ores 

Address our Office: 

703 Syme« BI<3g. t 
Denver, -Colo. 

Or write to 




For more than half a century 
Giant Powders have cut the 
cost of western blasting. 
From 1866, when first made 
near San Francisco, they have 
been constantly improved and 
perfected especially to meet 
western requirements. 

For mining, quarrying, road or 
railroad work under western 
conditions, these explosives 

t KEnJJ 


Half a century's 
western experience 
behind each box 

made in the west by a west- 
ern company are naturally 
superior. A trial along side 
any other brand will show you 
that they do more and better 
work at less cost. 

Be sure you get the genuine 
Giant Powders, product of 
the manufacturer who origin- 
ated the name. The Gianl 
trademark is on every case 
for your protection. 



F ranch Offices; Denver, Portland, Salt Lake City, Seattle, Spokane. 



Ores, Concentrates, Cyanide Product 



Address correspondence to 



Tungsten, Molybdenum, Vanadium. Chrome and 
Manganese Ores and other rare Minerals. 


25 Beaver St., New York 

MANGANESE (Dioxide and Furnace Ore) 

CHROME (Chemical and Furnace Ore) 

MAGNESITE (Raw and Calcined) 

TUNGSTEN (Wolframite, Scheelite, Huebnerite, 


Mineral Broker 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Jiily 6, 1918 

We Do Only One Thing, But We Do It Well — 

That is, we design and build placer minfng machinery, 

specializing in 

Gold Dredges 

Prospecting Drills 

Hydraulic Tailing Elevators 

Bucket Tailing Elevators 

Pipe Lines, Sluices, Etc. 

and all and any Placer Equipment 


Empire Placer Mining Apparatus ii Successfully Used in All Parts oi the World. 


2 - Rector Street, - New York 

Empire Gold Dredge Operating In Siberia 

Empire catalogs on gold 
dredges and prospecting drills 
give interesting details of what 
we have done for others, and 
what we can do for you. 

American Steel & Wire Company's 

Trenton-Bleichert System 

mjj Aerial Tramways 

"^O matter what the contour of the ground, we 
■^ will construct a tramway that will transfer 
material at minimum expense; and no grades are 
too steep to surmount; no rivers or valleys too 
wide to cross; and no grading, bridges or viaducts 
of any kind are required. There is practically no 
limit to the length of these tramways. 

Send for- complete descriptive catalogue of 
tramways in use. 

American Steel & Wire Company 

Chicago New York Cleveland Pittebnrsh 'Woir'ceier Denver 

Export Representative : U. S. Steel Products Co.. New York 
Pacific Cant Representative: U. S. Steel Products Co. 
Sen Francisco • Los Angeles Pottlsnd 


Backed by a record of 26 rears 

of dependable service. 


Tapes and 

Jigs, Screens, Sand and Slime 
Tables, Classifiers, Automatic 
Ore Feeders, Etc. 

Manufactured by 

35 Runyon Street Newark. N. J. 


U When you buy pipe LOOK FOR THE NAME 
and then your pipe lines will be " NATIONAL' 'ly 
prepared to resist the attacks of corrosion or 
the unforeseen emergencies of mining- service 
It Pays to Be "NATIONAI/'ly Prepared. 

The Name 





U. S. and Foreign Patents 
Preliminary Searches 
Validity Report! 




Deister and Deister-Overstrom Concentrating Tables 

Roughers — Sand Tables — Slimers 

Send for Catalog 


The Deister CONCENTRATOR Company 

Office. Factory and Teet Plan!: FORT WAYNE, 1ND. 

Cable Address "RETSIED." A. B. C. 5»i Edition. Bedford McHtill.' 




• arsons 


• U.SJL • I 




Engineers, Manufacturers, Contractors 

Sales Office: Cable Address: 

Hobart Bdg., San Francisco "Angeliron" 


and CARS 


Switches, Frope, and Equipment. 








July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


RATES: One-half inch, $25 per year, subscription included. Combination rate with 
The Af inirij! Magazine (London) one-half inch in each, $40 peryear, subscripti6n included. 




Spengler. Frederick 


Bradley, D. H. Jr. 
Burch. H. Kenyon 
Gemmill, David B. 
Mackay, Angus R. 
McGregor, A. C. 
Miller, H. Huntington 
Smith & Ziesemer 
Stevens, Blarney 
Tweedy, Geo. A. 


Beauchamp, F. A. 

Beckman & Linden Eng. Corp 

Bretherton, S. E, 

Burch, Albert 

Caetani, Gel agio 

Carpenter, Alvin B. 

Chodzko, A, E. 

Condon, W. B. 

Cranston, Robert E. 

Dakin, Fred. H. 

Darling-, Harry W. 

Da Kalb, Courtenay 

Dennis, Clifford G. 

Dickennan, Nelson 

Dolbear, Samuel H. 

Farish, George E. 

Farish, John B. 

Freitag 1 & Ainsworth 

Grant, Wilbur H. 

Hamilton, E. M. 

Hanson, Henry 

Hoffman, Rosa B. 

Hoover; Theodore J. 

Huston, H. L. 

Hyde, Jamea M. 
~Janin, Charres 

Kinzie, Robert A. 

Lanagan, W. H. 

Lpring, w. J. 

Merrill, Charles W. 

Merrill Metallurgical Co. 
.. Moran, William J. 

Morris, F. L. 

Mudd, Seeley W. 

Muir, N.-M. 

Neill, James W. 

Newman, M. A. 

Nowland, Ralph C. 

Pepperberg, Leon J. 

Perkins, Walter G. 

Prichard, W: A. 

Prabert, Frank H. 

Radford. William H. 

Rice, John A. 

Rickard, T. A. 
Riordan, D. M. 
Royer. Frank W. 
Scott. Robert 
Simonds. Ernest H. 
Sizer, F. L. 
Smith. Howard D. 
Stebbina, Elwyn W. 
Thomas, E. G. 
Thome, W. E. 
Tovote. W. 
Turner, H. W. 
Vandruff & Reinholt 
White, Charles H. 
Wiley, W. H. 
Wiseman, Philip 
Wrampelmeier. E. L. S. 
Young*. E. J. 


Argall & Sons. Philip 
Bancroft, Rowland 
Chase, Charles A. 
Chase & Son, Edwin B. 
Collins, George E. 
Davis, Louis L. 
Dorr Company, The 
Fisher, C, A. 
HoBkin, Arthur J. 
Hughes. B. A. 
Lunt, Horace F. 
Nicholson, H. H. 
Rickard. Forbes 
Ritter, Etienne A. 
Shaw, B. S. 


Rich, John L. 


Alderson, Baker & Baker 
Easton, Stanly A. 
Hershey, Oscar H. 

Hollis, H. L. 
Massey Co., George B. 


Valerius, McNutt & Hughes 

Stanford, Richard B. 

Landers, W. H. 
Spurr, J. Edward 

Alderson, Baker & Baker 
Mackay, Angus R. 
Richards, Robert H. 
Rogers, Mayer & Ball 


Barling 1 , H. B. 
Turner, Scott 


Collins, Edwin James 
Dudley, H. C. 
Longyear Co., E. J. 
Winchell, Horace V. 


Copeland, Rurwald 
Kirby, Edmund B. 
Robertson, James D . 


Creden, William L. 
Webber, Morton 


Nicholson, H. H. 


Lakenan, C. B. 
Moran, William J. 
Symmea, Whitman 
Summerhayes, Maurice W. 
Turner, J. K, 

Aldridge. Walter H. 
Andersen, Thorvald J. 
Ball, Syndey H. 
Barling, H. B. 
Beatty, A. Chester 
Benedict, Win. de L. 
Brodie, Walter M. 
Burger, C. C. 
Carr, Homer L. 
Channing, J. Parke 
6ranston, Robert E. 
Dakin, Fred. H. 
Dorr Company, The 
Drucker & Laurie 
Dwight, Arthur S. 
Eng. Management Corp. 
Farish, George E. 
Finiay, J. R. 
Hoffman, Karl F. 
Hoover, H. C. 
Hutchins, John Power 
Lamb, Mark R. 
Leggett, Thos. H. 
Lloyd, R. L. 
Mein, William Wallace 
Mercer, John W. 
Minard, Frederick H. 
Munro, Frederick H. 
Munro, C. H. 
Olcott & Corning 
Poillon & Poirier 
Raymond, Robert M. 
Rickard, Edgar 

Ricketts. L. D. 
Rogers, Edwin M. 
Rogers, Mayer & Ball 
Rutherford, Forest 
Sharpless, Fred'k F. 
Simonds, F. M. 
Spilsbury, E. Gybbon 
Sussman, Otto 
Tell am. Alfred 
Thomas, E. G. 
Thomson, S. C. 
Webber, Morton 
Weekes, Frederic R. 
Westervelt. William Young 
Whitman, Alfred R. 
Wilkens and Devereux 
Yeatman, Pope 


Valerius, McNutt & Hughes 


Oregon-Idaho Investment Co 


Chance & Co., H. M. 
Garrey, George H. 
Heinz, N. L. 
Payne, Henry M. 


Eye, Clyde M. 

Terry, J. T„ Jr. 

Lucke, P. K. 
Pepperberg, Leon J. 


Brayton & Richards 

Fischer, C. A. 

Fitch, Walter Jr.; Inc. 

Howard, L. OV 

Kirk & Leavell 

Krumb. Henry 

Neill, James W. 

Sears, Stanley C. 

Talmadge, Sterling B. ^ r 

Winwood, Job H, 


Greenough, W. Earl 
"rib ward, L. O. 
Keffer & Johns 
LevenBaler, L. A. 
Roberts, Milnor 
Seagrave, W. H. 



Dyer, S. C. 
Emery, A. B. 


Cole, F. L. 
Collbran, Arthur H. 
Finch, John Wellington 
Jenks, Arthur W. 
Mayreis, L. J. 
Mills. Edwin W. 
Vallentine, E. J. 
Weigall, Arthur R. 


Bateman. G. C. 
Fowler, Samuel S. 
Hodge. Edwin T. 
Rogers, John C. 
Simpson, W. E. 
Stewart, R. H. 
Tyrrell, J. B. 


StevenB, Arthur W. 


Brown, R. Gilman 
Collins, Henry F. 
Dorr Company, The 
Geppert, R. M. m 

Holloway & Co., Ltd., Geo. T. 
Hoover, Theodore J. 
Inskipp & Bevan 
Kuehn, A. F. 
Loring, W.J. 
Macnutt. C. H. 
McCarthy, E. T. 
McDermott, E. D. 
Michell. George V. 
Rickard, Edgar 
Pearse. Arthur L. 
Purington. Chester W. 
Shaler, Millard K. 
Smith, Reuben Edward 
Stines, Norman C. 
Thomas, E. G. 
Titcomb. H. A. 
Truackoff, Nicholas B. 
Weatherbe, D'Arcy 
Wright. Charles Will 


Brinsmade. Robert Bruce 
Hoyle, Charles 
Royer, Frank W. 
Simpson. W. E. 
Wilkens and Devereux 


Bancroft, Howland 
Barker, Edgar E. 
Bellinger, H. C. 
Copeland. Durward 
Couldrey, Paul S. 
Hawxhurst, Robert, Jr. 
Lewis, IT. Allman 
Marshall, N. C. 
McCann. Ferdinand 
Stayer, W. H. 
Strauss, Lester W. 


Arizona Assay Office 
Atkins & McRae 
Bard well, Alonzo F. 
Baverstock A, Payne 
Beckman & Linden Eng. Corp 

Cowan, C. S. 
Cole & Co. 

Critehett & Ferguson 
Eldridge & Co., G. S. 
Falkenburg & Company 
Frost, Oscar J. 

General Engineering Co., The 
Gibson, Walter L. 
Hamilton. Beauchamp, 

Wood worth. Inc. 
Hanks, Abbott A. 
Irving & Co., James 

James Co., The George A. 
Laucks, I. F. 
Ledoux & Co., Inc. 
Luckhardt Co., C. A. 
Newhall Col, C. A. . - x 
Officer* Co., R. H. 

Perez, Richard A, 
Penological Laboratory 
Richards, J. W. 
Smith, Emery & Co. 
Twining Laboratories, The 
Walker, Mark 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 


John M Baker 
YlctorC Alder-son Hamilton W , Baker 



185 Devonshire St. 
Boston, Mass. 

Falk Building 
Boise. Idaho 

BENEDICT, William de L. 

19 Cedar St., New York 

BRADLEY, D. H., Jr. 

Mill design. Mine equipment. Mine 

Bank of Arizona Bdg., Prescott, Ariz. 

CHASE, Charles A. 


825-823 Cooper Bdg , Denver 

Liberty Bell G. M. Co.. Telluride, Colo. 

Edwin E. Chase 

B. L. Chase 


Edwin E. 


1028 First National Bank Bdg., Denver 

ALDRIDGE, Walter H. 


% Wm. B. Thompson. 

Room 1507. 14 Wall St.. New fork 

Corey C. Brayton E. R. Richards 




Temporary Address: Box 408. Midvale. Utah 



Specialty: Compressed Air 

641 Phelan Bdg.. San Francisco 

INDERSEN, Thorvald J. 


John Hays Hammond 

120 Broadway. New York 


BRINSMADE, Robert Bruce 

IxmiQuilpan, Hero.. Mexico 

COLE, F. L. 

Shanghai, China 
Cable : Hanco 

UtGALL & SONS, Philip 



First National Bank Bdg . Denver 

^able: Argall Code: Bedford McNeill 

BRODIE, Walter M. 

47 Cedar St., New York 

COLLBRAN, Arthur H. 

Seoul, Korea 

VRNOLD, Ralph Cable: Ralfarnoil 


Union Oil Bdg., Los Angeles. Cal. 

120 Broadway, New York 

No. 1. London Wall Bdg., London, g.C. 

BROWN, R. Gilman 


7 Gracechurch St., London, E.C. 

Cable : Argeby Usual Codes 

COLLINS, Edwin James 

Mine Examinations and Management 
1008-1009 Torrey Bdg.. Duluth. Minn. 

BALL, Sydney H. 


42 Broadway, New York 

Cable: Alh asters RogerB, Mayer & Ball 

Burch, Caetani & Hershey 

BURCH, Albert 


Cable: Burch 

Crocker Bdff., San Francisco 

COLLINS. George E. 

Mine Examinations and Management 
414 Boston Bdff., Denver 
Cable: Colcomac 

BANCROFT, Howland 


Symea Bdff.. Denver 

Casilla No. 215. Oruro. Bolivia 

Cable: Howban Code: Bedford McNeill 

BURCH, H. Kenyon 


Phelps-Dodgre Corporation. 

Copper Queen Branch 

Bis bee. Arizona 

COLLINS, Henry F. 

66 FinBbury Pavement. London. B.C. 

BARKER, Edgar E. 

Cerro de Pasco, Peru 


71 Broadway, New York 



San Francisco, Cal. 

Maps and drawings lor mining men 


11 Pine St.. New York 

Marquette. Mich. 
Code: McNeill 

Burch, Caetani & Hershey 

CAETANI, Gelasio 


Crocker Bdff., San Francisco 


Caetani Usual Codes 

COPELAND, Durward 

Missouri School of Mines. Llallarua, 

Rolla. Mo. Bolivia 


Manager La Rose Mines, Ltd. 
Cobalt, Ont. 


Citizens National Bank Bdg-. Los Angeles 


Gen. Mining Supt. Cerro de Pasco Mining Co., 

Cerro de Pasco, Peru. S. A. 
Cable : Cerrocop 

BEATTY, A. Chester 

25 Broad St., New York 
No professional work entertained 
Cable: Granitic 

CARR, Homer L. 

With Jones & Baker 
50 Broad Street, New York 
Cable: Minecar 

CRANSTON, Robert E. 

1213 Hobart Bdff., 582 Market St.. 

San Francisco 
Cable: Recrans 

2 Rector St., New York 
Code: McNeill 1908 

Hamilton. Beauchamp. Woodworth, Inc. 



Specialty: Flotation 
419 Embarcadero, San Francisco 

CHANCE & CO., H. M. 


839 Drexel Bdg.. Philadelphia 

CREDEN, William L. 


Mine Examination and Management 

First National Bank Bdg.. Butte, Mont. 


% Chile Exploration Co., Chuquicamata 
(via Antofagasta) Chile, South America 


61 Broadway, New York 

DAKIN, Fred H. 


% Edwin O. Holter, 60 Broadway. New York 

Residence: Burlingame, California 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



DARLING, Harry W. 


No. 30 N. Chapel St.. Alhambra. Cal. 

Mrr.. Reward Gold Mines Co.. 

EYE, Clyde M. 


Supt. Benguet Consolidated Mining Co., 

Buk'uio. Benguet, P. I. 

W Earl Greenough 8. B. Daria 



Examination. Development and Manarement 

Old Naf 1 Bank Bdg.. Spokane. Wanta 

DAVIS, Louis L. 


Examination, Development. Management 

911 Foster Bdg.. Denver. Colo. 

FARISH, George E. 


First National Bank Bdg., San Francisco 

26 Broad St., New York 

Hamilton, Beauchamp, Woodworth. Inc. 



Specialty; Cyaniding Gold and Silver Ores 

410 The Embarcadero. San Francisco 

DE KALB, Courtenay 

Associate Editor 

Mining 1 and Scientific Press 

No professional work undertaken 

FARISH, John B. 

Office, 58 Sutter St., San FranciBco 
Residence. San Mateo, Cal. 
Cable: Farish 

HANSON, Henry 

Hobart Bdg:., San Francisco 

DENNIS, Clifford G. 


Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 

Cable : Sinned Code: McNeill 

FINCH, John Wellington 


46 Rue Massenet, Shanghai. China 

No examinations undertaken 

HAWXHURST, Robert, Jr. 


Eden Mining Company 

Blueflelds, Nicaragua 



The Insurance Exchange. San Francisco 

Cable : Deerhodor Code: McNeill. 1908 


Room 807. 46 Cedar St., New York 

Burch, Caetani & Hershey 

HERSHEY, Oscar H. 


Kellogg, Idaho 

Cable : Hershey Code : McNeill 

DOLBEAR, Samuel H. 

Specialty: Non-metallic Minerals 
1411-1412-1415 Merchants National Bank 
Bdg.. San Francisco 



First National Bank Bdg., Denver. Colo. 

Eearns Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Cable: C a fish oil Usual Codes 



Sulphuric Acid Plants 

1619 Oliver Bdg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



John V. N. Dorr, 




Denver New York 



A. E. Drucker G. W. Laurie 


Testing-, Designing and Mill Construction 
60 Church St., New York 

FITCH, Walter Jr., Inc. 

Eureka, Utah 

HODGE, Edwin T. 

University of British Columbia 
Vancouver. British Columbia 



% General Development Co. 

61 Broadway, New York 

Code: McNeill. 1908 


806 Lonsdale Bdg., Duluth, Minn. 

FOWLER, Samuel S. 

Nelson, British Columbia 

Cable : Fowler Usual Codes 


228 Perry St.. Oakland, Cal. 
Cable: Siberhof 

DWIGHT, Arthurs. 

29 Broadway, New York 

Cable: Sinterer 
Code: McNeill; Miners & Smelters 



Mine and Metallurgical Plant Design and 


1119 Hobart Bdg.. San Francisco 

H0LLIS, H. L. 



1026 Peoples Gas Bdg.. Chicago 

DYER, S. C. 

% Transvaal & Rhodesian Estates 
P. O. Box 13, Bulawayo, Rhodesia 

GARREY, George H. 



Bullitt Bdg., Philadelphia. Pa. 


2124, 120 Broadway. New York 

EAST0N, Stanly A. 


Manager Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining A 

Concentrating Co., Kellog-g, Idaho 

GEMMILL, David B. 


General Manager Bradshaw Reduction Co., 

Crown King, Arizona 

HOOVER, Theodore J. 

1, London Wall Bdg.. London. E.C. 
and 634 Mills Bdg., San Francisco 
Cable: Mildaloo 


165 Broadway, New York 

J. S. Coupal, Engineer and Manager 

Kirby Thomas. Consulting Mining Engineer 


184 Peshine Avenue. Newark, N. J. 

H0LL0WAY & CO., Geo. T., Ltd. 



13 Emmet: St., Limehouse, London, E. 

Cable: Neolithic Code: McNeill 





Telegrams and Cables: 

Abemery, Messina, 


GRANT, Wilbur H. 


1213 Hobart Bdr., 682 Market St., 

San Francisco 

Code: Bedford McNeill 

HOSKIN, Arthur J. 


Mining. Metallurgy. Geology 

411 Chamber of Commerce Bdg.. Denver. Colo. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 


HOWARD, L. 0. 

421 Felt Bdg.. College Station, 

Salt Lake City. Utah Pullman. Wash. 


Ely, Nevada 



% Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. 

HOYLE, Charles 

Apartado 8, El Oro. Mexico 

LAMB, Mark R., em. 

Purchasing - for South America and 
Selling Minerals 
30 Church Street, New York City 
Cable: Marklamb 



Andagoya, via Buenaventura, Colombia, 

South America 



Specialty: Milling Complex Ores, Milling 

Methods. Equipment and Management. 

729 North Walnut St.. Colorado Springs, Colo. 



1057 Monadnock Bdg., 

San Francisco 

Code: McNeill 


% Burma Mines, Ltd., 
Namtu. Burma, India 


634 Mills Bdg., San Francisco 
Cable: Hams ton 


Captain. Engineer Reserve Corps, 
American Expeditionary Forces 

McCANN, Ferdinand 



Hotel Maury. Lima, Peru 

HUTCHINS, John Power 


Room 3700, 120 Broadway, 

New York 

LEGGETT, Thos. H. 

149 Broadway, New York 
Cable: Tomleg 

McCarthy, e. t. 

10 Austin Friars. London 

HYDE, James M. 

Treatment of Difficult Ores 
Mills Bdg., San Francisco 
Cable : Jamebyde 



401 Bank of California Bdg.. 

Tacoma. Wash. 


Stone House. 
Piatt, Boro' Green, Kent. 

Dudley J. Inskipp John A. Bevan 



1 Broad St. Place. London, E.C. 

Cable: Monazite Usual Codes 

LEWIS, H. Allman 

Cocbabama. Bolivia 
The Berenguela Tin Mines, Ltd., 

Turu Ingenio. Potosi Code: McNeill 1908 

McGregor, a. g. 


Design of Metallurgical Plants 

Warren. Arizona 

JANIN, Charles 


772 Kohl Bdg.. San Francisco 

Cable: Charjan Code: McNeill 


Specialty: Pyro-Metallurgy of Copper and As- 
sociated MetalB. 29 Broadway, New York 
Cable: Rieloy Code: McNeill 

MEIN, William Wallace 

43 Exchange Place. New York 
Cable: Mein. New York 

JENKS, Arthur W. 


*/o Burma Mines, Ltd.. Namtu. Northern 

Shan States, Burma, India 

Bewick, Moreing & Co. 


62, London Wall, London, and 

1018 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. Cal. 

Cable: Wantoness Usual Codes 

MERCER, John W. 


General Manager South American Mines Co., 

Mills Bdg.. Broad St., New York 

KINZIE, Robert A. 

First National Bank Bug., San Francisco 



831 Bedell Bdg.. 

San Antonio, Texas 

Code: Bedford McNeill 

MERRILL, Charles W. 


121 Second St., San Francisco 

Cable: Lurco Code: Bedford McNeill 

KIRBY, Edmund B. 

918 Security Bdg.. St. Louis 

Specialty: The expert examination of mines 
and metallurgical enterprises 



Examination. Management, and Operation of 

Mines. Design Equipment 

Newhouse Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah 



Diamond Drilling and Shaft Sinking 


Manufacturers of Diamond Drills and Supplies 

General Office: 710-722 Security Bdg.. 

Minneapolis. Minn. 

Cable: Longco Code: McNeill 



121 Second St., San Francisco 

Cable : Lurco Usual Codes 


Tomsk. Siberia 

KRUMB, Henry 

Felt Bdg.. Salt Lake City. Utah 

LUNT, Horace F. 

Gazette Bdg., Colorado Springs, Colo. 

MILLER, H. Huntington 

37 South Stone Ave.. Tucson, Ari». 
Representing Ricketts & Co., Inc., 
80 Maiden Lane. New York 


1. London Wall Bdg.. London. E.C. 
Cable: Norite 

MACKAY, An^us R. 


740 E. Adams St., 35 Congress St.. 

Phoenix. Ariz. Boston. Mass. 

MILLS, Edwin W. 

75 Yamashita-cho, 
Yokohoma, Japan 
Telegrams : Edmills 

July 6, 1018 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



MINARD, Frederick H. 


Trinity Bdg.. Ill Broadway. Now York 

Cable: Frednard Code: McNeill 

PERKINS, Walter G. 

587 Mills Bdg-.. San Francisco 



Mining investigation!! carefully made for 

responsible intending investors 

625 Market St., San Francisco 

MORAN, William J. 


D S. Mm. Surveyor, Calilornia-Nevada 

Patenting of Mining Claims a Specialty 

1516 1st Ave.. Oakland Cal. Tonopah, Not. 

Howard PotUon C. H. Polrler 


63 Wall St.. New York 

RITTER, A. Etienne 

Colorado Springs. Colo. 



1057 Monadnock Bdg.. San Francisco 

Cable : Fredmor Code : McNeill 


% Oroville Dredging, Limited, 

Mills Bdp , San Francisco 

ROBERTS, Milnor 


The Pacific Northwest. British 

Columbia and Alaska 

University Station, Seattle, Wash. 

MUDD, Seeley W. 

1208 Holllngsworth Bdr.. Los Angeles. Cal. 

PROBERT, Frank H. 

University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 


Member A. I. M. E. and Am. Chem. Soo. 
1403 Syndicate Trust Bdr.. St. Louie, Mo. 

MUIR, N. M. 

1024 Mills Bdg., San Francisco 



6, Copthall Ave., London, B.C. 

Cable: Olenek Usual Codes 

ROGERS, Edwin M. 


32 Broadway, New York 

Cable: Emrog Code: McNeill 



120 Broadway, New York 

Cable: Ornuni Code: McNeill 

RADFORD, William H. 

2360 Broadway, San Francisco 
Cable : Bandan 

ROGERS, John C. 

Examination and Exploration of Mining Prop- 
erties with a View to Purchase 
Copper Clig, Bntario Code: Bedford McNeill 

NEILL, James W. 


159 Pierpont St., Salt Lake City. Utah 

Pasadena. Gal. Shelling, Cal. 


556 Mills Bdg., San Francisco 

RAYMOND, Robert M. 


The Exploration Co., Ltd., 

61 Broadway, New York 

RICE, John A. 



525 Market St.. San Francisco 

Allen H. Rogers Lucius W. Mayer 

Sydney H. Ball 


42 Broadway, New York 
201 Devonshire St., Boston, Man. 
Cable: Alhasters 


335 Cooper Bdg., 303 First Nat'l. Bank, 

Denver, Colo. Lincoln. Neb. 

Code: Bedford McNeill 

RICH, John L. 

Captain, National Army, Washington, D. 
No professional work undertaken 

ROYER, Frank W. 


Consolidated Realty Bdg.. Los Angeles 

and Apartado 805, Mexico City, D. F. 

Cable: Royo Code : McNeill 

NOWLAND, Ralph C. 

Hobart Bdg., San Francisco 
In charge Exploration Dept. of D. C. Jackling 

RICHARDS, Robert H. 

Make careful concentrating teBts for the de- 
sign of flow-sheets for difficult ores. 
491 Boylston St., Boston, Mass. 



120 Broadway, New York 

Milling and Smelting of Ores, especially of 

Copper. Ore Smelting Contracts. 

E. E. Olcott C. R. Corning 


36 Wall St., New York 



Room 2124, 120 Broadway. New York. 

724 Salisbury House. London, B.C.. Eng. 

SCOTT, Robert 

498 S. Eleventh St., San Jose, Cal. 



Mine Examinations 

Office: First and Court St., Baker, Ore. 

PAYNE, Henry M. 


1605 Beechwood Blvd., E. E. 

Pittsburgh, Pal 

Cable: Macepayne Usual Codes 

RICKARD, Forbes 

Equitable Building. Denver 


Editor, The Mining and Scientific Press 
No professional work undertaken 

W. H. Seagrave 

W. E. Dunlde 



Examination. Equipment and Management 
of Properties 

L. C. Smith Bdg., Seattle 

Cable : Seadunk Code : Bedford McNeill 


Oil Lands Exam., Developed, Bought, Leased 
Mineral Wells, Texae 
718 New Call Bdg., San Francisco 


42 Broadway. New York 

BEARS, Stanley C. 

Reports, Consultation and Management 
705 Walker Bank Bdg.. Salt Lake City. Utah 
Usual Codes 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 


SHALER, Millard K. 

4 Blshopgate, London. E.C. 


Bomflm. Bahia. Brazil 


130 Broadway. New York 

IHARPLESS, Fred'k. F. 


17 Madison Ave., New York 

Cable : Fresharp Code : McNeill 


819 Mills Bdg., San Francisco 


604 Mission St., Boom 804 

San Francisco 

SHAW, E. S. 

2218 Dahlia St.. Denver. Colo. 

STEVENS, Arthur W. 


La Mina Leonesa . 

Matagalpa, Nicaragua, C. A. 




Salisbury House. 







SIMONDS, Ernest H. 

616 Crocker Bdg.. San Francisco 

STEVENS, Blarney 


Nogales, Arizona 

% Lower California Metals Co., and 

Sociedad Anonima de Metales 








25 Madison Ave.. New York 


Vancouver Block, Vancouver, B. C. 

TRUSCHKOFF, Nicholas E. 


Bojroslovsk Mining* & Trading: Co., 

Gogol Str. 19, Petrograd 


Amos, Quebec, Canada 
Fuudicion de Lob Arcos, Toluca, Mex. 
P. O. Box 160. Cobalt. Ontario 

STINES, Norman C. 

Assistant Military Attache, 
American Legation, Stockholm, Sweden 



687 Mills Bder., San Francisco 

Cable : Lstite Code : Bedford McNeill 


1006 Hobart Bdg.. San Francisco 

8TRAUSS, Lester W. 

Casilla 614, Valparaiso, Chile, S. A. 

Cable: Lestra- Valparaiso Code: McNeill 


Goldfleld. Nevada 

SMITH, Howard D. 


Kohl Bdg*., San Francisco 

Cable: Diorite Code: Western Union 



Mgr., Bluestone Mining- & Smelting Co., 

Mason, Nevada 

TURNER, Scott 

P. O. Box 376, Lansing, Mica. 

SMITH, Reuben Edward 

Vladivostok, % Magazine E. L. Smith 
Cable: Resmith, % Magazine Smith 
Code: McNeil], 1908 

8USSMAN, Otto 

61 Broadway. New York 

TWEEDY, George A. 

Caea Grande, Ariz. 

Franklin W. Smith Ralph A. Ziesemer 


Bisbee. Ariz. 


Code: McNeill 

SYMMES, Whitman 


Manager Union Con. Mine, Mexican Mine, etc., 

Virginia City, Nevada 



634 Confederation Life Bdg., 
Cable : Tyrell 

Toronto. Canada 
Usual Codes 

SPENGLER, Frederick 


Coal and Metal Mining 

Anchorage, Alaska 

TALMAGE, Sterling B. 


Geologic Maps, Examinations, Reports 
200 Vermont Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah 


Tulsa, Okla. Lexington, By. 


29 Broadway, New York 
Cable : Spilroe 

TELLAM, Alfred 


Hardinge Conical Mill Company 

120 Broadway. New York 


Osborne & Chappel, Ipoh, Perak, Malay States 
Code: McNeill 

SPURR. J. Edward 



Cosmos Club. Washington, D. C. 


J. T., Jr 




American Zinc 

Co. of TeDn., 





Varied Governmental and Private Experience 

References: any San Diego Bank 

Copley nnd Oregon Stn.. San Diego. Cal. 

STANFORD, Richard B. 


Room 206. Metropolitan Bank Bdg., 

New Orleans, La. 

"«>ile: Stanford Code: McNeill 


700 Union Oil Bdg.. Los Angeles 

111 Broadway, New York 

5. London Wall Bdg.. London, E.C. 

Cable : Duntho Code : McNeill 



14 Copthall Are.. London. EC 

Cable : Natchekoo Code : McNeill 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



WEBBER, Morton 


1 tio Broadway, New York 

O'Rourke Estate Bdg\. Butte. Montana 

WEIGALL, Arthur R. 


% The Seoul Mining Co., Suan Mine. Holkol, 

Whang Hai Province, Korea 

WEEKES, Frederic R. 

42 Broadway, New York 

WESTERVELT, William Young 


17 Madison Ave. (Madison Square East) 

New York 

Cable: Casewest Code: McNeill 

WHITE, Charles H. 

317 Hobart Bdg., San FranciBco 
In military service. No professional work un- 
dertaken until after the War. 

WHITMAN, Alfred R. 

43 Exchange Place, New York 


Palm Drive, Glendora, Cal. 

H.A.J Wilkeus J.H.Devereux W.B Devereux.Jr. 


London 120 Broadway, N. Y. Mexico, D.F. 
Cable: Kenreux Code: Bedford McNeill 

WINCHELL, Horace V. 

820 First Natlonal-Soo Line Bdg., 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Cable: Racewln 

WINW00D, Job H. 

Continental Bank Bdg., Salt Lake City, Utah 

WISEMAN, Philip 


1210 Hollingsworth Bdg., Lob Angeles 

Cable : Filwiseman Codes : W. U. ; McNeill 


1006 Hobart Bdg., San Francisco 

WRIGHT, Charles Will 


Ingurlosu. Sardinia, 
Cable: Wright. Arbus 

Code: McNeill 

Pope Yeatman Edwin S. Berry 



At present in Government service; therefore 

no professional work undertaken 

111 Broadway, New York 
Cable: Ik on a Code: Bedford McNeill 



Offices and Laboratory 
Story Bdg-., Lob Angeles, California, U. S. A. 

Examinations and Reports on all Mineral 

Deposits, Formations and Processes 

of Extraction. 

20 years experience in the Western State*. 

Pacific Coast States, IT. S. A., Mexico 

and Central America. 







By WALTER HARVEY WEED. 1896 pp $10.00 


By C. F. HERINGTON. 190 pp 3.00 


By ROBT. PEELE, 3370 pp 5.00 


By WM. SHIRLEY BAYLEY, 548 pp 3.50 


By WM. HARVEY EMMONS, 608 pp 4-00 


By JOHN C. OLSEN, 778 pp 3.00 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 
420 Market St., San Francisco 

Mining and Scientific Press, 

420 Market St., San Francisco 

Gentlemen : Enclosed please find $ for which please send me 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 



(P. W. Libbey) 

AeBayera, Chemists and Metallurgists 


305-307 N. First St., Phoenix, Arizona 


Assayers, Chemists and Metallurgists 


Flotation and Cyanide Tests 

1008 South Hill St.. Los Angeles, Cal. 

BARDWELL, Alonzo F. 


(Successor to Bettles & Bardwell) 

168S. W. Temple St.. Salt Lake City, Utah 

Ore Shippers' Agent 



Technical and Chemical Analyses of Ores, 

Minerals, and All Organic Materials 

223 W. First St.. Los AngeleB. Cal. 


Chemical, electro -chemical, metallurgical and 

electro -metallurgical investigations and 

reports. Processes developed. 

604 Balboa Bdg., San Francisco 

cowan, c. s. 

(Successor to Bird-Cowan Co.) 

Ore Shippers' Agent 
160 S. W. Temple St., Salt Lake City 



Shippers' Representatives 
Box BB, Douglas, Arizona 



El Paso, Texas 

Umpire and Controls a Specialty 


The Vancouver Assay Office — Est. 1890 
Analytical Chemists, Assayers 
Control and Umpire Assays 
Cave Bdg., Vancouver, B. C. 


Asaayers, Ore Testing, Supervision of Ore 

Shipments at Smelters 

116 Yesler Way, Seattle. Wash. 


Oscar J. 


420 ISth St. 


GIBSON, Walter L. 

Successor to 




824 Washington St., Oakland 

Phone 8929 

Umpire assays and supervision of sampling. 
Working tests of ores, analyses. Investiga- 
tions of metallurgical and technical processes. 
Professor L. Falkenau. General Manager and 
Consulting Specialist. 


(Formerly of Falkenburg & Laucks) 

Est. 1908. Chemist, Assayer. Metallurgist 

Shippers' Representative at Smelters 

99 Marion St.. Seattle. Wash. 


CALLOW, President. 



159 Pierpont Avenue, Salt Lake City, Utah 

Design and Erection of all Classes of Reduction Plants 



The 4th edition of our Ore Testing Bulletin is now ready for mailing. We shall be pleased to 

send it to you upon request 

New York Office, 120 Broadway, Room 2817. E. B. Thornhill, Local Manager 

Canadian Office: 363 Sparks St., Ottawa, Canada 





Flotation of Copper, Lead, Zinc, and Other Minerals 

Tests made on Lots of 1 lb. up to 6 Tons 


Laboratory and Office: 419 The Embarcadero. San Francisco 
Telephone: Sutter 6266 Cable address: Hambeau Codes: West. Union: Bed. McNeill 


Supervision of Ore Sampling, Technical Analysis, Cement Testing 
No. 28-32 Belden Place (ofl Bush near Kearny). San Francisco 

LEDOUX & CO., Inc. 


Independent samplers at the port of New York 

Representatives at all Refineries and Smelters on Atlantic Seaboard 

Office and Laboratory: 99 John Street, New York 


(A. H. Ward. Harold C. Ward) 

Sampling of Ores at Smelters 

Telephone, Kearny 5951 
53 Stevenson St.. San Francisco 

SMITH EMERY & CO. (0RE TESTING plant, los angeles) 


Represent Shippers at Smelters, Test Ores, and Design Mills 

651 Howard Street, San Francisco 245 South Los Angeles Street, Los Angelea 

HANKS, Abbott A. 


Established 1866 

630 Sacramento St., San Francisco 

Control and Umpire Assays, Supervision of 
Sampling at Smelters 

Cable : Hanx Code : W. U. and Bed. McN. 

PEREZ, Richard A. 



(Established 189S) 

120 N. Main St.. Los Angelea. Cal. 



1118 Nineteenth St., Denver 

Ore Shippers' Agent, Write for terms 

Representatives at all Colorado smelters 

IRVING & CO., James 


Mines Examined 

702 South Spring St.. Los Angeles, Cal. 


Fresno, Cal. 


C. A 








211 West First St.. Los Angeles, Cal. 

Prompt and accurate service 



169 South West Temple Street, 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

'Through the Yukon and Alaska' 


Price $2.50 

MINING and Scientific PRESS, 420 Market Slreet 


An Institution of Technology and Engineering. Full degrees, low cost, fine climate, new 
equipment, accessible to mines and smelters. Write for catalogue. 


July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Meeting the Lab or Shortage 

FROM every mining section come reports of steadily 
decreasing man-power. Eventually YOUR mine 
will feel it. One aid to meet the situation is the 


which requires only one man to operate. And which 
saves much labor in car building, car repairing and 
track cleaning. This Dump really helps to increase 
output. Write for Bulletin 170-P and facts pertaining 
to your dumping. 

Wood Equipment Co., 



We offer you improvements and protection under 
Ramsay, Wood, Claghom and other patents. 

New York 









Standard Pipe — Screw Joint Casing, Pipe 
and Casing Fittings, 


Valves and Brass Goods 




John A. Roebling's 
Sons Company 


Agencies and Branches: 

New York Boston Chicago Pittsburgh 

Philadelphia Cleveland Atlanta 

Sao Francisco Los Angeles 

Seattle Portland, Ore. 




In Two Sizes for Laboratory Purposes 


GREATER CAPACITY for size of jaws than 

Sectional View Showing Jaws and Adjustment. 


San Francisco, U. S. A. 


Los Angeles, U. S. A. 

Manufacturers of Laboratory Labor Saving Machinery 

Specialists In Laboratory Equipment and Testing Apparatus 

Dealers in Chemical Glassware and Chemicals 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 


Machinery and Supplies of Dependable Manufacturers are here Listed 
Addresses will be found on trie Sixth followinq Page — 
3 If you do not find what you Wdntcommunicate with Mining and Scientific Press Service 

Accounting Systems 

Irving-Pitt Mfg. Co. 
Acetylene Generators 

Billiard, E. D. 

Oxweld Acetylene Co. 

Vulcan Process Co. 

Acetylene Lamps 

Braun Corporation. The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Billiard. E. D. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Justrite Mfg:. Co. 
Wolf Safety Lamp Co. of America, 

Adding Machines 

Monroe Calculating - Machine Co. . 

Buttress & McClellan 
Chalmers & Williams 
Collins & Webb, Inc. 
Dorr Company. The 
Hammond Iron Works 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Stearns-Rogrer Mfg-. Co. 

Air Receivers 

Buttress & McClellan 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Reardon, P. H. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Stearns -Roger Mfg. Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Tay Co.. Geo. -H. 
Amalgamating Plates 

Angels Iron Works 

Buttress & McClellan 

Morse Bros. Maehy. & Supply Co. 

San Francisco Plating Works 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 
Asphalt am 

Standard Oil Co. 
Assayers' and Chemists' Supplies 

Bartley Crucible Co.. Jonathan 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
(See Index to Advertisers) 

Braun Corporation. The 
Balances and Weights 

Ainsworth & Sons, Wm. 

Braun Corporation. The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Oo. 

Thompson Balance Co. 
Balls for Ball-Mills 

Arzinger Mach. Co.. W. O. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 
Ball-Mills (see 'Mills') 

Garratt A Co.. W. T. 

Angels Iron Works 

Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Meese A Gottfried Co. 

Tay Co.. Geo. H. 

U. S. Rubber Co. 

Blacksmith Shop Supplies 
Taylor A Spotswood Co. 

AlllB-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Hendrie A BolthofT Mfg. A Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine A Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Kordberg Mfg. Co. 

Rix Compressed Air A Drill Co. 

Blowing Engines 

Jackson Compressor Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 
Boiler Mountings 

Lunkenheimer Co., The 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Hendrie & BolthofT Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Maehy. & Supply Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 
Bookkeeping Supplies 

Irving-Pitt Mfg. Co. 
Brick, Fire 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Brlqnetting Machinery 

General Briquetting Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Building Paper 

ParaflBne Companies, Inc. 
Burners, Oil 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Lunkenheimer Co., The 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 

Angels Iron Works 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Calculating Machines 

Monroe Calculating Machine Co. 

Bullard, E. D. 
Carbide Flare Lights 

Bullard. E. D. 
Carbons, BortB, and Diamonds 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Hendrie & BolthofT Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Cement, Asphalt 

Aspromet Company 

Cement-Gun Co., Inc. 

Dodge Sales A Eng. Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Taylor & Spotswood Co. 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Giant Powder Co. 

Hercules Powder Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Pacific Western Commercial Co. 

Roessler A Haaslacher Chest. C«. 
Chemical Castings 

Garratt A Co., W. T. 

Pacific Foundry Co. 
Chilean Mills 

(See "Mills") 


Arzinger Mach. Co., W. O. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Butehart, W. A. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Deister Machine Co. 

Dorr Company. The 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Classifiers, Dry 

National Milling & Refining Co. 
Clutches, Friction 

{See "Transmission Machinery") 
Compressors, Air 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works 

Buttress & McClellan 

Chalmers & Williams 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Hendrie & BolthofT Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Jackson Compressor Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Reardon. P. H. 

Rix Compressed Air A Drill Co. 

Rosenburg & Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Western Machinery Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works 

Arzinger Mach. Co.. W. O. 

Butehart, W. A. 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Deister Concentrator Co. 

Deister Machine Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

James Ore Concentrator Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Senn Concentrator Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Standard Equipment Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co. 

Toung & Tyler 
Concentrators, Dry- 
National Milling A Refining Co. 

Toung & Tyler 
Concrete Mixers 

Buttress & McClellan 

Continental Steel & Supply Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Cameron Steam Pump Wks., A. S. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 
Connectors, SoUerless 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Arzinger Mach. Co.. W. O. 

Hendrie A Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Conveyors, Belt or Screw 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

U. S. Rubber Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Harron. Rickard A McCone 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

Harron, Rickard A McCone 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg, Co. 

Angels Iron Works 

Arzinger Mach. Co., W. O. 

Bacon, Earle C. 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Chalmers & Williams 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Denver Quartz Mill & Crusher Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

Johnson Engineering Works 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Oo. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Standard Equipment Co. 

Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Toung & Tyler 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Bullard. E. D. 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chem. Co. 
Cyanide Plants and Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works 

Arzinger Mach. Co., W. O. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Collins & WSbb. Inc. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Dorr Company, The 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

Mine A Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. A Supply Oo. 

National Tank A Pipe Co. 

Oliver Filter Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Redwood Mfrs. Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Arzinger Mach. Co., W. O. 

Chalmers A Williams 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Dorr Company, The 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Oo. 

Oliver Filter Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Drafting Material 

Ainsworth & Sons, Wm. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Dragline Excavators 

Buttress & McClellan 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Harron. Rickard & McCon* 

Leschen A Sons Rope Co., A. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Sauerman Bros. 

Dredges and Accessories 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Oo. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A, 
New Tork Engineering C». 
Senn Concentrator Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Tuba Manufacturing Co. 

Drill Makers and Sharpeners 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Continental Steel & Supply Co. 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Wood Drill Works 
Drills, Air and Steam 

Angels Iron Works 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Cochise Machine Co. 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron. Rickard A McCone 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. Oo. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

(Continued on page 67) 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 





12th Edition Catalogue with engineering Information yon need 
moiled free to prospective users. To others at a dollar. 


1313 Colon Bank Building, PITTSBURGH, Pi. 


The tank mounted 
^m. Chicago Pneumatic Gas- 
oline Engine Driven 
Compressor brings the 
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la direct connected, 
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self-contained and has 
independent cooling 

' "*'■■■ 5^1 Can a * BO De furnished 

' to operate on Gas or 
Fuel Oil, and can be 
furnished skid mounted 
if desired for semi- 
portable work. 
Ask for Bulletin 34-K. 



LOS ANGELES OFFICE 925 Title Insurance Bldr. 

GENERAL OFFICES 1081 Fisher Bid?., Chicago 

EASTERN OFFICES 52 Vanderbilt Ave.. N. T. 

BrancheB Everywhere A-4 



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Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Company 

F. E. MARINER, Pees. 

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Yuba Ball Tread Tractors Yuba Centrifugal Pumps 


WORKS: Marvsville. Cal. SALES OFFICE: 433 California St.. San Francisco, Cll. 



Crushing, Pulverizing 

and Concentrating 

Catalog " M " 


New Haven. Conn. 


Hollow and Solid 

Rock Drill and Mining Steel 

Trade Mark 

Made only by the 

International High Speed Steel Co. 

Works, Rockaway, N. J. NEW YORK 

Pacific Coast: Harron, Packard & McCone, Sao Francisco, Cal, 
Northwest States: Western Machinery and Equipment Co., 

Spokane, Wash. 
British Columbia: - E. G. Prior & Company, Victoria, B. C. 


Copper Steel Galvanized 


Highest in quality and resistance to rust. fj|j% 
Unequaled for Tanks, Flumes, Roofing, 
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We manufacture a complete line of Sheet and Tin Mill Products of every 
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374 pages, index and bibliography. 

Price $2.00 Postpaid. 

The Chemist's Point of View and His Recent Work 
Told for the Layman. 

For Sale By 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 
420 Market St., San Francisco, Cal. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 


Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Eeardon, P. H. 

Bix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Stearas-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Wood Drill Works 

mills. Core 

Dobbins Core Drill Co. 

Harron. Eickard & McCone 

Ingersoll-Eand Co. 

Longyear Co., E. J. 

Stearns-Eoger Mfg. Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Drills, Diamond 

Harron, Eickard & McCone 

Ingersoll-Eand Co. 

Longyear Co., B. J. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 
Dry Concentrators 

Young & Tyler 

Arzinger Mach. Co.. W. O. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Harron, Eickard & McCone 

National Milling & Befining Co. 

Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Engineering « Mlg. oo. 
Dumps, Rotary 

Wood Equipment Co. 

Du Pont Powder Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Giant Powder Co. 

Hercules Powder Co. 

Employment Bureau 

Business Men's Clearing House 

Interstate Service Systems 

Pacific Audit & System Co.. Inc. 
Engineers (see Professional Di- 
Engines, Internal Combustion 

Allie-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool W>. 

Collins & Webb Inc. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Eeardon, P. H. 

Eix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Stearns-Eoger Mfg. Co. 

Tay Co., Geo. H. 

Western Machinery Co. 

Engines. Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Nordberg Mfg. Co. 
Eosenburg & Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 


Du Pont Powder Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Giant Powder Co. 
HerculeB Powder Co. 

Fans, Ventilating 

Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 
Stearns-Eoger Mfg. Co. 


Angels Iron Works 

Braun Corporation. The 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Oliver Filter Co. 

Stearns-Eoger Mfg. Co. 

United Filters Corporation 

Worthington Pump & Maeh. Corp. 

Filter Presses 

Braun Corporation. The 
Buttress & McClellan 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 
United Filters Corporation 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Fire Extinguishers 

Bullard, E. D. 

Justrite Mfg. Co. 
First Aid Equipment 

Braun Corporation. The 
Bullard, E. D. 
Elmer, H. N. 
Flotation Apparatus 

Arzinger Mach. Co., W. O. 
Braun Corporation, The 
Braun -Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Butchart, W. A. 

Callow, J. M. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Senn Concentrator Co. 

Southwestern Engineering Co. 

Stearns-Eoger Mfg. Co. 


Buttress & McClellan 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Frogs and Switches (see 'Railway 

Fuel Oil 

Standard Oil Co. 

Furnaces, Assay (See 'Assayers and 

Chemists Supplies') 

Furnaces, Boasting and Smelting 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Dwight & Lloyd Sintering Co., Inc. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
Pacific Foundry Co. 
Perkins Furnace Co. 
Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Galvanized Sheet Steel 

American Sheet & Tin Plate Co. 
Gas Producers 

Welhnan-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bullard, E. D. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Westing-house Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Giants, Hydraulic (see 'Hydraulic 
Mining Machinery') 


Garratt & Co.. W. T. 
Graphite Products 

Albany Lubricating Co. 
Earlier Crucible Co., Jonathan 
Detroit Graphite Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph 
Hardy, Charles 

Grease, Lubricating 

Albany Lubricating Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Standard Oil Co. 

Grinders, Laboratory 

Braun Corporation. The 
Heaters. Feed Water 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 
Hoists, Electric 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works 

Buttress & McClellan 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

Lesehen & Sons Rope Co., A. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Eix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Rosenburg & Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 
Hoists, Oil and Distillate 

Buttress & McClellan 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Lesehen & Sons Rope Co.. A. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Western Machinery Co. 
Hnlsts, Steam or Air 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Hendrie &c Bolthoff Mfg. &, Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Lesehen & Sons Eope Co., A. 

Lidgerwood Mttg. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Eix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 


Angels Iron Works 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Diamond Rubber Co.. Inc. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Tay Co.. Geo. H. 
U. S. Rubber Co. 

Hose, Air 

Buttress & McClellan 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Cochise Machine Co. 
Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Stearns-Eoger Mfg. Co. 
U. S. Rubber Co. 

Hydraulic Mining Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
American Spiral Pipe Works 
Angels Iron Works 
Garratt & Co., W. T. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua 
New York Engineering Co. 
Sacramento Pipe Works 
Senn Concentrator Co. 
Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 


Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Lunkenheimer Co., The 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Powell Co.. Wm. 

Tay Co.. Geo. H. 

Iron Cements 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 
Iron and Steel Commodities 

Taylor & Spotswood Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Arzinger Mach. Co., W. O. 
Buttress & McClellan 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 
National Milling & Refining Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Senn Concentrator Co. 
Stearas-Roger Mfg. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Union Construction Co. 

Laboratory Supplies (see 'Assayers' 

and Chemists' Supplies') 
Lamps, Arc and Incandescent 

General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 
Lamps, Miners' 

Braun Corporation. The 
Braun -Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Bullard, E. D. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Justrite Mfg. Co. 

Wolf Safety Lamp Co. of America, 

Lining for Ball-Mills 

Arzinger Mach. Co.. W. O. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg.- Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Paraffine Companies. Inc. 

Butchart. W. A. 

Locomotives, Electric 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

United Electric Vehicle Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 
Locomotives, Compressed Air 

Porter Co., H. K. 

Senn Concentrator Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 
Locomotives, Gasoline 

Fate Co., The, J. D. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 
Locomotives, Steam 

Harron, Eickard & McCone 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Porter Co., H. K. 

Senn Concentrator Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 
Loose Leaf Books and Forms 

Irving-Pitt Mfg. Co. 

Albany Lubricating Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron, Eickard & McCone 

Standard Oil Co. 

Albany Lubricating Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron. Eickard & McCone 

Justrite Mfg. Co. 

Lunkenheimer Co., The 

Powell Co.. Wm. 

Tay Co., Geo. H. 
Lung Motors 

Bullard, E. D. 
Machinery, Used 

Buttress & McClellan 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Pacific Pipe Co. 

Rosenburg & Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Southwestern Wrecking Co. 

Western Machinery Co. 
Magnets, Lifting 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 
Magnetic Separators and Pulleys 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 
Metal, AsbestoB 

Aspromet Company 
Metal Buyers and Dealers 

American Metal Co., Ltd., The 

American Zinc, Lead & Smelt. Co. 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Beer, Sondheimer & Co. 

Camphuis, Rives & Gordon, Inc. 

Empire Zinc C. 

Hardy, Charles 

International Smelting Co. 

Selby Smelting & Lead Co. 

U. S. Smelt.. Ref. & Min. Co. 

Vernon Metal & Produce Co. 

Wildberg Bros. 
Mills — Ball, Pebble and Tube 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works 

Arzinger Mach. Co., W. O. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Chalmers & Williams 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

Johnson Engineering Works 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Rosenburg & Co. 

Standard Equipment Co. 

Stearas-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 
Mills, Chilean 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Quartz Mill & CruBher Co. 

Harron Rickard & McCone 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Motor Trucks 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Duplex Truck Co. 

United Electric Vehicle Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co, 
Buttress & McClellan 
Collins & Webb, Inc. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy & Supply Co. 
Rosenburer & Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 


Standard Oil Co. 

Oil and Grease Cups (see 'Lubri- 

Oil, Flotation 

Butchart. W. A. 

General Naval Stores Go. 

Georgia Pine Turpentine Co. of 

New York 
Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Co. 
Standard Oil Co. 

(Continued on page 59) 

July 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Straub Stamp Mill 




Our mills are made in three sizes 
— 8-ton, 12-ton, and 20-ton — and 
are installed in all sections of 
the country, from Alaska to Cen- 
tral America. We claim a larger 
range of crushing than any other 
mill both in hardness of ore and 
size of screened product. 

One man writes from a remote 
part of Central America, "I hare 
operated the Straub Mill on every 
gTade of ore from the very hard- 
est Quartz to clay, and find it all 
that any man could expect." He 
has one of our 8-ton mills, and 
says, "I am getting upwards of 
18 tona on oxidized ore." 

itself in the saving it makea over 
ordinary mills on transportation, 
erection, and operating costs. Two 
men can erect a STRAUB mill 
ready for operation in two days. 


Straub Manufacturing Co. 








230 Pages 4%x6% 
Flexible Leather 

113 Diagrams 
Post Paid, $2.00 

The increasing need of mathematics in engineering 
assures this book a broad field of usefulness, not only 
to students in technical schools and colleges but also 
to practising engineers. In it the authors have en- 
deavored to supply a handy means of reference to the 
theoretical and applied mathematics used in engi- 
neering, and while the first aim has been to make this 
a mathematical handbook, the book is of greater value 
because it includes the underlying engineering data 
and applications as well as the mathematical formula. 

Intended primarily for students in engineering 
schools and colleges, it should however serve as a 
convenient reminder of things which are easily for- 
gotten but are likely to be needed in their later work. 

Send for our complete catalogue of 
Technical Books. 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

420 Market Street San Francisco 



Coat All Gaskets 
With Smooth-On No. 3 

That's the whole secret of ever- 
lastingly tight joints — no matter 
what kind of line they are in or 
what kind of gasket you use. 

If you want really superior gas- 
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ON Corrugated Iron Gaskets. 
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ready-coated with SMOOTH- 
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570-574 Communipaw Ave., Jersey City, N. J., U. S. A. 


■adfe* For Sale by Supply Houses sA 3 N Vsrc'o, s c'AL. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 


Oil Products 

Standard Oil Co. 
Ore Bags 

Braun Corporation. The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 
Ore-Boyers (see 'Metal Bayers and 

Ory-Acetylene Welding and Cutting 

Bullard, E. D. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Oxweld Acetylene Co. 

Jamison Steel Co.. Edgar 

Vulcan Process Co. 

Oxygen Apparatus 
Bullard, E. D. 
Vulcan Process Co. 


Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 
Tay Co., Geo. H. 
U. S. Rubber Co. 

Paint, Asphalt 

Aspromet Company 
Paint, Preservative 

Detroit Graphite Co. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

GaUrher Machinery Co. 

Paraffine Companies, Dae. 

Standard Oil Co. 

Toch Brothers 
Paper, Building, Insulating, and 

Aspromet Company 

Paraffine Companies. Inc. 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 

Harron. Rickard & MeCone 

Perforated Metals 

Allie-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Petroleum Products 

Standard Oil Co. 
Pipe Covering 

Paraffine Companies, Inc. 
Pipe Fittings 

Diamond Rubber Co., Ine. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Garratt & Co.. W. T. 

Lunkenheimer Co., The 

Pacific Pipe Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Powell Co.. Wm. 

Sacramento Pipe Works 

Tay Co., Geo. H. 
Pipe, Air 

Pacific Pipe Co. 

Tay Co., Geo. H. 
Pipe, Iron 

American Cast Iron Pipe Co. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Continental Steel & Supply Co. 

Pacific Pipe Co. 

Tay Co.. Geo. H. 
Pipe, Riveted 

American Spiral Pipe Work* 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

Sacramento Pipe Works 
Pipe. Steel 

American Spiral Pipe Worki 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

National Tube Co. 

Pacific Pipe Co. 

Sacramento Pipe Works 

Tay Co.. Geo. H. 
Pipe, Wood 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Redwood Mfrs. Co. 
Placer Mining Machinery 

American Spiral Pipe Works 

Angels Iron Works 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Harron, Rickard A MeCone 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

National Milling & Refining Co. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Sauerman Bros. 

Senn Concentrator Co. 

Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

Yuba Manufacturing Co. 
Pneumatic Tools 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Harron. Rickard & MeCone 

logersoll-Rand Co. 

Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 


Du Pont Powder Co. 
Giant Powder Co. 
Hercules Powder Co. 

Preservatives, Meta! 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Paraffine Companies, Inc. 
Standard Oil Co. 
Toch Brothers 

Preservatives, Wood 

General Naval Stores Co. 
Paraffine Companies, toe. 
Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Co. 
Standard Oil Co. 
Toch Brothers 

Prospecting Supplies 

Braun Corporation. The 
Dobbins Core Drill Co. 
Harron, Rickard & MeCone 
Longyear Co.. E. J. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 
Union Construction Co. 

Pulleys, Magnetic 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 

Pulleys, Shafting and Hangers (see 

'Transmission Machinery") 
Pulverizers, Laboratory 

Braun Corporation, The 
Pumps, Air Lift 

Buttress & McClellan 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 
pumps, Centrifugal 

AlliB-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

American Well Works 

Buttress & McClellan 

Cameron Steam Pump Wks., A. S. 

Collins & Webb, Lac. 

Prenier & Son 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Garratt & Co., W. T. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron. Rickard & MeCone 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Jackson Iron Works, Byron 

Krogh Pump Mfg. Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Oliver Filter Co. 

Pacific Pipe Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Rosenburg & Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Tay Co., Geo. H. 

Western Machinery Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Yuba Manufacturing Co. 
Pomps, Reciprocating 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works 

Cameron Steam Pump Wks., A. 3. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron. Rickard & MeCone 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Rosenburg & Co. 

Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Tay Co.. Geo. H. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Braun Corporation. The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Bullard, E. D. 

Camphuis. Rives & Gordon. Inc. 

Denver Fire Clay Co., The 

Hardy. Charles 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Quicksilver Furnaces 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 
Rail Bonds 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Railway Supplies and Equipment 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Continental Steel & Supply Co. 

Diamond Rubber Co.. Inc. 

Harron, Rickard & MeCone 
Bams, Hydraulic 

Galigher Machinery Co. 
Rescue Apparatus 

Bullard, E. D. 
Retorts, Graphite 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan 
Rolls, Crashing 

Arzinger Mach. Co., W. O. 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Bacon, Earle C. 

Chalmers &■ Williams 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Quartz Mill & Crusher Co. 

Harron, Rickard & MeCone 

Hendrie & Bftiinoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Aspromet Company 

Paraffine Companies, Inc. 

Standard Oil Co. 
Roofing, Corrugated and Formed 

American Sheet & Tin Plate Co. 

Aspromet Company 
Rope, Wire 

American Steel & Wire Co. 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Continental Steel & Supply Co. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Sauerman Bros. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 
Rotary Dumps 

Wood Equipment Co. 
Safety Appliances 

Bullard, E. D. 

Harron, Rickard & MeCone 
Sample Bags 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Colorado L-on Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Harron, Rickard & MeCone 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Saw Mill Machinery 

Harron, Rickard & MeCone 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Schools and Colleges (Bee Index to 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works 

Arzinger Mach. Co., W. O. 

Braun Corporation. The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Cal. Perforated Screen Co. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron. Rickard & MeCone 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

James Ore Concentrator Co. 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Rosenburg & Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 
Separators, Dry 

National Milling & Refining Co. 
Shafting (see 'Transmission 

Sheet-Steel, Black and Galvanized 

American Sheet & Tin Plate Co. 
Shoes and Dies 

Angels Iron Works 

Harron. Rickard & MeCone 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Cerp- 
Shovels, Electric and Steam 

Harron. Rickard & MeCone 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co.. A. 

StearnB-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Hardinge Conical Mill €o. 

Denver Fire Clay Co., The 

Hardy, Charles 
Sintering and Agglomerating 

Dwight & Lloyd Sintering Co., Ine. 

Worthington Pump & Mach, Corp. 
Sizers, Dry 

National Milling & Refining Co. 
Smelters and Refiners 

American Zinc, Lead & Smelt. Co. 

Beer, Sondheimer & Co. 

Camphuis. Rives & Gordon, Inc. 

Empire Zinc Co. 

International Smelting Co. 

Selby Smelting & Lead Co. 

U. S. Smelt., Ref. & Min. Co. 

Wildberg Bros. 

Smelting Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Collins &. Webb. Inc. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Dwight & Lloyd Sintering Co., In*. 

Harron, Rickard & MeCone 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Oo. 

Pacific Foundry Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Cor*. 
Solderless Connectors 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

American Spiral Pipe Works 

American Steel & Wire Co. 

Cary Spring Works 

Harron, Rickard & MeCone 
Stamp Mills 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Angels Iron Works 

Arzinger Mach. Co., W. O. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Chalmers & Williams 

Collins & Webb, Djc 

Colorado L-on Works Co. 

Harron. Rickard & MeCone 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua 

Morse Bros. Maehy."& Supply Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Straub Mfg. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp 

Steel, Drill (Hollow and Solid) 

Buttress & McClellan 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Continental Steel & Supply Co. 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

International High Speed Steel Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

S teams-Roger Mfg. Co. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Taylor & Spotswood Co. 
Steel, Tool 

Continental Steel & Supply Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Hardy. Charles 

International High Speed Steel Go. 

Jamison Steel Co.. Edgar 

Taylor & Spotswood Co. 

Moon Co., Geo. C. 
Suction Dredges 

Krogh Pump Mfg. Co. 

Yuba Manufacturing Co. 
Tanks, Cyanide 

Buttress & McClellan 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Hammond Iron Works 

Harron, Rickard & MeCone 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply 0o. 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Redwood Mfrs. Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 
Tanks, Steel 

Buttress & McClellan 

Galigher Machinery So. 

Hammond Iron Works 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Rosenburg & Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 
Tapes, Measuring 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Lufkin Rule Co. 
Thickeners, Pulp 

Arzinger Mach. Co., W. O. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Colorado L-on Works Co. 

Dorr Company. The 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Harron, Rickard & MeCone 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 

Oliver Filter Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 

King Trailer Co. 

Yuba Manufacturing Co. 
Tramways, Aerial 

American Steel & Wire Co. 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 

Harron, Rickard & MeCone 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Sauerman Bros. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Ainsworth & Sons, Wm. 

Braun Corporation, The 
Transmission Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Arzinger Mach. Co., W. O. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Go. 

General Electric Co. 

Harron. Rickard & MeCone 

Hendy Iron Works. Joshua 

(Continued on page 61) 

July 6, 191S 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Th«* Sloguti of rh^ Cameron — " I ,i<- (iruml.-jl Thmj{" 

600 Gallons a Minute 
Against 1250-ft. Head 

The above illustration shows a No. 6 Four-stage, 
Class "MT" Cameron Centrifugal Pump, with a 300- 
horsepower motor, having a capacity of 600 G.P.M. 
against 1250-ft. head. This 


is installed in a large western mine, where it is giving 
highly efficient service at a low upkeep cost. 

Back of this high efficiency is simplicity and excellence of 
design. Back of this low upkeep cost are rigid elimination of the 
unfit in choosing material, and thoroughness in manufacture. 

The lower illustration shows the simplicity, compactness and 
accessibility of these Cameron Centrifugals. In mines all over 
the world they have earned a reputation for giving the highest 
efficiency at the lowest upkeep cost. 

Bulletin No. 7251 tells the story. It's free. 

A. S. Cameron Steam Pump Works 





Conserve your 

valve equipment! 

The excessive demand for high quality valves 
created by the expansion of industry makes con- 
servation of valve equipment imperative. 

In Lunkenheimer Iron Body Bronze Mounted 
Globe, Angle and Cross Valves the regrinding 
seating surfaces and interchangeability of all 
parts renders the repair or renewal of any part 
an operation easily accomplished. 

Users are requested to follow this principle 
and reap the benefit of their installation. In 
addition to saving time and money, it aids in 
CONSEEVATION— a factor of vital importance 
to the successful and speedy termination of the 



Stocks of distributors and facili- 
ties of manufacturers must be ad- 
justed to care for essential needs. 

Lunkenheimer patrons are earnest- 
ly requested to assist in the common 
cause by confining their War Period 
specifications to requirements for 
essential plants, craft, vehicles, or 



Largest Manufacturers of 

High Grade Engineering Specialties 

In the World 


New York Chicago Boston London 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 


July 6, 1918 

Jamison Steel Co., Edg-ar 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Rosenburg & Co. 

Stearns-Roger Mf£. Co. 

Wellman-Se aver -Morgan Co. 
Traps, Steam 

Garratt & Co., W. T. 
Trucks, Motor 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Duplex Truck Co. 
Tubes (Cold Drawn and Hot Rolled) 

National Tube Co. 
Tube Mills (See "Mills") 
Tubing, Air 

Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 

National Tube Co. 
Turbines, Hydraulic 

Allis-Cbalmers Mfg. Co. 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Smith. S. Morgan 
Turbines, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Westing-house Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Valves ISee "Pipe Fittings") 
Ventilators, Metal and Siphonage 
Aspromet Company 

Wall Board 

Paraffine Companies, Inc. 

Water Wheels 

Angels Iron Works 

Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Hen&y Iron Works, Joshua 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Smith, S. Morgan 

Wei lman-Seaver-M organ Co. 

Welding, Oxy-Acetylene 

Bullard, E. D. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 
Oxweld Acetylene Co. 
Vulcan Process Co. 

Well Drilling Machy. and Supplies 

American Well Works 
Harron, Rickard & McCone 

Steams-Roger Mfg. Co. 
Union Construction Co. 

Wheels, Car 

Angels IrOnTVorks 
Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Hendy Iron Works, Joehua 


Lunkenheimer Co., The 

Galicher Machinery Co, 

Hendy Iron WorkB, JoBhua 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Wire, Insulated 

American Steel & Wire Co. 

Diamond Rubber Co., Lie. 

General Electric Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 
Wire Rope and -Cables 

Moon Co., Geo. C. 

Wire Rope Accessories 

Broderick & Boscom Rope Co. 
Moon Co., Geo. C. 

Zinc Boxes 

Buttress & McClellan 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Hammond Iron WorkB 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 
Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Zinc Dost and Shavings 

American Metal Co., Ltd., The 
American Zinc, Lead & Smelt. Co. 
Atkins, Kroll & Co. 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Braun Corporation, The 
Buttress & McClellan 
Camphuis, Rives & Gordon, Inc. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
U. S. Smelt., Ref. & Min. Co. 


-^ ^laBi ir f > 
Hammond Iron WorksS^warren, pa. u.s. a. 






The Vulcan 

Welding and 
Cutting Outfit 

Ma lea repairs quickly and eas- 
ily— stronger than when new. 
Saves endless delays. "Vulcan" 
is most efficient welding and 
cutting plant. Most economical 
of Kiel, easiest to handle. Be 
sure to get the "Vulcan". 
Send Jor Catalog Et. 

Air Reduction Sales Go, 

Agents for 


2464 Univenity Ave. S. E. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 



The material and workmanship 
thai is a part of every Lcschen ^ 
Wire Rope, make it sale, dependable 
and economical. 



A.Loschen & Sons Rope Co. 

Si. Louis Mo. 
New York Chicago Denver 
Sail Lake City San Francisco 

The Roessler & Hasslacher 
Chemical Company 

100 William Street, New York 

Works: Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Cyanide of Sodium 96-98% 

Cyanogen 61-52% 


Sodium Cyanide 96-98% in egg form, 

each egg weighing 1 ounce. 

Cyanogen 51-52% 

Janney Rotation Machine 

The Janney Mechanical Air Flotation Machines 
circulate a mechanically agitated pulp over an 
air mat through which air is continually being 
forced. This gives a maximum extraction and 
the highest grade of product. Operation en- 
tirely automatic. No froth removers or regu- 
lating gates. Janney 24-inch machine with in- 
dividual motor drive and Janney 12-inch ma- 
chine with belt drive will meet any condition 
you have. WE solicit your inquiry 



Felt Building, Salt Lake City, Utah 

.Tulv 6, L918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 




By H. D. DEWELL, C. E. 



Eliminate the Waste of Materials by Properly Designing 

Your Timber-Structures g§ 

IN the economical construction of mill build- 
ings, head-frames, trestles, flumes, ore-bins, 
tanks, 1 and other structures for mines, 
the mining engineer will find this book in- 
dispensable. You can secure 'TIMBER FRAMING' 
in combination with a year's subscription to 
MINING and Scientific PRESS, either on new sub- 
scriptions, or renewals, at a total cost of $5.50. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS, 420 Market St., San Francisco P4 

ENTER my subscription to MINING and Scientific PRESS beginning with the current issue. 

RENEW my subscription to MINING and Scientific PRESS at the expiration of my present sub- 
scription. Also send the new book "Timber Framing," by H. D. Dewell. For this I enclose $5.50, to be 
divided as follows: $4 for the MINING and Scientific PRESS (U. S. and Mexico), and $1.50 for the 
book ; Canada, $5 and $1.50 for the book ; other countries in postal union, $6 and $1.50 for the book. 

Name Vocation . : 

Address . , • • Employed by 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 

• Dash - Indicates - Every -Other-WeeK-or Monthly ■ Advertisement • 


Ainsworth & Sons. Wm, Denver 45 

Albany Lubricating- Co.. New York 40 

Allis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co., Milwaukee, Wis 

Front Cover 
American Cast Iron Pipe Co.. Birmingham. Ala. 40 
American Metal Co.. Ltd., The, New York.... 43 
American Sheet & Tin Plate Co.. Pittsburgh. . .56 

American Spiral Pipe Works, Chicago — 

American Steel & Wire Co., Chicago 45 

American Well Works, Aurora, 111 — 

American Zinc. Lead & Smelting Co., St. Louis. 43 

Angels Iron Works, Angels Camp, Cal 45 

Arzinger Machy. Co., W. O., Nashville, Tenn. . — 

Aspromet Company, Pittsburgh, Pa — 

Assayers, Chemists and Ore Testing Works. . . .53 

Atkins, Kroll & Co., San Francisco 43 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co., Cleveland. Ohio 45 

Bacon, Earle C, New York 45 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan. Trenton, N. J. . 9 

Beer. Sondheimer & Co., New York — 

Blake, Moffitt & Towne, San Francisco 43 

Bradley, Brufl & Labarthe. San Francisco 31 

Braun Corporation, The, Los Angeles, Cal 54 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co., San Francisco .... 54 

Books, Technical 52-58-62 

Broderiek & Bascom Rope Co., St. Louis 36 

Bullard, E. D., San Francisco — 

Business Men's Clearing House, Denver 39 

Butchart, W. A., Denver, Colo — 

Buttress & McClellan, Los Angeles, Cal — 

Buyers' Guide 55-57-59-61 

Cal. Perforated Screen Co., San Francisco 43 

Callow, J. M.. Salt Lake City, Utah 8 

Cameron Steam Pump Works, A. S., New York . 60 
Camphuis, Rives & Gordon. Inc., Mexico City. .44 

Cary Spring Works, New York 43 

Cement-Gun Co., Allentown. Pa — 

Chalmers & Williams, Chicago Heights, 111 6 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., Chicago 56 

Cochise Machinery Co., Los Angeles, Cal. . . .20-21 

Collins & Webb, Inc., Los Angeles, Cal 22-23 

Colorado Iron Works. Denver 64 

Continental Steel & Supply Co.. San Francisco. 40 

Deister Concentrator Co., Fort Wayne Ind 45 

Deister Machine Co., Fort Wayne. Ind 65 

Denver Engineering Works, Denver... 

Denver Fire Clay Co.. Denver 43 

Denver Quartz Mill & Crusher Co.. Denver . . 36 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co.," Denver 29 

Dewey, Strong & Townsend, San Francisco .... 45 

Diamond Rubber Co.. Akron. Ohio 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co.. Milwaukee Wis* 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph. Jersey City, N. J 35 

Dobbins Core Drill Co., Inc., New York. 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co.. Mishawaka. Ind. ... 28 

Dorr Company. The. Denver 

Duplex Truck Co.. Lansing, Mich ' ' 14 

Du Pont Powder Co.. Wilmington, Del. ... ' *18 
Dwight & Loyd Sintering Co., Inc., New York. .43 

Eccleston Machinery Co 2R 

Elmer. H. N., Chicago _ 

Empire Zinc Co., New York .' .' '44 

Fairbanks. Morse & Co., Chicago 

Fate. J. D., Plymouth. Ohio '''37 

Frenier & Son. Rutland. Vermont. ' 41 

• Page 
Galigher Machy Co.. Salt Lake City. Utah... — 

Garratt & Co.. W. T.. San Francisco 35 

General Briquetting Co., New York 43 

General Electric Co.. Schenectady. N. Y 34 

General Engineering Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. 53 

General Naval Stores, New York 5U 

Georgia Pine Turpentine Co. of New York, Salt 

Lake City. Utah 40 

Gi^nt Powder Co., San Francisco 44 

Hamilton. Beauchamp. Woodworth, Inc.. San 

Francisco 53 

Hammond Iron Works, Warren, Pa 61 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co., New York 2 

Hardy. Chas., New York 44 

Harron, Rickard & McCone. San Francisco .... 3 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Supply Co., Denver. 4 
Hendy Iron Works. Joshua, San Francisco. . . .• — 
Hercules Powder Co., Wilmington, Del — 

Industrial Engineering Co.. The, Salt Lake City. 38 

Ingersoll-Rand Co., New York 13 

International High Speed Steel Co.. New York. 56 

International Smelting Co., New York 44 

Interstate Employment System, Denver — 

Irving-Pitt Mfg. Co., Kansas City. Mo 41 

Jackson Compressor Co., Denver, Colo 16 

Jackson Iron Works, Byron. San Francisco. .. .42 
James Ore Concentrator Co., Newark, N. J. . . .45 

Jamison Steel Co., Edgar. San Francisco 40 

Johnson Engineering Works. Chicago ■ — 

Jordan Company, East Chicago, Ind 27 

Justrite Mfg. Co., Chicago — 

Krogh. Pump Co., San Francisco — 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A.'. St. Louis 61 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co.. New York — 

Longyear Co., E. J., Minneapolis. Minn — 

Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co.. St. Louis 5 

Lufkin Rule Co., Saginaw, Mich 45 

Lunkenheimer Co., The, Cincinnati, Ohio 60 

Marchant Calculating Machine Co., Emeryville. 

Cal 19 

Meese & Gottfried Co., San Francisco 65 

Merrill Metallurgical Co., San Francisco 9 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co., Denver 17 

Mines Supply Co.. San Francisco 40 

Monroe Calculating Machine Co.. New York. . . — 

Moon Company. George C. Garwood, N. J 38 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co., Denver 41 

National Milling & Refining Co.. Canton. Ohio. .42 

National Tank & Pipe Co.. Portland, Ore 30 

National Tube Co., Pittsburgh, Pa 45 

Nevada Engineering Co., Reno, Nev 38 

New Mex. State School of Mines, Socorro, N. M . 53 

New York Engineering Co.. New York 45 

Nordberg Mfg. Co., Milwaukee. Wis 15 

Novo Engine Co.. Lansing, Mich — 

Oliver Filter Co., San Francisco 7 

Opportunity Pages 37-38-39-40-41 

Overstroni Manufacturing Co.. San Francisco.. — 
Oxweld Acetylene Co., New York — 

Pacific Audit & System Co.. Inc.. San Francisco. 39 

Pacific Foundry Co.. San Francisco — 

Pacific Pipe Co.. San Francisco 40 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co.. San Francisco 32 


Pacific Western Com'l Co., San Francisco — 

Paraffine Companies, Inc., San Francisco — 

Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Co.. Gull Point, Fla.56 

Perkins Furnace Co., San Francisco 38 

Piatt Iron Works. Dayton, Ohio - — 

Polhemus Bros., El Paso. Texas 38 

Porter Co.. H. K„ Pittsburgh. Pa 56 

Positions Available 39 

Positions Wanted .' 38 

Powell Co., Wm., Cincinnati. Ohio — 

Pratt-Gilbert Co.. Phoenix. Ariz 36 

Prest-O-Lite Co.. Die.. Indianapolis, Ind — 

Professional Directory 46-52 

Redwood Mfrs. Co., San Francisco — 

Reardon. P. H., San Francisco 63 

Rix Compressed Air Drill Co., San Francisco... — 
Roebling Sons' Co., John A., Trenton, N. J. . . .54 
Roessler & Haaslacher Chemical Co., New York. 61 
Rosenburg & Co., Los Angeles, Cal — 

Sacramento Pipe Works, Sacramento, Cal 54 

San Francisco Brass Foundry. San Francisco. . .41 
San Francisco Plating Works, San Francisco,. . — 

Sauerman Bros., Chicago 35 

Schools and Colleges 53 

Selby Smelting & Lead Co.. San Francisco 44 

Senn Concentrator Co., San Francisco 11 

Simpson Co., A. H., San Francisco 39 

Smith, S. Morgan, York, Pa — 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co., Jersey City, N. J 58 

Southwestern Engr. Co., Die., Los Angeles. .24-25 
Southwestern Wrecking Co., El Paso, Texas. . .37 

Standard Equipment Co., San Francisco 56- 

Standard Oil Co., San Francisco — 

Stearns-Roger Mfg. Co., Denver — 

Stimpson Equipment Co., Salt Lake City 61 

Straub Mfg. Co.. Oakland. Cal 58 

Sullivan Machinery Co., Chicago — 

Tay Co., George H„ San Francisco — 

Taylor & Spotswood Co.. San Francisce — 

Thompson Balance Co., Denver 43 

Toch Bros., New York — 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co.. Allentown. Pa 29 

Troy Wagon Works, Troy. Ohio — 

Union Construction Co., San Francisco 41 

United Electric Vehicle Co,. Oakland, Cal — 

United Filters Corp., Salt Lake City. Utah 10 

United States Rubber Co., New York — 

U. S. Smelting, Refining & Mining Co., Boston. .44 

Vernon Metal Produce Co., Die. New York. . .44 
Vulcan Process Co., Minneapolis, Minn 61 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co.. Cleveland, Ohio... 64 

Western Machinery Co.. Los Angeles. Cal 30 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co.. East Pittsburgh, 

Pa — 

White Co., The, Cleveland, Ohio • — 

Wildberg Bros.. San Francisco 43 

Wiley & Sons. Inc., John, New York — 

Wolf Safety Lamp Co. of America, Inc.. New 

York 28 

Wood Drill Works, Paterson, N. J — 

Wood Equipment Co., Chicago 54 

Worthington Pump & Machy. Corp., New York. 12 

Young & Tyler, Los Angeles. Cal 10 

Yuba Manufacturing Co.. San Francisco 56 

Zelnicker Supply Co.. Walter A„ St. Louis. . . . — 


— Large Stock — 

A full line of power 
transmission equipment 


57 First Street - San Francisco 

.1 ill x 6, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



for wet or dry screening. This 
is the wet screen, with distribuor. 

Really Close 

Such as the Impact Screen has already brought 
to a great many mills, will speed up your re- 
grinding department in a way that will surprise. 
In addition, the Impact Screen will materially 
reduce your bills for wire cloth, and handle 
a tonnage that is incomparable. 

Really close screening is a profitable subject 
to look into, particularly at present. May we 
send you a copy of Bulletin 9-B, which covers 
the matter thoroughly? 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver, Colo. 

New York Office: 30 Church Street 
Milling Machinery and Smelting Equipment Since 1S60 

This standard double 
drum geared hoist 
has 60 by 4 2 inch 
drums, two 6 inch 
clutches, two SO inch 
post brakes, all air- 
operated; dial indi- 
cators, herringbone 


gears, flexible coup- 
ling. We have built 
this hoist for vari- 
ous mining com- 
panies in the United 
States, Canada and 

W-S-M Electric Mine Hoists 

The manufacture of hoists has been a specialty of this Company for many years. In our hoist con- 
struction there are combined with good and carefully selected materials an engineering and manufac- 
turing excellence, developed under the guidance of high ideals, but tempered and made practical by 
long and diversified experience. 

A W-S-M Hoist is not the lowest-priced hoist you can buy. In fact it is perhaps the highest- 
priced hoist built. But superior service, safety, economy of operation, reliability and long life more 
than offset the additional first cost. 

Write for Bulletin G-5, "Electric Mine Hoists" 




MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 6, 1918 

the PLAT-O 


For either Sand or Slime 


Equipped with new self -oiling and dust- proof 
head-motion, a new tilting mechanism, and six 
large self-oiling and dust-proof slipper bearings. 

Made in Single and Double Deck Types. 

Present Users of PLAT-O Tables: 

Oronogo Circle Mining Co Oronogo, Mo. 

Oronogo Mutual Mining Co Oronogo, Mo. 

Qulncy Mining Co Hancock, Mich. 

St. Joseph Lead Co Bonne Terre, Mo. 

Original Amador Mines Amador City, Cal. 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan M. & S. Co . Kellogg, Idaho 
North Star Mines (Champion) . . .Grass Valley, Cal. 

New York Pyrites Co., Inc Richville, N. Y. 

St. Lawrence Pyrites Co DeKalb Jet., N.T. 


Manufactured and Sold Exclusively by 

Deister Machine Company 

EAST WAYNE ST. - Fort Wayne, Ind., U. S. A. 

Manufacturers of the well-known DEISTER SIMPLEX 


Short Center 
Belt Driving 

is an important subject 

Something you should know more about in 
these days where economy is paramount for 
the Meeseco Belt Drive means 

Saving in power loss 
Saving in belt width 
Saving in valuable space 
Saving in upkeep expense 


ISO H. P. Meeseco Bell Drive Operating Ammonia Compressor 
in an Ice Plant— (16 Drives Used by this Company) 

Bulletin No. 100 just out, describes it 
fully — Have you your copy? 


Conveying, Elevating, Screening and Mechanical Power Transmitting Machinery 

6S0 Mission St. 

67 Front St. 

558 First Ave. So. 


StimpsoD Equipment Co. 

400 E. 3rd St., cor. San Pedro 

Edited by T. A. RICKARD 

Volume 117 
Number 2 



15 Cents per Copy 
$4 per Year 

action Filter J 

In This Issue: 

Apexes and Anticlines 
Blasting Methods at Ajo 

Buyers' Guide, page 
Advertisers' Index, page 56 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, 1918 


Now Accomplishes What 
Was Once Impossible— 


The economic handling of flotation concentrate is one of the live 
questions of the hour. Once the fine sulphides are oiled and floated 
they are invariably difficult to sink again. It has hitherto been im- 
possible to make a clean and continuous mechanical separation of 
float concentrate from solution. 

The Ovoca Classifier, however, 
gives a unique separation ; and 
as used in flotation plants, effec- 
tively breaks up the "float," 
giving in one operation a con- 
tinuous weir overflow of clear 
solution for return to the proc- 
ess, and a continuous discharge 
of concentrate carrying about 
30% moisture, even when 60% 

of the concentrate will pass 200- 

With this Classifier it is only 
necessary to pipe the ''float" to 
the machine and convey from the 
Classifier the clear solution and 
the separated concentrate, the 
latter usually by belt conveyor, 
the operation being completely 

Ask for Bulletin 1074 



Manufacturers of Mining and Milling Machinery 

Electric Hoists 
Richards Pulsator Jigs 
Richards Pulsator Classifiers 
Ovoca Classifiers 

Ore Crushers 
Crushing Rolls 
Hardinge Conical Mills 
Mine Cages 

Stamp Mills 

Mine Timber Framing Machinery 
Revolving Screens and Grizzlies 
Automatic Samplers 
Sample Grinders 


Mining *** Press 


T. A. R1CKARD. Editor 
M. W. von BERNEWITZ. noociau Editol 


Published at 420 Market St.. San Francisco, 
by the Dewey Publishing Company 


C. T. HUTCHINSON. Manager 

E. H. LESLIE. 600 Fiilwr Bdg., Chicago 

A. S. BREAKKY. 1514 Wootaorlll Bit,. N 

Science has no enemy save the ignorant 

Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 13, 1918 

JS4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 







Opposition by some Senators to according a site 
in Washington tor the statue to James Buchanan; 
unfortunate to revive sectional animosities at this 
time; estimate of Buchanan's character; errors of 
other Presidents; weak men do not become presi- 
dents of the United States; a presidential duty to 
pursue his own policies. M. & S. P., July 13, 1918. 


Addresses by Sidney J. Jennings and E. B. Howell; 
changed attitude of cosporations toward labor; 
better understanding of the relations between 
labor and capital; loyalty of American labor; ex- 
ample of the supreme devotion to country shown 
by the workingmen of Belgium. M. & S. P., July 
13, 1918. 


Critical diplomatic relations with Mexico; visit of 
Mexican editors to the United States; their abuse 
of a courtesy extended by the President; oppor- 
tunities afforded them to see our preparations for 
war; It will show them we are invincible, and may 
improve the relations with Mexico; possibilities of 
cementing good-will through financial arrange- 
ments. M. & S. P., July 13, 1918. 



By Courtenay De Kalb 41 

James Douglases of today and yesterday; a famous 
name given fresh renown by the dean of American 
mining engineers; the significance of his life. M. 
& S. P., July 13, 1918. 


By A Mining Engineer 42 

M. & S. P., July 13, 1918. 



By Robert M. Searls 43 

Decision of the U. S. Supreme Court in the case of 
Jim Butler Tonopah Mining Co. v. West End Con- 
solidated Mining Co.; the points at issue; the anti- 
clinal vein, with the crest on one claim, and the 
extra-lateral rights in two directions; is the crest 
an 'apex'? Must a terminal edge be shown? 
M. & S. P., July 13, 1918. 

M. & S. P., July 13, 1918. 


M. & S. P., July 13, 1918. 


By S. U. Champe 46 

Excavation of hard copper ore at the mines of the 


New Cornelia company; comparison of drill-hole 
and tunnel-methods of blasting; procedure when 
chambering churn-drill holes; 200,000 tons broken 
at a single blast; methods of block-holing. M. & 
S. P., July 13, 1918. 


M. & S. P., July 13, 1918. 


By Sidney J. Jennings 49 

Origin of the company in Roman law; early 
English legislation regarding stock companies; 
the co-operative principle; methods of correcting 
abuses; interests of capital and labor identical; 
adjustment of labor controversies. M. & S. P., 
July 13, 1918. 


By E. B. Howell 50 

Change in the industrial system; the early manu- 
facturer also a workman closely associated with 
his 'hands'; right of the manual worker to share in 
the management; this principle will become recog- 
nized generally after the War. M. & S. P., July 
13, 1918. 


Studies in methods of concentrating manganese 
ores by E. A. Hersam at University of California; 
tests by electro-static machines, magnetic sepa- 
rators, and flotation; magnetic separation gives 
best results. M. & S. P., July 13, 1918. 


By F. O. Groch and W. E. Simpson 53 

Classes of flotation machines; the Groch is a froth- 
forming machine of the impeller type; injection 
of air by centrifugal action through the Impeller; 
effect of nascent gas-bubbles; results of practical 
tests. M. & S. P., July 13, 1918. 


By K. L. Kithil and J. A. Jones 55 

M. & S. P., July 13, 1918. 


M. & S. P., July 13, 1918. 

M. & S. P., July 13, 1918. 

By R. A. Balzari 57 

M. & S. P., July 13, 1918. 








Established May 24, 1860, as The Scientific Press; name changed October 
*!0 of the eame year to Mining and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. Cable 
address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 600 Fisher Edg.; New York. 3514 Woolworth 
Bdg. ; London, 724 Salisbury House, E.C. 

Price, 15 cents per copy. Annual subscription, payable in advance; 
United States and Mexico, S4; Canada, 85; other countries in postal union, 
25s. or $6. 

. - 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, WIS 


Increasing the Capacity of the Table 
You've known so well for 20 Years 

There have been great changes in mining and mill equipment since the 
first Wilfley got on the job, 20 years ago. The Wilfley has stood the 
test of time — because the Wilfley principles were right. 

At the same time, there have been Wilfley improvements — many of them — 
but the Wilfley principle — concentration on a diagonal line — has survived. 

The new riffling systems developed by our engineers are based on years of experience with, 
the Wilfley Table, and mark an important advance in the concentration of ores, both in 

greatly increased capacity and in extraction. 

The No. 10 and No. 1623 Wilfley riffling 
systems give large capacity on complex, 
ores with clean separation. There is a 
Wilfley riffle to meet practically every 
condition in the concentration of ores. 

In one case a set of our new riffles on an 
old Wilfley increased the capacity five 
times, with increased metallurgical effi- 

It is important to get the right riffles to 
»ieet your conditions. Our engineers will 
fladly cooperate with you. 

Learn why the Calumet 
& Hecla Mining Co., 
Anaconda Copper Co., and 
other plants each have 
more than 500 Wilfleys. 

Wilfley Seek Equipped with No. 1633 Kinies 

The Mine and Smelter Supply Company 

A Service Station Within Reach of You 

Denver Salt Lake City El Paso 

New York Office: 42 Broadway 

July 13, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


E D I ' /T O R I A L 

44 4V 7" HAT we seek is the reign of law, based upon the 
** consent of the governed and sustained by the 
organized opinion of mankind. ' ' 

OULPHURIC ACID manufacturers are now restricted 
^ by the Price Fixing Committee of the War Industries 
Board to $28 per ton for the 66° product, and to $18 for 
the grade registering 60° Baume. These prices will rule 
until September 30. 

pREAT BRITAIN has undertaken to prohibit the 
^-' circulation of metallic currency at a premium. An 
Order-in-Council makes it a criminal offense to sell or 
purchase any coin current in the United Kingdom for an 
amount exceeding the face value of the coin. The re- 
striction applies also to the offering or accepting of coin 
in payment of any obligation at a higher rate than its 
minted denomination. This is a wise provision, although 
it establishes officially the depreciation of the purchasing 
power of gold that the acceptance of specie at a premium 
would tend to alter. 

T ABOR is not a commodity, so declared the American 
-*-* Federation at its recent meeting in St. Paul. This 
raises an interesting question, the answer to which will 
be expressed in the relation of the worker to industry 
after the War. Under the old system, which still pre- 
vails, the value of labor is appraised and is paid for in 
terms of the monetary standard. It thus falls into the 
category of merchandise. If it is not that, then it must 
be classed with capital and should accept the risks of re- 
ward incident thereto. Organized labor has persistently 
declined to do that. Profit-sharing is quite a different 
thing; it still shields the workman from the financial 
dangers that beset the capitalist. In the declaration 
made by the A. F. L. we perceive the familiar argument 
of the socialist. It is evident, however, that the laboring 
classes, as represented by their leaders, are close students 
of political economy. Whether they advocate fallacies 
or not, they thoroughly understand the principles upon 
which our present economic system is founded. It is 
safe to say that, as a class, they understand these matters 
better than the large majority of manufacturers and 
business men. If we are to deal intelligently with the 
great social questions that confront us it will not suffice 
to acquire haphazard ideas concerning them from the 

experiences of our daily life. Exact knowledge of the 
fundamentals must be obtained by systematic study. 
The mining engineer must add economics to the long list 
of sciences he is required to master. 

rpiN is one of the few metals in which the United States 
-*- is deficient, despite the efforts made to develop such 
deposits as exist in several of' our mining regions, 
notably Alaska, California, Dakota, and the Carolinas. 
It is interesting therefore to record the fact that the 
War Department, on the initiative of the War Industries 
Board, has commandeered the Cash tin mine in Virginia. 
The prospect in question is on Irish creek, in Rockbridge 
county, Virginia ; it has been tied by litigation for many 
years, although well reported by successive engineers. 
The War Department will execute a lease to responsible 
parties on condition that they proceed to work in a 
systematic manner, and to ensure this the Department 
will nominate an engineer to supervise the operations. 
At the same time the English owners of the Temescal 
tin mine in southern California have made it possible for 
a group of capable American engineers and capitalists 
to begin production from that long neglected but ap- 
parently meritorious property. 

TpiNANCE is rarely inspiring, but the generous form 
•*- of reciprocity lately introduced into the relations 
between this country and the republics of South America 
is beginning to effect a conquest of mutual goodwill 
rather than of commercial advantage that awakens senti- 
ments of kindly neighborliness. We have referred on 
several occasions to the device by which trade-balances 
in favor of the Argentine and Peru are allowed to con- 
stitute a gold-credit for their account in the United 
States Federal Reserve Bank, against which the gov- 
ernments of those countries issue currency, yielding 
them the profits that always accrue from the emission of 
paper against a metallic reserve. Both we and they 
benefit by the arrangement, and the exchange of com- 
modities is encouraged and facilitated. So successful 
has the scheme proved that Chile now has joined the 
list, and similar arrangements are being made with other 
Latin-American states. It has been suggested that the 
gold-eredit, amounting to nearly $2,000,000 per month, 
that is growing in England for the account of China in 
payment for the 150,000 coolies now serving as a labor- 



and ocienbnc 


July 13, 19lfc 

army in France, might be employed in the same manner. 
The idea carries with it a closer drawing together of the 
nations in the compact, under conditions of mutual trust 
and responsibility. A sentiment of fellowship, which 
facilitates international co-operation, develops from this 
to a degree that trade alone never has been able to ac- 
complish. The Administration is to be congratulated on 
the evolution of this wise plan of reciprocity. 

TT is surprising that people so clever as the Japanese 
*- should send representatives to this country that can- 
not speak English. For example, Prince Yoshihisa 
Tokugawa is paying us a friendly visit as a repre- 
sentative of the Japanese Bed Cross; he was a guest of 
the Commonwealth Club in San Francisco and delivered 
a speech in Japanese, which was translated by a Japanese 
interpreter whose rendering of it in near-English was 
only a little more intelligible than the original utterance. 
Of course, it is an American custom to send gentlemen 
quite unable to speak any language but their own to 
represent the United States in foreign countries and the 
absurdity of the practice is not fully appreciated; we 
can claim no superiority over the people of Japan in this 
respect, and yet we venture to express surprise that they 
should imitate our blunders. Again, our readers are 
aware that a large number of technical men come from 
Japan to visit our mines and smelters ; we ourselves have 
had the pleasure of meeting many of them ; and in doing 
so we have marveled why they did not learn English be- 
fore beginning their journeys of observation, for our 
own experience has taught us that all the resources of 
the language are needed in order to obtain accurate and 
detailed information on technical matters. How can a 
Japanese possessing hardly enough command of English 
to order a breakfast expect to extract trustworthy in- 
formation on mining or metallurgy in the course of his 
visits to our mineral regions. We hazard the guess that 
some of the note-books carried back to Japan contain a 
great deal of inchoate matter. Perhaps one of our many 
friends in Japan will explain the anomaly. We refer 
to it only in order to promote a mutually good under- 

/"^OPPER is now quoted officially at 26 cents per 
^-* pound. On July 2 the War Industries Board raised 
the price 2$ cents from the 23.50 cents that has prevailed 
since September last. This fixation of price, subject to 
revision on August 15 next, was made by agreement be- 
tween the price-fixing committee of the Board and the 
principal producers of the metal. In taking this action, 
the Board stipulated that the producers will not reduce 
the wages now being paid ; that they will sell to the Gov- 
ernment, to the public, and to the Allied governments at 
a price not above this maximum' of 26 cents ; that they 
will take the necessary steps, under the direction of the 
Board, for the distribution of the copper, so as to prevent 
it from falling into the hands of speculators; and that 
they will pledge themselves to exert every effort to main- 
tain production. It is worthy of note that the Federal 
Trade Commission has reported that 21 copper-mining 

companies in 1917 made profits ranging from 1 to 107% 
on their investments, the average profit being 24.4%. 
Probably over 70% of the production, it is said, was 
obtained at a price yielding 20% on the investment. In 
1913 these same companies earned an average profit of 
13%, the range in that normal year being between 1 and 
56% on the investment. The significance of these state- 
ments hinges entirely on the definition of 'investment,' 
as to which the copper-producers and the Commission are 
likely to disagree. The 'profit' does not include Federal 
income or excess-profit taxes. The question now arises 
as to whether the labor-unions will demand an increase 
of wages on the basis of the former agreement whereby 
their pay was fixed by a sliding scale in which the price 
of copper was the determining factor. It is likely that 
the mining companies can show that the advance of 2J 
cents is absorbed by increased taxation, higher railroad 
freight-rates, and by the advance in the cost of supplies. 
The publication of trustworthy data on these matters 
would be wise. 

T AST January we criticized the delay of the Govern- 
-*- J ment in adopting a practical policy for supplying 
the fixed nitrogen that we need; we also censured the 
officials that permitted the advice given by friends of 
Germany to defeat the purpose of the Act passed by 
Congress in the summer of 1916 appropriating $20,000,- 
000 for a suitable plant. These Teutonic obstructionists 
managed to befuddle our officials so far that they took 
no action to break ground for the construction of a plant 
until last November. Then the country was told that a 
great factory would be ready at Muscle Shoals, Alabama, 
by July of this year. We do not care to pose as prophet* 
of evil, yet neither are we willing to encourage faith in 
the impossible, so we denied that the thing could be done. 
To promise miracles is a poor shield for past errors in 
judgment, as is now proved by the announcement that 
the contractors hope to have the first unit complete this 
autumn, and that it appears doubtful whether the full 
plant will be ready in less than two years. Meanwhile 
we are depending mainly upon nitrate from Chile, and 
the Shipping Board is rushing vessels, almost in ballast, 
to Chilean ports in its haste to obtain the precious salt 
for making munitions. At the same time the cotton crop 
this year is being grown largely without fertilizers, which 
will proportionally lessen harvest, and the Hawaiian 
sugar growers announce that the shortage of nitrate is so 
serious that the crop this year will be reduced by half. 
It is well enough to proclaim the great things that our 
country is accomplishing, but we must not forget that 
in a thousand subtle ways, even through men that preach 
patriotism and make ostentatious sacrifices in public, 
does Germany work in our midst to slacken our speed, 
to reduce our harvest, and to oppose our use of improved 
methods by advocating more tests where we already 
know enough to ensure good results. The bungling in 
this nitrate business is one of the most preposterous 
scandals that has come to light. Its effects are just be- 
ginning to be felt. The Government has taken what 
nitric acid it needed for making powder, because we 

July 13, 1918 

y m C and Science P^ 


could not maintain a scorching battle-front without it, 
hut to this end we have had to roh tlu> soil of fertilizer, 
involving lessened crops, higher prices, and tinaueial 
hardship for all the poeple. The men who counselled the 
Government to waste time in 'prudent' experimenting 

jjpon the methods for fixing nitrogen, which Germany 
already was using to supply her wants, committed a 
erime against the American people; they should all lie 
net. aside for the duration of the War, so that they may 
ilo us no further harm. 

Why Worry Over Buchanan Now? 

At a time of national stress, when the united en- 
thusiasm of all Americans is essential for our country's 
good, the spectacle of the Senate occupying the best part 
of a day in raking up the buried animosities of the Civil 
War is disheartening. Our 'scholar in politics,' the dis- 
tinguished senator from Massachusetts, allows his politi- 
cal prejudice to cloud his good sense. The question at 
issue was the mere authorization of a site in some public 
place in Washington for the erection of a statue to a 
past-president of the United States, James Buchanan, 
for which a sum of money had been bequeathed in the 
will of his niece, Harriet Lane Johnson. The resolution 
had already passed the House without exciting serious 
comment, for manifestly a discussion at this time that 
revives sectional feeling could find no justification. The 
attempt to brand Buchanan as a traitor has utterly 
failed in history; we are left with the picture of an old 
man of irresolute character facing a crisis too great for 
him, and made the more timid because a few months 
later he must vacate his office in favor of Abraham 
Lincoln. Trying to please both the North and the 
South, he won only hatred and scorn from both. Yet, 
he was a great statesman ; even his enemies conceded 
that he was incorruptible, and his whole life was spent 
in the devoted service of this country. Men of disloyal 
heart cannot so far conceal that fatal blemish as to pass 
the winnowing of a presidential election. The feebleness 
we talk of when we criticize some of our past executives 
is a matter of comparison among the giants, for weak 
men do not become presidents of the United States. It 
is unbecoming of Senator Lodge thus to assail one who 
has held the highest office in the gift of the Nation, and 
who was never convicted of wrong by the only com- 
petent Constitutional tribunal while he was alive. Any 
man who has won that great distinction is entitled to 
honor. It is petty to recall a lapse of good judgment in 
the Ostend resolution, which looked with aggressive 
jealousy toward Cuba, when another recent president, 
whom all America honors for rare achievements, sent a 
message of congratulation prematurely to the antici- 
pated infant republic of Panama; also it were to look 
too curiously if we should venture to scrutinize the 
halting policies of presidents in the last days of their 
administration. Our Mexican policy started off on the 
wrong foot for that very reason, and we believe that no 
one now regrets it more keenly than ex-president Taft 

himself. We submit that a president should be a firm 
executive, according to the light or nu understanding 
and belief, to the last act of his administration, regard- 
less of his successor. It will tend In stultify our Gov- 
ernment if it is to be crippled in decisive action from 
November to March every time that a new president is 
elected. An exhibition of that weakness has been given 
many times, and when the hour is not critical no one 
cares deeply, but in Buchanan's clay they did, and there 
was reason for it. Nevertheless, it is a narrow view of 
civic responsibility that inspires an attack by a scholarly 
senator at this particular moment when he cannot do it 
without stirring sectional passions that are being finally 
and utterly obliterated under the welding heat of a 
united struggle to the death. 

Labor and the War 

On other pages of this issue we publish the larger part 
of two speeches made at a recent meeting of the Butte 
section of the Institute by Messrs. Sidney J. Jennings 
and E. B. Howell. The subject was the relation of the 
mining company to its employees and the improve- 
ment of that relation in the interest of industrial de- 
velopment. Mr. Jennings quotes the old saying about a 
corporation; it was Thurlow that said "it has no soul 
to be damned and no body to be kicked," but the law 
has found something to kick and the humanitarian has 
discovered a soul to be saved. Indeed it is remarkable 
today how many clever men, immersed in financial or 
technical operations, have suddenly awakened to an ap- 
preciation of economics on the one hand and of human 
welfare on the other. Some of their statements have a 
naivete that disarms criticism, for the convert appeals 
to a generous mind. Indeed, it is most encouraging to 
observe how captains of industry are beginning to recog- 
nize that workmen are not cattle, because, among other 
things, they vote ; also that companies have responsibili- 
ties to others than their shareholders, namely, to the 
community amid which they operate. The relationship 
of labor to capital is discussed nowadays in terms less 
abstract than of yore, we recognize that each stands for 
human beings, living in a democratic world, the chief 
ideal of which is the essentially American idea of giving 
to every man a chance. The War has contributed to this 
development. Armageddon has involved not a con- 
test between mere professional armies, but between en- 
tire peoples ; thereby emphasizing the importance of the 
stand taken by labor, both as an organized party and as 
a mass of individuals. The workman, or manual laborer, 
has behaved well, rallying patriotically to the call of his 
country, in England, in France, and in the United States. 
Mr. Samuel Gompers deserves the esteem he has won by 
his cordial support of the President, and the American 
Federation of Labor deserves the thanks of the country 
for its willingness to subordinate its smaller aims to the 
larger necessities of the hour. This has led to a not un- 
pardonable exaggeration of the part played by labor, 
culminating in the pronunciamiento of the British 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, 1918 

Labor party and the general recognition of the fact that 
industrial conditions 'apres la guerre' are likely to be 
modified profoundly by the larger influence of labor par- 
ties, at home and abroad, in shaping policies of recon- 
struction when peace supervenes. Many of the infer- 
ences now commonly made on this subject are reasonable 
enough, but we are inclined to subject them to some dis- 
count because it seems to us that not to the laborer as 
such but to the fighting soldier returning from the battle- 
field we must look for the larger influence in the days to 
come. Despite all the talk of the sacrifices made by those 
that stay at home, it is to the man at the front that we 
shall owe our escape from German domination and from 
all the repugnant things that accompany such domina- 
tion. Labor has profited too much by the War to be in a 
position to demand an excess of sentimental gratitude ; 
it has been rewarded already for its willingness to work 
in the national cause. Miners that are receiving $5.50 
per shift and iron-workers that receive anywhere from 
$7 to $10 per day make no great claim for sympathy as 
compared to those that have lost an arm or a leg in battle, 
or those that have lost their business or professional posi- 
tion by their willingness to shoulder a gun. American 
workmen that threaten to strike when they are receiving 
$5 or $7 per day may be reminded of the stand taken 
by the workmen of Belgium in their courageous opposi- 
tion to the German invader. Of the 1,000,000 workmen 
in that sorely tried country, fully 750,000 have refused 
persistently to work for the Enemy, even after an effort 
has been made to terrorize them by deporting 150,000 of 
them to Germany and returning them in a broken-down 
or dying condition to Belgium in order to warn the re- 
mainder. No wonder the late Von Bissing confessed that 
the Belgians presented "a psychological problem." The 
German system of bullying and frightfulness failed to 
shake the steadfast resolve of the Belgian not to work 
for his enemy, not to make concrete, sand-bags, muni- 
tions, implements, or anything else that would aid the 
German effort to crash Belgium, France, and as much 
more of civilization as the Hun could bestride. The Bel- 
gian workman has fought as effectively as the Belgian 
soldier ; he has disdained high wages, safety, and food in 
his determination not to become the tool of the tyrant. 
No ; in the end we civilians, the mass of non-combatants 
constituting the community protected by the armies now 
engaged amid the smoke of battle, will feel indebted most 
of all to those that risked their lives for us, and while 
we shall recognize the good sense shown by those that 
did their duty at home, we shall be disinclined to accord 
to the enriched laborer any excess of adulation for his 
willingness to behave while receiving high pay. On the 
other hand, the returning soldier will impose some of his 
ideas upon us; he will have lived under the democratic 
conditions of an equal risking-of life for a great cause ; 
he will have learned to respect only those that can make 
good ; he will have scant respect for privilege as such ; 
even amid the horrors of war he will have become steeped 
in the true spirit of humanity — to live and let live. To 
him the laborer may look for sympathetic understanding, 
and to him the man of skill and of brains may appeal 

with confidence. Conditions 'after the War' will be in 
the hands of the best of this generation, in those of the 
courageous, vigorous, and clear-sighted young men that 
performed their supreme duty cheerfully, instantly, and 
successfully* We do not fear a future that is to be 
molded by them. 

The Mexican Editors 

Relations with Mexico are becoming more acute each 
day. Diplomatic notes just published show that our 
Government has made a peremptory demand upon Car- 
ranza that his confiscatory tax on oil properties shall not 
apply to the holdings of American citizens. At the same 
time we must direct attention to an insult offered to this 
country by the visiting Mexican editors, despite the 
courtesy that President Wilson showed them in an effort 
to display our goodwill toward their countrj r . His ad- 
dress to them set forth disinterested motives and positive 
friendship toward Mexico, such as all intelligent Ameri- 
cans will endorse ; and he accorded them the privilege of 
printing his remarks in their own papers before releas- 
ing them to the American press. The result was a gar- ' 
bled publication that put the President, and the nation 
for whom he spoke, in a false light before the Mexican 
people. Since then these Mexican visitors have been 
entertained in the principal cities of the country; they 
have been shown munition-shops, shipyards, and other 
industrial plants, from which even the average American 
is barred. We must remember that these are trained 
observers, that they are men of understanding, and that 
they edit papers controlled by a dictator masquerading 
as a representative ruler, a man whose hostility to us 
has been unwavering, and whose friendship for Germany 
has been a growing menace to our welfare. The con- 
struction to be put upon the attitude of our Government 
in showing them our factories is that they will carry 
back to Carranza the proofs of our invincibility, and 
demonstrate to him that his own best interest will be 
served by getting off the fence on the American side. 
He has been so eager to stand with the winner that his 
favors swung for a time like a pendulum between the 
United States and Germany; finally he was influenced 
by the insistent Teutonic propaganda, conducted in a 
manner beneath the dignity of a self-respecting nation, to 
credit the testimony dinned into his ears that the success 
of the German arms was assured. Men like Senor 
Luis Olivera, the accomplished editor of 'El Universal.' 
whose speech at the luncheon tendered to the party in 
San Francisco displayed so clear an understanding of 
our resources and military readiness, will take home to 
Carranza a different impression. The visiting editors 
must now realize how remote from our thoughts is the 
idea of aggression, and how fully the American people 
endorse the pledge given by President Wilson to protect 
the autonomy of every Latin-American country. We 
would not be surprised after this to see financial arrange- 
ments, similar to those that have stimulated so kindly a 
feeling between the United States and the Argentine, be- 
come the basis of a rapprochement with Mexico. 

July 18, WIS 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Doctor Douglas 

The Editor : 

Sir — It is by way of being formal that we speak of 
him as James Douglas. As a matter of fact America is 
full of James Douglases ; so is Scotland ; and they stretch 
in a long line of rugged, intellectual, capable men back 
to that remote Sir James of Castle Dangerous, who knew, 
in his medieval way, how to make his name respected, 
and to blaze the trail for Scottish progress ; but there is 
only one 'Doctor' Douglas, and that is the honored dean 
of American mining engineers, who has left us in the 
flesh but will remain with us in the spirit always. This 
is no mere figure of speech. He did more than open great 
mines, yet great mines in themselves constitute one of 
the most important sources of national strength; their 
development means the creation of centres of re-vitaliza- 
tion for society; and the men who develop them have 
helped to direct human progress and to determine human 
destiny in a very large sense. Though Themistocles, for 
example, did many things as politician and statesman, 
for which he is chiefly celebrated, his most significant 
achievement was in turning the mines of Laurium into 
a reservoir of national strength. He caused the intensive 
unfolding of their treasure, and thereby made it possible 
for Greece to live and to sustain the growth of culture 
and finer manhood, because he persuaded his fellow 
Athenians to permit the use of the silver from Laurium 
to build a fleet. So it happened that the fleet built from 
these revenues saved not only Greece, but all Europe, 
from being engulfed in the savage romanticisms of a 
Persian 'kultur.' Can anyone disentangle the name of 
Themistocles from the mines of Laurium or from the 
web of Grecian history in which he was a vital thread? 
The life of Doctor Douglas also is a vital thread in the 
strong fabric of American development. That is not to 
say that he was an essential thread in it, for he would 
have been the first to confront me with the philosophic 
truth that no man is essential. The world will career 
along its way" whether one or another live or die ; but in 
retrospect there are those who are forgotten and those 
whose lives were so vital that things would have been 
altogether different had they not lived and labored and 
filled the age in which they worked with something bet- 
ter than material achievement. It is a distinguishing 
characteristic of this great miner that he vitalized a 
necessary profession with a new understanding of its 
spiritual obligations. He lifted it above the mercenary ; 
he remembered man as an instrument in the making of 
the industrial strength of the nation. Far beyond Bisbee 

and Arizona, and the South-West, his spirit illuminated 
the lives and directed the thoughts and activities of men 
over whom he exerted the influence of a guiding men- 
tality so high that it made him the intellectual father of 
many. It was because he dared to open his mines and 
smelters and workshops to all who came in the spirit of 
learners that mines and mills and smelters throughout 
America have accepted the democratic doctrine of gen- 
erous educational exchange. It was because his sympa- 
thy reached down to the miner, and to the miner's wife 
and babies, that the broad principle of accruing annui- 
ties for old age, and protection to the family after death, 
became a humanitarian example of justice to the work- 
ingman so widely followed. It was he who showed the 
way, not to a crude profit-sharing, but to actual partici- 
pation in the ownership, by offering to every employee 
the chance to accumulate stock in the great Phelps-Dodge 
chain of industries, held in the treasury available for 
them to acquire at par by small payments out of wages, 
although the premium on these shares was so great as 
to multiply the investment many-fold as soon as any 
workman completed the easy purchase and had the 
transfer made on the company's books. His spirit was 
of the sort that ennobled those with whom he dealt, and 
this quality was impressed upon his welfare-work ; it was 
always cultural, expansive; it never was offered as a 
largess, it never made a man feel dependent ; on the con- 
trary, it placed the beneficiary on the footing of self- 
respecting manhood, making it self-evident that he was 
the beneficiary not of an institution but of his individual 
effort. This method of dealing with men as men instead 
of as servants he impressed upon the corporation whose 
policies, consciously or unconsciously, he molded into a 
reflection of himself, for he was associated with a group 
of kindred natures, who found in him a nobility of char- 
acter that was irresistible in its power of leadership. He 
was fortunate in these rare associations; it gave him 
freer scope ; the seed had fallen in good ground and the 
plant was not withered before the harvest. 

It was not merely as a practical man, as a competent 
man, that he made his deep impress upon the work of his 
generation; it was chiefly in his example as a broad- 
minded spiritual leader of the men in the profession of 
mining and metallurgy at a critical period in our na- 
tional development, that he justifies the parallel with the 
renowned Greek. It must be observed that his span of 
activity covered the growth of mining in the West from 
the time when it was a scramble for spectacular riches to 
its maturity as a vast industry founded on true conserva- 
tional principles, and he was a directing force, by ex- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, 19^6 

ample and by doctrine, in promoting this evolution. The 
young engineers recognized in him the quality of a kind 
wise father to them all, one who remembered his own 
early struggles, who appreciated their difficulties and 
understood their aspirations. A multitude of American 
engineers will claim the privilege of naming him, above 
all other men, their professional father. Even those who 
did not know him personally, but had merely read his 
unpretentious words of scientific instruction and human 
counsel, felt his power, and recognized his fatherhood in 
their thought and in the practical administration of their 
duties. When a man becomes a master, first over him- 
self and over the work allotted him to do in life, and then 
tomes to make himself felt as a guide to successful en- 
deavors by others, because in him is found wisdom, com- 
petency, truth, justice, and love, and when this influence 
extends over a continent in its moment of change from an 
untamed desert to a bulwark of national strength at a 
great crisis in the history of civilization, there is no ex- 
aggeration in naming him as a factor in our preparedness 
without whom we would not have been so well able to 
gird on our armor in time. Moreover, he knew what he 
was doing without boasting of it; he never espoused the 
weak and puling tenets of the pacifists ; he was kind, he 
was loving, he was humble; but he was also a militant 
nature, a man 's man, disdaining maudlin sentiment. 

The records of his special service to his profession, to 
Canada the land of his birth, and to America the land of 
his adoption, are written elsewhere ; they justify this ap- 
preciation, which is a tribute that will, I know, awaken 
hearty response in thousands of hearts. Some of these 
will testify to his unique qualities as shown in mining; 
others will think of him as a help to them and to the 
world in the progress of metallurgy ; others will reflect 
upon his distinction as a builder and manager of rail- 
roads that set new ideals of justice and honor in their 
administration; others, who knew nothing of all these 
things, will hold happy recollections of the long series of 
choice contributions to the literature of the day that 
found their way from his pen into the magazines, and 
they will express the joy they experienced in reading 
the plain truths of Canadian and New England colonial 
history interpreted sympathetically by this keenly an- 
alytic mind. Again, there are the students who have gone 
forth from Columbia University, to whom he was 'our 
Doctor Douglas,' carrying his inspiration in their hearts, 
scarce knowing that to another body of young men, those 
of his own Alma Mater, Queen's University in Canada, 
he also stood as a commanding Chancellor, their idol, 
their spiritual and intellectual mentor. A man who has 
touched the hearts of youth with the flame that kindles 
to high endeavor, who has created ideals for a great 
fraternity upon whose skill and industry the nation 
depends so largely for defence in war and for progress 
in times of peace, is one whose name will live and be 
known with increasing honor as time clarifies in sharper 
outline the greatness of his work. 


Stanford University, California, June 30. 

Conservation of Technical Engineers 

The Editor: 

Sir — In the issue of your journal for June 15 I have 
read with»interest your editorial entitled 'Conservation 
of Technical Engineers,' and as a true American citizen 
I agree with your sentiments heartily. In another 
journal I have noted that the U. S.- government asks for 
2000 experienced engineers between the ages of 32 and 
42 to make application to attend the Engineers Training 
Camp. If the applicant is lucky after attending this 
camp he may be given the rank of lieutenant or captain. 
This seems to be rather unfair in view of the fact that 
all doctors, without any of this preliminary training in 
camp, on entering the service, be they good or bad, are 
given the rank of captain. Knowing you to be an engi- 
neer whose heart has remained with the members of the 
profession I beg to mention this apparent discrimination 
so that it may be corrected before all active practical 
engineers have become promoters or store-clerks. 

A Mining Engineeeu. 

Los Angeles, June 19. 

[It is pleasing to note that our correspondent, in com- 
mon with many others, so fully realizes the error that 
was committed in allowing our young technical men. 
under the impulse of splendid patriotism, to rush into 
branches of the military service where their technical 
knowledge was largely if not wholly unused. This is 
very much like mining an argentiferous silver ore having 
a barite gangue, sorting out the rich galena with its 
precious accompaniment to be thrown over the dump, 
while shipping the barite to the paint-manufacturer. 
Estimates of the number of young men in training for 
technical work and of recent graduates that on the 
threshold of their career have joined the colors show that 
the country is short approximately seven annual crops of 
scientifically educated recruits to its industrial enter- 
prises. These are the men on whom we depend to insure 
efficient intelligent supervision of the complicated opera- 
tions that are devoted to supplying our fighting men at 
the front. Perhaps the doctors fare better than the engi- 
neers; but we would complain less of discrimination as 
regards the rank given those actually enlisted in the 
engineering corps, where their special talents are utilized, 
than we do of the wastage of trained men in a kind of 
service that does not call for the knowledge of chemistry, 
metallurgy, or electricity. — Editor.] 

Copper production for 1918 is estimated to exceed 
the output of last year, when it was 2,400,000,000 lb., 
being a high record in that industry. It is stated that 
95%, of the entire consumption of copper is directly or 
indirect!}' by the Government. 

Mineral production of Korea in 1917 was valued at 
Y24,081,127 (1 yen = 50 cents), a decrease of T30,000. 
The Oriental Consolidated, Seoul Mining, Chicksan, and 
Chosen companies contributed the most of this, in gold, 
copper, and tungsten. 

July 13. 1318 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Apexes and Anticlines 


The Supreme Court of the United States has been 
heard from again on the extra-lateral question, and a 
new field of combat over apex problems has been opened 
up. The ease at bar was the old controversy between the 
Jim Butler Tonopah Mining Co. and the "West End 
Consolidated Mining Co. The essential questions in- 
volved were : 

First : Can the crest or crown of a vein that is found 
in the form of a single anticline, dipping in both direc- 
tions, and having no defined terminal edge, be considered 

which is the subject-matter in dispute. This vein has 
the crest of its anticlinal fold in the West End claim, 
cutting the easterly end-line and the northerly side-line. 
Prom this crest the vein dips in both northerly and 
southerly directions at an angle varying from 17° to 
30° in different parts of the claim, and crosses the op- 
posite side-lines on the dip. The crest of the fold is 
covered to a depth of several hundred feet by volcanic 
flows of 'Midway andesite' and 'Fraction dacite-breccia. ' 
Discovery was made on the West End claim through a 

as an apex upon which extra-lateral rights can be predi- 
cated ? 

Second: Having such a vein, can the locator of a 
claim, in which the crest of this anticlinal roll is found, 
follow both limbs of the vein extra-laterally through 
opposite side-lines? 

A careful reading of the opinion indicates that the 
Court has evaded a decision on the first question by re- 
fusing to go back of the trial-court's finding that an 
apex as a matter of fact existed, and that it has decided 
the second question in the affirmative. The opinion will 
be better understood if the facts are outlined. The fol- 
lowing sketch, adapted from defendant's exhibit Gt, 
modified in accordance with the Court's findings, is 
illustrative of the situation. 

The West End company owned the West End claim 

in the Tonopah district, Nevada. The Jim Butler owned 

. the Eureka and Curtis claims adjoining the southerly 

West End side-line. All the claims overlie what was 

known in the early days of Tonopah as the 'big flat vein,' 

shaft driven through this cap to a point on the northerly 
dipping limb of the vein. The orebodies in dispute were 
in the southerly dipping limb of the vein, just beyond 
the southerly side-line of the West End, and vertically 
beneath the Jim Butler claims. In the trial court the 
main dispute was whether the West End vein was or- 
iginally one vein, or two veins, one cut off by the other 
and practically joined at their upper terminal edges. 
The trial court found that but one vein existed ; it called 
the crest of its anticline a "junction or union" between 
its "two limbs or sides"; it defined this crest or axis as 
an apex; and, as has been said, awarded the West End 
company an extra-lateral right in both directions. 

As to the existence of an apex, the Supreme Court, 
after quoting at length the finding of the trial court, 
summarizes it as follows: 

"Giving due effect to the finding, it is manifest that 
the vein in controversy is not a flat or horizontal vein or 
one which would be practically horizontal but for a suc- 
cession of rolls or waves in its elevation. On the eon- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, 1918 

trary, it is shown to be a fissure vein with two dipping 
limbs whose course downward is substantial, regular, and 
practically free from undulations. For 750 ft. out of 
its total length of 1150 ft. within the West End claim 
each limb is practically a separate vein with a distinct 
summit or terminal edge. For the remaining 400 ft. 
the two limbs are united and from the point of union the 
mineralized quartz or rock continues upward for from 
20 or 30 to more than 100 ft., and this seems to answer 
all the calls of a summit or terminal edge. In these cir- 
cumstances we hardly would be warranted in saying as 
matter of law that the vein has no top or apex within 
the claim in the sense of the statute. See Stewart Min- 
ing Co. v. Ontario Mining Co., 237 U. S. 350." 

An examination of the record leads one. to wonder 
how tke above conclusion was reached. The evidence 
was not in dispute as to the existence of vein-matter 
throughout a large portion of the exposure between well- 
defined walls of andesite and trachyte or rhyolite and 
trachyte. The whole vein-formation is unquestionably 
anticlinal in its general characteristics. True, the hang- 
ing wall at the crest of the fold was traversed by string- 
ers of vein-matter continuing upward for a distance, 
forming what was termed at the trial a "halo," as ob- 
served by the Court in its finding. But this condition 
also prevailed to some extent on the dip of the vein, and 
was due in all probability to replacement along subor- 
dinate fissures extending into the hanging wall. The ex- 
istence, at the crest of the fold, of the stringers that were 
minor features when compared with the great width of 
the main vein, in view of the obvious roll in the forma- 
tion as a whole, hardly warrants the view that these con- 
stitute a true apex, especially since practically all these 
stringers along the crest of the roll dipped to the north 
and away from the orebodies in dispute. Certainly a 
terminal edge to the vein is lacking. That the Supreme 
Court was in some doubt is indicated by the closing para- 
graph of the decision where it said: 

"The contention is not that the top or apex of this 
vein has been found elsewhere, but only that what is 
found in the "West End claim is not such in the sense of 
the statute. ' The law, ' as has been truly said, ' assumes 
that the lode has a top, or apex, and provides for the 
acquisition of title by location upon this apex.' Prob- 
ably this assumption could not be indulged where the 
fact appeared to be otherwise, but it serves to show that 
the absence of a top or apex ought not to be adjudged in 
the presence of such a finding as we have here." 

The second conclusion of the Court, that, granted an 
apex exists, the vein may be followed extra-laterally in 
opposite directions, is perhaps open to little criticism. 
The Act of 1872, Rev. Stat. 2322, gave to the locator the 
right to follow "all veins, lodes, and ledges throughout 
their entire depth, the top or* apex of which lies inside 
of such surface lines extended downward vertically, al- 
though such veins, lodes, or ledges may so far depart 
from a perpendicular in their course downward as to 
extend outside the vertical side-lines of such surface 
legations. " 

In many decisions this provision of the law has been 

held to grant to the locator all the veins whose apexes 
are within his location. While it may be that no specific 
case has been passed upon where secondary veins dipped 
in opposite directions from the discovery vein, there is 
certainly rib exception in the above quoted section of the 
Act to justify an inference that the extra-lateral right 
on either vein would be denied the locator if they did 
dip in opposite directions. If then the right exists 
where two veins with separate apexes dip at a diverging 
angle, why should it not exist where a single apex is 
found and the vein splits into two diverging limbs that 
cross opposing side-lines? The Supreme Court followed 
the line of reasoning just stated, and it seems cogent. 
If the apex be assumed, then the extra-lateral right fol- 
lows under the law, within parallel end-lines, no matter 
in which direction the particular veins may dip. 

The decision as a whole serves to emphasize the com- 
mon sense of the juries of citizens that sat in the Lead- 
ville cases in Colorado and refused to find that such a 
thing as an apex could exist under conditions not greatly 
dissimilar to those in the Jim Butler case. If an apex 
be conceded, and the end-lines are parallel, then the 
extra-lateral right follows even if it bars mining by all 
the other elaim-owners in the district. But the burden 
of proof is on the extra-lateral claimant to prove his 
apex. Where a blanket vein, or one dipping at a flat 
angle, extends for a considerable distance beneath a 
given district, justice to a multitude of neighboring 
locators and the public interest, in freedom of oppor- 
tunity to all, seems to require that such a claimant 
should be held strictly to sustain fully that burden be- 
fore his extra-lateral claims receive judicial confirma- 
tion. He should be required to show something more 
than the summit of an anticlinal roll with a few string- 
ers projected into the adjacent country-rock. He 
should be asked to show beyond doubt that there is but 
one crest, and that he is not basing his claim upon the 
discovery of one of a series of elevations or folds in the 
vein-sheet, none of which may properly be classed as 
apexes. A terminal edge should be shown in conformity 
with the rule in the Leadville cases. ' 

The Supreme Court based its decision ultimately upon 
the particular finding of fact of the trial court that an 
apex existed under the peculiar geologic conditions there 
exposed, but announced no general principle or rule by 
which we may be guided in the future. Whether the 
crest or axis of an anticlinal vein without stringers pro- 
jecting upward from this crest or axis is an apex is not 

The Court has indicated in the Jim Butler case that 
it will not upset the trial court's findings of fact on the 
question of apex existence. Surely this attitude throws 
upon our trial courts the duty of scrutinizing the evi- 
dence in such cases with great care, in order that the 
apex law, which has been shown to be founded upon 
sound principles of equity when applied to deep-lode 
mining, shall not, in cases where the vein approaches the 
horizontal, work an immeasurable advantage to one 
locator at the expense of an irreparable injury to all his 

July 13, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Gold and Silver Mines of the 
United States 

During 1916, the last year for which data are avail- 
able, there were 1530 plaeer and 3765 deep gold and 
silver mines in this country. Alaska led with placer 
properties, having 650, and only 47 deep mines, while 
Colorado had the most deep mines — 825 — but only 27 
placer properties, according to the U. S. Geological 

The principal gold-producing States were California, 
Colorado, Alaska, Nevada, and South Dakota, contribut- 
ing 80% of the total in 1916. The principal silver-pro- 
ducing States were Montana, Nevada, Utah, Idaho, Colo- 
rado, and Arizona, accounting for 90% of the total. 

The mines, in order of output, stood as under : 


Operator State Mining district Source of gold 

Homestuke ..... South Dakota Whitewood Dry or silicious ores 

Tuba Con California MarysvlUe Dredging gravel 

Goldfleld Con. ..Nevada Goldfleld Dry or silicious ores 

Empire Mines . . . California Grass Valley do 

Alaska Gastineau . Alaska Juneau do 

Cresson Con. ...Colorado Cripple Creek do 

Portland do do do 

Vindicator Con... do do do 

Alaska Treadwell . Alaska Juneau do 

North Star Mines . California Grass Valley do 

Yukon Gold .... Alaska Iditarod and Ruby Dredging gravel 

Alaska United. . . do Juneau do 

Utah Copper . . . Utah West Mountain Copper ores 

Kennedy Mining. . California Jackson Dry or silicious ores 

Liberty Bell . . . .Colorado Upper San Miguel do 

Tomboy do do do 

Nevada Con. . . . Nevada Robinson (Ely) Copper ores 

Anaconda Copper . Montana Summit Valley (Butte) do 

[Since the above table was prepared, there have been 
many changes. Alaska Treadwell is closed, Goldfleld 
Consolidated has fallen off considerably, while the 
United Eastern in Arizona should take about third 
place. — Editor. ] 


Operator State Mining district Source of silver 

Anaconda Copper ... Montana Summit Valley (Butte) Copper ores 

Hercules Mining. .. .Idaho Leland Lead ores 

Tonopah -Belmont . . .Nevada Tonopah Dry or silicious ores 

Butte & Superior. . .Montana Summit Valley(Butte) Zinc-lead ores 

Tonopah Extension . . Nevada Tonopah Dry or silicious ores 

Chief Consolidated . . Utah Tintic Lead oreB 

Tonopah Mining . . . Nevada Tonopah Dry or silicious ores 

Bunker Hill & Sul . . Idaho Treka Lead ores 
Caledonia Mining. do do do 

Federal M. & S do Hunter do 

United Verde Arizona Verde Copper ores 

North Butte Montana Summit Valley(Butte) do 

Silver King Coalition . Utah Uintah Lead ores 

Calumet &" Arizona. Arizona Warren Copper ores 

Hecla Mining Id.aho Leland Lead ores 

Greenhill Cleveland do do do 

Kennecott Copper ...Alaska Kennicott Copper ores 

Copper Queen Con. . . Arizona Warren do 

Jim Butler Tonopah. Nevada Tonopah Dry or silicious ores 

Nevada Wonder ... do Wonder do 

Presidio Mining ....Texas Shafter Silicious (silver) ores 

Alundum manufacture and use was described by M. 
A. Williamson in a recent issue of the 'Metal Industry', 
as follows: Bauxite is calcined in a rotary calciner at 
1300° C. and this product is shoveled into the arc between 
two suspended electrodes in an electric furnace. The 
furnace consists of a circular steel shell set on a re- 
fractory base. A temperature of 2050° is required to 
melt the bauxite. When the shell is full of molten 

bauxite the current is stopped and the furnace cooled. 
The shell is removed and the resulting 'pig' is broken 
into pieces. These are crushed to any degree of fineness 
desired, depending on the grade and the use to which 
the alundum is to be put. It is greatly superior to any 
of the natural abrasives for grinding and polishing. 

The Graphite Market 

Crystalline graphite production of the United States 
in 1917, including stocks at the mines, was 14,000,000 
lb., an increase of 3,100,000 lb., according to the U. S. 
Geological Survey. Figures furnished by the producers 
of crystalline graphite show that out of total sales of 
10,584,080 lb., 6.816,913 lb., valued at $982,336, or about 
64% by weight and 90% by value of the total, was flake 
graphite containing from 80 to 90% of graphitic carbon, 
in large part suitable for making crucibles. The re- 
mainder, 3,767,177 lb., valued at $109,962, was dust or 
low-grade flake, probably averaging under 50%, of car- 
bon. The proportion of flake graphite produced is 
greater than in previous years, the increase having been 
due in part to improved methods of milling, whereby a 
larger proportion was saved as flake, and in part to the 
fact that, owing to the freight embargo during the latter 
part of the year, Alabama producers were able to ship 
only material of high grade. There were 25 mines re- 
porting sales of crystalline graphite in 1917 against 16 
in 1916. Alabama was the largest producer in 1917, the 
amount marketed being 6,223,095 lb., valued at $719,575 ; 
New York came next, with 2,941,040 lb., valued at $261,- 
548 ; and Pennsylvania third, with 804,945 lb., valued at 
$77,475. California, Montana, and Texas made a com- 
bined production of 545,000 lb., valued at $33,700. 

Amorphous graphite was produced in 1917 by 5 mines 
in Colorado, Michigan, Nevada, and Rhode Island. The 
output was 8301 tons, valued at $73,481, compared with 
2622 tons, valued at $20,723 in 1916. 

Artificial graphite is manufactured chiefly by the In- 
ternational Acheson Graphite Co., which utilizes electric 
power generated at Niagara Palls. 

Imports of graphite in 1917 amounted to 42,609 short 
tons, valued at $8,961,988. Imports in 1913, the year 
before the war began, were 28,885 short tons, valued at 
$2,109,791. Exports in 1917, principally to Great 
Britain, Prance, Canada, and Italy, amounted to 2576 
short tons, compared with 798 tons in 1916. Manufac- 
tured graphite articles to the value of $891,633 were ex- 
ported in 1917, against $1,339,259 for such articles ex- 
ported in 1916. 

At present war prices, miners in this country who are 
working disseminated flake deposits must depend on their 
No. 1 and 2 flake for their profit. Graphite dust is 
merely a by-product and is salable only at a low price. 
Improved methods of graphite milling, adopted during 
the last year, promise to increase largely the production 
of flake of better grade. 

The requirements for 1918 will be between 28,000 and 
32,000 tons, which may probably be supplied by domestic, 
artificial, and Mexican production. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, 1918 

Blasting Methods % at Ajo 


In the work of excavating the ore in the Copper moun- 
tain deposit at Ajo, Arizona, belonging to the New Cor- 
nelia Copper Co., two methods of preparing the ground 
to receive the charges for blasting are employed. One 
method is to tunnel into the working-face on a level with 
the floor of the shovel-pit, and the other is to drill ver- 
tical holes about six inches in diameter with No. 14 
Cyclone gasoline drilling-machines. Before the blasting 
is done, the ground is closely examined and a careful 
stadia survey is made to determine the toe and erest of 

faces and from developing slides, which are dangerous 
to life and equipment, and are expensive to shoot down. 
In actual practice 3.44 tons of ore have been broken for 
each pound of powder used, including that required for 
'springing' or chambering the churn-drill holes. This 
figure was determined from accumulated records of 
the blasting of 530,600 tons of ore. The ore weighs 
about 160 lb. per cubic foot. 

By the tunnel-method, the tunnels are driven into the 
face to a depth equal approximately to two-thirds the 





the working-face and the proper situation for the pow- 
der-chambers. An effort is made to ascertain the posi- 
tions of the faults and also of the solid and loose ma- 
terial. The effect of these features on the result of the 
blast is anticipated. From the data thus secured a plan 
is drawn, and from this map a sufficient number of cross- 
sections is plotted to calculate the tonnage that will 
probably be broken by each charge of powder. 

For a working basis, each pound of Trojan 40% 
powder is taken as having sufficient strength to break 
four tons of ore. This, no doubt, is an under-estimate 
of the strength of the powder, but it has proved advan- 
tageous to slightly overload the holes. This practice, to 
a degree, prevents the broken ore from hanging on the 

height of the ore above the powder-charge. From the 
main tunnels two sets of cross-cuts are made, one set at 
the rear of the tunnel and the other about 30 ft. back 
from the portal. The cross-cuts are driven to such a 
distance as will make the charges in the rear an equal 
distance apart for all tunnels. Two powder-chambers, 
one at each end of the cross-cut, are excavated in the 
back. In the front cross-cut four chambers are used. 
The powder-charges are placed about 6 ft. below the floor 
of the pit. About 20% of the total amount of the powder 
in each tunnel is placed in the front charges. These 
figures apply to ideal conditions only. Allowances are 
made for faults, hard and loose material, height of bank, 
and other things, so that the amounts of powder may be 

July 13, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


proportioned accordingly. The advantages of the tun- 
nel-system are: No springing is necessary before placing 
the powdrr -charges; the danger of premature explosions 
from hot walls, caused by chambering with powder is 
eliminated; the work can he done with less skilled labor; 
it is not necessary to build roads over difficult surfaces 
for the movement of heavy drilling-machines. On the 

Fig. 1. copper mountain the day before blasting 

other hand, tunneling into a low bank is as expensive as 
tunneling into a high one. When this method is used in 
banks less than 50 ft. high, the cost per ton of ore broken 
has been found to exceed the average. 

Churn-drill holes are placed about 50 ft. apart and are 
drilled to a depth of 6 ft. below the floor of the pit. 
After using different methods, the mine superintendent, 
Fred Eekman, is now using the following procedure 
when chambering churn-drill holes : 

1. Use 28 sticks of powder, without tamping, to blow 

Fig. 3. appearance op hill four minutes after blast 

the hole dry, that is, to drive out the water. 

2. Load the hole with 25 lb. of powder and 15 ft. of 
tamping. This charge is to enlarge the bottom of the 
hole to receive the final shot for chambering. 

3. Load the hole with one-tenth the amount of powder 
that is to be used in the blast. If the hole is to be loaded 
with 80 boxes of powder then use 8 boxes for the cham- 
bering-shot; if 100 boxes are to be used, then 10 boxes 
will be required for chambering. About 40 ft. of tamp- 
ing is used over the final ehambering-shot. After each 
shot, time must be allowed for the walls of the hole to 
cool. Repeated tests of temperature are made by lower- 
ing a self-recording thermometer into the hole. 

There are advantages in using shorn drills. The 
work can proceed without interference to steam-shovel 
operations, and where the working-space is limited 
greater quantities of ore can be prepared for blasting 
than with the tunnel-method. It is not necessary to wait 
until the ore already shot down is removed before the 
work of drilling for the next blast can proceed. Churn- 

FlG. 2. VIEW at the moment of blasting 

drills have proved exceedingly satisfactory where the 
working-faces are not over 50 ft. high. 

On account of the extreme hardness of the ore in the 
Ajo district, it has been found that after a depth of 40 


Boulder before shot. Largest piece after shot. 


or 50 ft. has been passed the cost per foot of hole drilled 
rapidly increases. 

In the process of excavating the ore in Copper moun- 
tain, it was estimated that 200,000 tons of ore was broken 
by a single blast. This was on February 28, at what is 
called 'No. 3 hill.' Seven holes were drilled with a 
churn-drill, each hole being six inches in diameter and 
90 ft. deep, spaced 50 ft. apart. A total of 32 tons of 
40% Trojan powder was used in' the blast. That in- 
cludes the powder used for springing. The appearance 
of the hill, as it stood the day before shooting the holes, 
is seen in Fig. 1. The illustration in Fig. 2 was taken 
at the moment of the blast, and Fig. 3 shows the effect 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, 1918 

as revealed when the smoke had cleared away four 
minutes later. 

All block-holing at Ajo is now done with the same 
grade of Trojan powder. The practice is illustrated in 
the accompanying cut and half-tone illustrations. In 
this particular case a block measuring approximately six 
feet in all three dimensions was drilled in the centre of 
one side to a depth of 2 ft. 6 in. Block-holes are loaded 
with two ounces of the granulated 40% Trojan powder. 
A fuse split at the end, and without a detonating cap, is 
next inserted, after which another two ounces of the 
powder is poured in and lightly pressed down with a 
wooden tamping-stick. The remainder of the hole is then 
tamped full of screened sand, and the charge is ready 
for shooting. In all cases the results are practically the 
same: the boulder immediately around the hole is com- 
pletely shattered, while the lower half is split into pieces, 
the largest of which, in the case cited, is shown on the 

Mexican labor is used for this work. One man with an 
Ingersoll-Band BCR-430 jack-hammer can drill 100 holes, 
averaging 18 in. deep, in eight hours, making all his own 
air connections. These, as well as the powder-men for 
this work, are picked men, working most of the time 
without the direct supervision of a foreman. The labor 
is very satisfactory. 

The drawing shows a common size of boulder in which 
four ounces of powder is used. If, by inspection, a 
boulder is approximately half as large, then only two 
ounces would be used ; if twice as large, eight ounces 
would be required, and so on. At present the powder 
is stored in two stone buildings, one with a capacity of 
200 tons, and one of 100 tons capacity, both about half 
a mile from the present steam-shovel pits. To date this 
has proved ample storage capacity for the amount of 
reserve powder required. 

The chromite production of the United States, accord- 
ing to J. S. Diller, of the Geological Survey, was 43,725 
long tons, of which the greater part came from Cali- 
fornia. Oregon produced 7506 tons, and smaller quan- 
tities came from Alaska, Washington, Maryland, and 
North Carolina. This year the output must be greatly 
increased. The large consumers are paying $1.25 per 
unit for 38% ore, that is, $47.50 per ton, f.o.b. ears on 
the Pacific coast, on contracts extending through the 
year. A hopeful sign is that some of the large deep 
gold-mining companies are using parts of their stamp- 
mills, especially in Nevada county, for crushing and con- 
centrating low-grade chrome ore. The ore sold on the 
Pacific Coast in 1917 ranged from 30 to 55% of chromic 
oxide; the average was about 42% for the total output, 
which sold during the year at an average price of $26 per 
ton. The total output for the first four months of 1918 
is 17,693 long tons, equivalent to 14,862 long tons of 50% 
ore. That is less than one-third of the total domestic 
production expected in 1918. 

Ztnc-dust is in steady demand, the price for im- 
mediate shipment being 14 to 16e. per pound. 

Tropical Sanitation 

Canal Zone sanitation was good during the first quar- 
ter of 1918, according to an official report. Malaria, 
which is tfie most important problem of the health de- 
partment, has been almost extinct in the regular sani- 
tated areas. Many weeks have passed during which no 
case has been reported. This condition is partly due 
to the dry season, but mainly to the cumulative results 
of years of unceasing vigilance and anti-mosquito work, 
classified as permanent work. Anti-malaria work, which 
consists of anti-mosquito work, is like fighting a smoul- 
dering fire which, if not constantly watched, may flare- 
up at any time the conditions become favorable. Sueh 
will be the case until the malaria parasite or its host is 
eliminated. Theoretically it is possible to eliminate the 
parasite causing malaria — more practicable than to elim- 
inate its host, the anopheles mosquito. Elimination of 
the latter would involve the expenditure of enormous 
sums of money. Elimination of the parasite could be 
done by treating all human beings who are infected. The 
latter method of procedure is also expensive, but must 
be the goal sought, when, as with yellow fever, there shall 
be no more sources of infection. The 'aedes calopus' 
(stegomyia) still exists in Panama, but there has been 
no case of yellow fever for years. In the meantime the 
anti-mosquito work must go on as a local measure. The 
present corps of sanitary inspectors is deserving of great 
credit. The regular inhabited areas are in better con- 
dition than ever before. During the past quarter much 
permanent work has been done, consisting of additional 
sanitary ditches ad tile-drains. The total number of 
eases of malaria reported for the period, among em- 
ployees, was 160. Of these, 20 are for the Zone proper, 
and 140 have occurred among employees engaged on 
plantations and in pasture-clearing camps for the Supply 
Department, outside of regular sanitated areas, in the 
jungle. What to do with these men is the problem. The 
breeding places about these camps cannot be eliminated 
on account of the temporary nature. The men employed 
are mostly native Panamans and Colombians, many of 
whom are 'carriers,' and furnish infected blood to the 
'anopheles' mosquitoes, which, in biting 'non-immunes, ' 
cause active malaria fever. It has been suggested that 
the streams near the camps be left shaded, that is, that 
vegetation be left uncut, making breeding of 'anopheles 
albimanus' unfavorable. The favorite breeding place of 
these insects has been found to be in water exposed to 
sunlight, especially where certain species of green algae 
grow, and where fresh vegetation has been felled along 
the edge of the stream. It has further been found that 
'anopheles malefactor' has not been incriminated as a 
host for malaria parasites, and thereby becomes of sec- 
ondary importance. In each of these camps the district 
sanitary inspector has a trained 'mosquito catcher' who 
catches all mosquitoes found within the mosquito bars, 
removing a prolific number of infected mosquitoes. A 
large number of the bars in use at these camps are too 
short and do not furnish adequate protection. 

July 13, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


The Company and Its Employees 


•The company is a conception of the Roman law. In 
their time they had the 'collegium' and 'corporati,' 
which corresponded exactly to our company and stock- 
holders. They had a common fund and could pursue a 
common object. In modern times the English are the 
nation which adopted this conception of joint stock com- 
panies in the largest degree and the number of com- 
panies grew to such an extent that an act called 'the 
bubble act' was passed in the English parliament in 
1719 which declared joint-stock companies to be public 
nuisances. In 1855 the conception of limited liability, 
whereby the liability of the stockholder was limited to 
the amount he subscribed for shares, was introduced by 
the English parliament. In 1862 the Consolidated Com- 
panies act was passed by the English parliament under 
which the tremendous growth of companies and corpora- 
tions has taken place both in England and in the rest of 
the world. 

The company owes its vitality to the co-operative 
principle by which a multitude of small investors creates 
a fund to be used in the furtherance of a common object. 
This device has admirably served the purpose of abso- 
lutely and unmistakably determining the division of 
profits resulting from the joint action of those contribut- 
ing to the fund. 

The substitution of the company, which has been de- 
fined as a legal entity without a body to kick and no soul 
to damn, for a personal employer has, however, had cer- 
tain tendencies which, when pushed to an extreme, have 
led to undoubted abuses on three classes of society. First, 
investors. Investors in a company with limited liability 
may entirely divorce the responsibility of how wealth is 
acquired from the actual possession of wealth. They 
thus tend to lose touch with their fellow-men. Second, 
managers are given great power with only a limited 
amount of accountability. Human nature cannot stand 
either too much prosperity or too much power and unless 
managers are called to account for their stewardship 
they lose their sense of proportion and their sympathy 
with their fellow- workers. Third, laborers: under com- 
pany management, laborers tend to become cogs in a big 
machine and lose incentive to do their best. The human 
will is one of the most illusive of things, but the differ- 
ence between having it work for you or against you is all 
the difference between success and failure. This fact has 
been most strongly brought to my attention by the state- 
ments of recent visitors from England who were inter- 
ested in the labor problems there as they have been 
developing during the War. Statements were made by 

*Part of speech dilevered by the President ot the Institute 
at Butte, Montana, on April 6, 1918. 

several manufacturers that partly-trained women who 
were keenly desirous of doing their best would produce 
from three to four times as much work as had previously 
been produced by skilled men who were only desirous of 
doing enough not to be dismissed. 

Many methods have been suggested of correcting the 
above abuses which are admitted by most thinkers. Pub- 
licity of stock-ownership so that each individual share- 
holder could know who were his co-partners in any enter- 
prise is one of the suggestions that seems to me to promise 
much toward placing the responsibility of the company's 
action where it belongs, that is, upon the stockholder. 
The requirement from the management of periodic re- 
ports to stockholders, giving a detailed account of their 
stewardship, will be corrective of many of the abuses of 
management. One of our largest corporations, the United 
States Steel Corporation, under the leadership of its 
chairman, Mr. Gary, has put in operation a plan for 
interesting its laborers in the success of the corporation 
by making them shareholders therein; this promises 
good results. Other corporations have found that their 
annual payroll was approximately the same as the capital 
necessarily employed in their business and the manage- 
ments have decided that, after paying what they called 
the wages of capital — say, 6%, any profit above that will 
be divided equally between capital and labor, and thus 
so-called labor dividends are declared. A further sug- 
gestion for inducing the human will of the laborer to co- 
operate with the director in the success of an enterprise 
is the use of an employment manager. Considerable dis- 
cussion has taken place on this subject and the results 
obtained in several plants have been reported to the 
Institute, but the suggestion seems to me fertile and 
capable of further expansion. We are no longer buying 
labor; we are selling employment, and our salesman- 
ship is somewhat defective and must be improved. We 
no longer have a reservoir of idle hands from which ta 
draw our laborers and the days of 'hiring and firing* 
are limited. Every man who is hired by a corporation 
is supposedly capable of working, certainly is desirous 
of working, and has the ultimate necessity of working in 
order to earn his living ; therefore, it behooves us to find 
out where his capabilities can be profitably utilized and 
not merely allow the whim or temperamental objection of 
some foreman or the misunderstanding of the man him- 
self to entail upon the company the large expense at- 
tendant upon the continual change of laborers. 

I am one of those who think that the interests of 
capital and labor are identical, up to a certain point. 
They both want to produce wealth and they both realize 
that in order to produce wealth they must co-operate. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, 1918 

It is only when it comes to dividing that wealth that 
their interests apparently diverge. For me, the ultimate 
basis of value is the emotion aroused in a person by the 
possession of the thing valued. Money is the most com- 
mon, but it is by no means the only, yardstick by which 
the arithmetical expression of value can be made. If 
you have in one hand something that you value and a 
person offers you something else for it — be it either 
money, fame, renown, honor, or any other valuable. thing 
in this world — you will take that which is offered you 
in the other hand and when that which is offered you 
arouses a greater emotion in you than that which you 
have, you part with that which you have and take that 
which is offered you. Recently a member of the Insti- 
tute, and a friend of mine, came to New York and went 
through some of the large houses in New York where 
are accumulated treasures of our art, skill, and culture. 
He also went through, from top to bottom, many of the 
large department stores where goods of all kinds are 
gathered together to please the eye and mind and palate 
of men and women, and after seeing all this he came to 
the conclusion that the vast bulk of it was burdensome 
trash. Here is a state of mind with which we shall have 
to reckon when the War is over.. We have got to realize 
now that much of what we now call wealth will seem to 
those returning men from the front nothing but burden- 
some trash. 

Sit down with labor and its representatives and find 
out what it wants. Some of these men are reasonable ; 
some are unreasonable, just as it happens in every other 
class. Don't let the laborer, partly for want of under- 
standing on our part — we who form the captains, lieuten- 
ants, sergeants, and corporals of this great army of labor 
— fall into the hands of extremists who will lead him into 
every kind of mirage pictured by the Bolsheviki. 

Mineral Imports at San Francisco 

During the month of April, 1918, the following min- 
erals and metals were entered at the port of San Fran- 
cisco : 

Tons Pounds Value 

Potash 480 $ 67 

Potash salts 2,426 5,444 

Sodium nitrate 1304 47,773 

Chemicals 2,914 

Chrome ore 1000 11,000 

Manganese ore 1035 8,119 

Tin bars 3,615,288 2,156,365 

Tungsten ore 79 108,765 

Antimony 112,000 11,200 

Lead ore (lead content) 108,187 995 

Zinc dust 11,200 1,319 

The total production of bauxite in 1917, according to 
statistics compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey, was 
568,690 long tons, of which the Arkansas field produced 
506,556 tons, and the Georgia-Alabama-Tennessee field 
62,134 tons. Imports of bauxite amounted to 7760 tons, 
compared with 30 tons in 1916. The price of bauxite 
ranged from $4.75 to $10 per ton, and the average price 
was $5.48 per ton at the shipping point. 

Industrial Development 


*In considering the probable industrial developments 
of the future, it will assist in clarifying the problem to 
consider what have been the industrial developments 
prior to the War. One hundred and fifty years ago the 
manufacturer was a person who made things by hand — 
by his own hands usually. He was the weaver by his 
loom, or the smith at his forge. If he prospered, he 
hired other workers who were called 'hands'. Why 
should they have been called 'hands' rather than 
'heads'? For the simple reason that the boss was re- 
taining the head-work, or management, for himself. The 
wage-earner was simply a hand. He was not expected 
or permitted to advise the management. 

So long as the organization of industry was primitive 
and simple, this divorce between the manual worker and 
the management occasioned no trouble. The greater 
bulk of the population was agricultural anyway, and 
people living close to mother earth and directly deriving 
their sustenance therefrom have never bothered their 
heads with complicated industrial or social problems. 

But with the invention of the steam-engine there came 
a great change in industry. The single loom was multi- 
plied by hundreds. The forge was replaced by furnaces 
and steam-hammers. The manufacturer ceased to work 
with his own hands, and usually was a corporation. The 
number of hands employed was multiplied by hundreds 
and thousands. But there was one feature of the original 
primitive system that remained and has persisted to the 
present day — the manufacturer retained the manage- 
ment, the hands remained mere hands. 

Several years ago I wrote an article for an Eastern 
journal entitled 'Labor v. Capital v. Management,' in 
which I tried to develop the thesis that management is 
a third element in the industrial conflict that should not 
be identified with either capital or labor. Often the 
capitalist has his grievance against the manager quite 
as well as the laborer. I think that if we bear in mind 
this third element of management, it will assist in clari- 
fying the industrial problem. When one thinks of it, 
there is no reason in the nature of things why the people 
who furnish the capital to inaugurate an industry should 
manage it to the entire exclusion of those who have in- 
vested their manual skill therein. The latter have quite 
as vital an investment as the former. If the manual 
workers were in control and should tell the capitalist, a 
la Bolsheviki, that he was fired, that he could 'go chase 
himself,' or similar terms implying that his connection 
with the establishment was at an end, that capitalist, so 
fired, would have much the same feeling that a workman 
has who has been discharged from the only industry 
that he knows anything about, and perhaps faces the 
necessity of selling out his little home, and emigrating. 

The industrial labor problem will never be solved 

•Part of speech delivered on the same occasion as the pre- 
ceding. Taken from the May bulletin, A. I. M. E. 

.Inly 18, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


until the right of the manual worker to share in the 
management of industry is recognized. It will never 
he solved until the wage-earner has some kind of a con- 
tingent financial interest in the enterprise. As it is now, 
there is continual warfare between labor-unions and 
their employees, sometimes suppressed only to break out 
again. The labor unions demand the highest possible 
wage, seemingly thinking that they are entitled to all 
that they can persuade or extort out of their employers, 
regardless of whether the business can stand it or not. 
Where the employer is compelled to pay the highest 
wage, he immediately recoups his loss from the general 
public, part of whom are the very wage-earners, by ad- 
vancing the price of the commodity manufactured. The 
labor-union seeks only to get as much as it can of the 
fruits of the industry for as few hours' work as possible. 
It does not assume any of the burdens of making ends 
meet, of finding a market for this product, and of secur- 
ing competent and faithful employees, that the employer 
has to shoulder. 

The ordinary employer regards the efforts of the labor- 
union as an unwarranted interference with his own 
private business. He by no means recognizes the right 
of the manual worker to any part in the management of 
the industry. He has the feeling of the employer for 
centuries past: "I put up the money for this enterprise, 
I own it and have the right to manage it as I choose with- 
out interference. ' ' 

The fallacy in this position does not appear where the 
employer hires only one or two hands. It begins to 
appear when he begins to monopolize a great industry in 
any particular place, and hires hands by the hundred or 
thousand. Then it begins to be apparent that he does 
not own the industry in the full sense of the term, that 
the State has an interest in the industry and in the wel- 
fare of the workers dependent on that particular in- 
dustry for the livelihood of themselves and their families. 
When we recognize the interest of the State in industry, 
when we see that the workers who have acquired a 
manual skill therein have a real and substantial invest- 
ment, then it follows inevitably that the exclusive man- 
agement of industry by capital must some time have an 
end. Industry must become of the people and for the 
people just as surely as government itself. 

After the War, I believe that labor will participate in 
the management of industry. I use the word "partici- 
pate", because I do not believe the plan of socialism to 
■exclude capital, or to exclude those captains of industry 
whom we call the management, will ever succeed any- 
where, or ever even be tried in America. The Bolsheviki 
are giving an object lesson on this subject to the whole 
world. But the participation of labor in the manage- 
ment will solve the problems not only of labor but of 
capital. This participation will not come as a gratuity 
like so-called profit sharing. It will come as the manual 
worker's right — as the restoration to him of the birth- 
right that unawares he lost when the steam-engine 
brought about a transformation of the industrial world 
in the 18th century. 

I can imagine the keen highly trained manager at this 

point objecting: Must I associate with me in my work 
the unlearned, untrained, irresponsible, and sometimes 
dissipated men that come to me for work? Must I take 
orders from such men as these ? And the capitalist may 
protest that his properly should not be put at the ■ 
of employees. In every industry, there are probably 
employees who are unfit to participate in the manage- 
ment, but even their own comrades would not choose 
them for such a purpose. On the other hand, in every 
industry there are manual workers as intelligent, as 
fair-minded, and as just, as many of those now control- 
ing industry. 

When labor acquires a contingent interest in industry 
it will be to the interest of the manual worker to help 
the enterprise to succeed. He will be an enemy of the 
slacker and shirker because the latter lessens his profits. 
He will be loyal, because loyalty will increase his own 

While I am sure some such change in industry is com- 
ing, I do not know just how it will come. Progress is 
wrought out quite as much as thought out. Perhaps it 
may come about by the creation of a new kind of stock 
for the corporations employing many hands, which one 
might call 'industrial' stock. Capital stock would go to 
the men furnishing the capital and industrial stock be set 
aside for those furnishing the manual skill and the 
brawn. Each kind of stock would have its representa- 
tives on the board of directors, and each would share in 
surplus profits. I use the term 'surplus profits' because 
there must first be paid out of gross earnings a reasonable 
interest on the money invested. These payments might 
absorb all the net earnings, but every successful corpora- 
tion has its prosperous years when there is a melon to 
cut, and then the industrial stock would come in for its 
share of the extra dividends. 

Popular government may not always have as efficient 
officers as autocratic government, yet none of us would 
for that reason want to go back to autocracy. What a 
democracy loses in efficiency it gains in a greater diffu- 
sion of well-being, and in the loyalty of the governed. 
An industry managed in part by its operatives may lose 
some of the cold-blooded efficiency of an industry man- 
aged by one autocratic mind, but if it ministers to the 
welfare of a greater number of people, if it substitutes 
loyalty for disloyalty, hope for despair, the honest toiler 
for the shirker, industrial peace for industrial warfare, 
then it marks progress. 

Indirect taxation yielded $345,000,000 in England 
during the year before the War. Last year it produced 
a revenue of $510,000,000. The amount of direct taxes 
paid in the fiscal year 1913-14 was $465,000,000, and it 
rose to $2,330,000,000 last year. In other words, revenue 
derived from indirect taxation in 1913-14 represented 
42%. and that from direct taxation 58% of the total, 
whereas in 1917-18 indirect taxation yielded 18% and 
direct taxation 82% of the total. This means that the 
cost of the War was being paid by those enjoying sur- 
plus wealth. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, 1918 

Treatment of Manganese Ores 

In a recent bulletin issued by the University of Cali- 
fornia, entitled 'The Possible Treatment of Manganese 
Ores in California, ' E. A. Hersam, associate professor of 
metallurgy in the University, gives the results obtained 
in preliminary studies conducted under his supervision. 
These tests are of special interest at the moment. Elec- 
trostatic separation gave negative results, the silicious 
constituents of the ore being thrown into the concentrate 
to a serious extent, while the magnetic oxides failed, in 
part, to respond to the electrostatic force. Magnetic 
separation, however, showed considerable promise. Most 
manganese minerals yield to treatment on a Wetherill 
machine, and afford good products when fed with ore 
that has been closely sized. Classification by screening 
alone also effects considerable concentration. In an ore 
from Patterson, California, the 200-mesh material con- 
tained about twice as much manganese as the grade be- 
tween 40 and 48 mesh. The treatment of the finer sizes 
by magnetic separators generally show a low percentage 
of recovery. The following table presents the results ob- 
tained by magnetic separation applied to the 40% 


Mn content 

Per cent 

of product. 

Mn in 

based on 

of total 

per cent of 



manganese in 

original ore 


ore, % 

original ore 



Less readily attracted. . 





Least readily attracted. 









The indication is that a readily attracted hard high- 
grade material is present in the ore, and that a soft low- 
grade constituent, less strongly attracted, escapes with 
the tailing, thereby increasing its grade. In so far as 
part of this soft material is caught in the concentrate the 
grade of that product is lowered. Much of this softer 
constituent consists of pyrolusite and other manganese 
minerals containing silica, and inseparably mixed with 
the gangue in the process of dry grinding. Magnetic sep- 
aration applied to carbonate ore showed a recovery of 
96.7% of the manganese in a concentrate assaying 38.6%. 
leaving a tailing that held 3.3% of the metal that had 
been present in the original ore, which in this case car- 
ried 1.9%. Calcination of the carbonate ore resulted in 
a magnetic concentrate assaying 50.9% Mn, leaving 6% 
of the original metallic content in the tailing. It appears 
that the roasting and re-treatment of the tailing offers 
an opporunity to effect a high saving in the magnetic 
concentration of manganese ores. 

Flotation proved unfavorable. Ores from Patterson 
and Davenport, California, were tested, using pine oil, 
crude pine oil mixed with tar oil, and crude petroleum, 
14 C B., from the McKittrick field. The Patterson ore, 
assaying 37.7% manganese, yielded, with the three flota- 
tive agents respectively (a) 18% of concentrate contain- 
???£ 34.3% manganese, (6) 30% of the weight of the ore 
as concentrate assaying 38.94%, and (c) a concentrate 
assaying 38% manganese and a tailing with 36.8% of 

the metal. The Davenport ore gave results equally un- 

Gravity concentration, that is, with jigs and tables, is 
effective only when the minerals are hard and pure, and 
break free from the gangue. The fine material obtained 
by classification is difficult to concentrate by any method. 
Magnetic separation appears to offer the larger possi- 
bilities for successful treatment of ores of manganese. 

Concentrating Lead Ores at Kellogg, 

The Bunker Hill & Sullivan report for 1917 gives the 
following details of milling: 

Mills working, days 356 

Ore milled, tons 493,030 

Ore milled per 24 hours, tons 1,386 

Assay of feed, lead per cent 10.6496 

Assay of feed, silver ounces 4.3170 

Lead content, tons 52,506 

Concentrates, tons 103,982 

Assay of concentrates, lead per cent 45.1967 

Assay of concentrates, silver ounces 16.2794 

Lead in concentrates, tons 46.996 

Lead recovery, per cent 89.51 

Silver in feed, ounces 2.128.437 

Silver in concentrates, ounces 1,693,765 

Silver recovery, per cent 79.54 

Cost per ton milled, cents 60 

Cost per ton of concentrates S2.846 

The Greaves-Etchell electric furnace is of the 
3-phase type, two of the electrodes being introduced 
vertically through the roof, while the whole hearth acts 
as the third. Three single-phase transformers supply the 
energy. Their primaries are connected in delta, and their 
secondaries in star with unequal legs, the proportion 
being so calculated as to give a balanced load on the 
primary mains when the upper electrodes are in equal 
adjustment. If one of the arcs breaks, the others are 
not affected and an overload on one arc is eliminated. 
Furnaces are made in standard sizes ranging from 10 
cwt. to 10 tons. The smaller furnaces are rectangular 
and the larger ones circular in plan. An arrangement of 
compensating rollers allows the spout to travel downward 
in a vertical line, so that the ladle need not be moved. — 
'Electric Eeview', London. 

The steel industry has been advised by the Com- 
mittee on Steel and Steel Products to restrict the use of 
chrome ore for direct refractory purposes to a maximum 
of \\ lb. per ton of open-hearth ingots; that it purchase 
for the above purposes only domestic or Canadian ores 
containing not to exceed 38% chromic oxide, nor more 
than 35% chromic oxide as an average, and that each 
carload be considered as a separate unit for analysis. 
The committee recommends that the use of chrome-brick 
and chrome-cement do not exceed the equivalent of a 
maximum of \ lb. of chrome ore per ton of ingots. The 
Committee urges that every effort be made to find sub- 
stitutes for chrome ore for refractory use in open-hearth 
steel-making, with a view to effecting the maximum pos- 
sible reduction in the use of chrome ore, without curtail- 
ing steel production. 

July 18, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

The Groch Flotation Machine 


•Flotation is of two classes: (1) the surface-film, or 
dry-ore class, in which the ore in a dry state, and 
crushed to the requisite fineness, is gently placed on the 
surface of slowly moving water, a separation being ef- 
fected because of the tendency of valuable mineral par- 
ticles to resist being wetted with water and to remain on 
the surface, while the valueless gaugue particles sink, 
and (2) froth-formation, or the wet-ore class in which 
advantage is taken of the comparative ease with which 
the valuable mineral particles, already wetted, repel or 
shed the water from their surfaces under the mysterious 
influence of some froth-forming agent, generally an oil, 
and attract bubbles of air or other gas with which they 
may come in contact, forming, in the pulp in which they 
are immersed, a buoyant association which rises to the 
surface as a froth or scum. The Groch appliance is of the 
froth-forming type. 

Froth-forming flotation machines may be considered 
as of two kinds, distinguished from each other by the 
method employed in bringing the air or other gas into 
contact with the flotative minerals. The pneumatic ma- 
chines aerate the pulp under treatment through canvas 
floors, while the mechanical appliances perform the same 
function by means of impellers. The Groch machine is 
of the impeller type. 

From the metallurgical standpoint, the best results 
are obtained when the three essential constituents of a 
flotation-froth, namely, the oil, the air, and the mineral 
particles, are all in a minute state of subdivision but, 
for commercial reasons, it is advisable to avoid excessive 
pulverizing of the ore, not only on account of the pro- 
hibitive cost, but also because of the difficulty of profit- 
ably disposing of an extremely fine product destined for 
the smelter. As regards the oil and air, however, no 
such disadvantage exists, the object of all flotation-ma- 
chines being, in fact, to disperse and subdivide these to 
the greatest extent obtainable. In this operation the 
Groch system is especially efficient. 

The Groeh centrifugal flotation machine has a number 
of impellers operating in a 'V box 14 ft. long by 5 ft. 
wide, and divided both longitudinally and transversely 
into compartments. By means of submerged and slotted 
partitions, the pulp during treatment is made to take a 
zig-zag course both vertically and horizontally in its 
passage through the machine. A cross-section shows 
three compartments; in the central one operates the 
centrifugal impeller, which is the chief distinctive feature 
of the invention. Bach impeller is a vertical hollow shaft 
with a centrifugal 'runner' at its lower extremity, hav- 
ing hollow hubs and being subdivided horizontally by a 
metal disc so as to operate after the manner of a pair of 
centrifugal pumps. This class of impeller combines the 
functions of an emulsifier, an agitator, and an aerator 

•Abstract: Canadian Min. Inst., March 1918. 

simultaneously, thereby eliminating any necessity Eor 
auxiliary appliances, and making each individual ma- 
chine complete and independent. When in operation the 
'runner' is completely submerged in the pulp, while the 
hollow shaft, to which it is attached, is the medium 
through which the power is transmitted to effect rota- 
tion. The pulp enters the zone of treatment in the 
central compartment from underneath a false floor 
through which the lower hollow hub of the impeller pro- 
trudes. It is here sucked up into the interior of the lower 
section of the 'runner', and ejected centrifugally at the 
periphery in a horizontal plane, rising upward in the 
central compartment by displacement until it overflows 
into the compartments on either side. All round the zone 
of discharge, at the periphery of the 'runner', a vacuum 


is created similar to that caused at the nozzle during the 
operation of an ordinary steam-injector. With the stand- 
ard impeller it is found that the vacuum becomes meas- 
urable when the speed reaches 200 r.p.m., increasing to a 
degree equal to 2f in. of mercury at a speed of 450 r.p.m., 
and 6 in. at 750 r.p.m. Into this vacuum the content of 
the upper section of the 'runner' is drawn automatically, 
and, as this part of the impeller has its inlet from the 
top of the hollow shaft, the result is that an enormous 
supply of air is continuously ejected as a horizontal 
layer into the pulp. This air-layer, as it recedes from the 
centrifugal centre, must, because of its ever increasing 
diameter, eventually become so thin as to break into a 
shower of infinitessimally small bubbles. According to 
current theory, this is precisely what is wanted for the 
most effective work in flotation. Through the hollow 
shaft, also, oil is admitted drop by drop into the area of 
treatment, each drop falling from a height and, striking 
the rapidly revolving interior metal disc, becomes mi- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, 1918 

nutely dispersed. To use a trade expression, the impeller 
is really an 'atomizer', reducing the air-hubhles to nearly 
molecular size, and spraying them with oil, thereby ren- 
dering them highly adhesive to the mineral particles with 
which they come in contact. If it be assumed, as is gen- 
erally believed, that successful flotation is the result of 
intimate mechanical contact between the flotative mineral 
and the buoying agents, then, by this system, ample op- 
portunity is given for repeatedly making such associa- 
tions, for, at each impeller, the shower of minute air- 
bubbles forms, as it were, a horizontal barrage through 
which the mineral particles must pass on their way 
through the machine. An equal advantage might also 
be claimed if, on the other hand, it be assumed that the 
gas-bubbles, in order to be effective, must be nascent, or 
be generated from the solution, each mineral-particle be- 
coming the nucleus for the creation of the bubbles in 
embryo. In the Groeh system the air-bubbles, on being 
discharged from the impeller at depth, tend to become 
absorbed in the pulp to the extent of saturation at the 
pressure to which they are momentarily subjected. "With 
this pulp traveling upward, the pressure becomes re- 
duced, and consequently a state of super-saturation must 
be reached, with the liberation of nascent gas-bubbles. 
In any ease it would be expected that the union of the 
gas-bubble and the mineral, under pressure, would be of a 
stronger type than if no such pressure existed. Once 
united, the association becomes increasingly buoyant on 
being brought toward the surface, for the reason that, 
when the pressure is thus released, the buoying gas- 
bubble increases in size through expansion, in accordance 
with well-known natural laws. The Groch machine 
eliminates the disadvantage, common to machines using 
the blade-type of impeller, of having to beat the air into 
the pulp by the creation of a deep vortex, a system 
wasteful of power and inefficient in operation. A study 
of the ordinary cream-separator leads to the belief that, 
with such a type of machine, the tendency is for the froth 
or 'cream' of the pulp to collect on the inner surface of 
the vortex, where it is not wanted. 

As illustrating one of the best grades of product that 
the Groch machine can deliver, it may be mentioned that, 
in the case of a molybdenite ore treated experimentally, 
a concentrate was obtained assaying 99.34% MoS 2 , a 
performance that leaves but little room for improve- 
ment. Furthermore it is claimed that, in the treatment 
of a silver ore at Cobalt, a 10 days' run with a Groch 
machine gave a 5|% higher recovery than that obtained 
with other systems ; at the same time, the concentrate was 
of a higher grade. A low power consumption is also 
claimed, the standard machine, with six impellers, hav- 
ing a capacity of from 35 to 75 tons per day, depending 
on the class of ore being treated, showing a consumption 
of 7J hp. by actual determination. 

Free zirconium exists in three forms, namely, amor- 
phous, crystalline, and graphitic. The crystalline form, 
with a density of 6.4, has a melting-point of approxi- 
mately 2350°C. Only two minerals can be considered as 

commercial sources of zirconium : the natural oxide and 
the silicate. Natural zireonia contains 84% of the pure 
oxide, with 8% of silica and 3% of oxide of iron. Puri- 
fied zireonia is a white substance with a density of 5 
and, according to "Weiss, a temperature of fusion of 
3000° C. The first important application of the oxide of 
zirconium was as a substitute for the cylinders of chalk 
in the Drummond light. This oxide was employed in 
the manufacture of incandescent gas mantles, but was 
later superseded by thorium oxide, which gives equally 
good results at a lower temperature. Another applica- 
tion was effected in 1887 in the production of the Nernst 
lamp. Mixed with 10% of magnesia, with a binder con- 
sisting of starch, phosphoric acid, and glycerin or its 
borates, a product is obtained impermeable to liquids 
and unaffected by strong or fused alkaline mixtures. Its 
uses in metallurgy are promising. In trials of a Martin 
electric furnace in a steel works at Remscheiden, Ger- 
many, a lining of zireonia was found in good condition 
after a run of four months' service without repair. 

Tin Deposits in Virginia 

One of the most promising American tin deposits is in 
the Irish Creek district, in the eastern part of Rock- 
bridge county, Virginia, near the summit of the Blue 
Ridge. This deposit was recently examined by H. G. 
Ferguson of the U. S. Geological Survey, acting in co- 
operation with the Virginia Geological Survey. Mr. 
Ferguson's report has been published as Bulletin XV- A 
of the Virginia Geological Survey. The existence of tin 
in the Irish Creek district has been known for many 
years. Between 1883 and 1893 the deposit was actively 
worked. The company, however, became involved in liti- 
gation over land-titles and abandoned the enterprise in 
1893. Operation was never resumed, and the old work- 
ings are now caved so that a thorough examination is 
difficult, but Mr. Ferguson concluded that the deposits 
along the Blue Ridge in this vicinity offer some promise 
as a source of tin, both through the systematic working 
of the known veins and the possible discovery of other 
deposits. The cassiterite occurs in quartz veins that 
traverse a hypersthene granodiorite. The veins do not 
persist for long distances and their tin content is irregu- 
lar. Some high-grade ore has been found, however, and 
some tungsten occurs with the cassiterite. A copy of the 
report may be obtained on application to Thomas 
Leonard Watson, director of the Virginia Geological Sur- 
vey, Charlottesville, Virginia. — 'Manufacturers Record.' 

Binoculars and field-glasses are desired by the Navy 
Department, owing to the scarcity of such instruments 
for the use of officers. Individuals owning suitable 
glasses are requested to send them by registered mail to 
the Navy Department at Washington, or to the nearest 
naval recruiting station. A receipt and $1 will be sent 
by the Assistant Secretary of the Navy,' and the instru- 
ment ultimately will be returned to the owners, if they 
survive the mishaps of war. 

July 13, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Concentrating Carnotite Ore 

By K. L. K1TH1L .nd J. A. JONES 

•The principal deposits of carnotite (a radium and 
uranium-bearing ore), so far as now known, are con- 
fined to a well-defined area lying in the south-western 
part of Colorado and the south-eastern part of Utah. 

The milling operations to be described are those of the 
National Radium Institute. All of the claims worked by 
the Institute were leased on a royalty basis from the 
Crucible Steel Mining & Milling Co., a subsidiary of the 
Crucible Steel Co. of America. Of the claims leased, 11 
were in or near Long Park, Montrose county, Colorado, 
6 were in the Hydraulic district, same county, and 10 
were in the vicinity of Sawpit, a station on the Rio 
Grande Southern railway, a few miles west of Telluride, 
San Miguel county. The last-named claims contain no 
carnotite, but vanadium solely. Of the carnotite claims, 
only those in the Long Park group were mined, all the 
ore required being obtained there. 

At many carnotite mines it is the custom to sort both 
the ordinary shipping ore and the high-grade ore into 
several grades. At the Long Park claims of the Institute 
so-called high-grade ore was discovered in such incon- 
siderable quantities that no separate classification was 
made, except on the Maggie C. The ore was therefore 
sorted to two grades only : milling ore, running from 0.5 
to 1.25% U 3 8 , and shipping ore, averaging 2%. 

As carnotite partly forms the binder- between the sand 
grains of the sandstone, it must be separated from these 
grains in order to concentrate it. Consequently the ore 
should be reduced to about the fineness of ; the sand grains. 
Care must be taken that as little as possible of the silica 
is ground to powder, as the concentration depends largely 
on the removal of fine or slime from the coarser material. 
Some of the carnotite adheres tenaciously to the surface 
of the sand grains and can be liberated only by attrition 
or elutriation. In order to concentrate the fine or slime, 
which contain most of the carnotite, either the wet or 
dry method can be used. In the former, advantage is 
taken of the difference in rate of settling of various 
sizes of the agitated material, followed by deeantation 
and final settling of the slime, which forms the concen- 
trate. Dry concentration suggests the use of air to blow 
or suck the fine from the coarser particles. A complete 
description of the dry methods used in the concentration 
mill of the Institute are given in the following notes. 

It was found that after the ore had been ground to 
80-mesh or finer all of the carnotite could not be en- 
tirely liberated by ordinary means. In order to save 
this carnotite a special attrition apparatus was con- 
structed whereby the adhering carnotite was rubbed or 
scraped from the silica grains mechanically by passing 
the ground ore between a pair of discs, on one of which 
was a number of stiff wire brushes. 

The course of the ore through the mill is indicated by 
the flow-sheet. The grizzly -bars were spaced 1J in. The 

♦Abstract from Bull. 103, Mineral Technology 11, U. S. 
Bureau of Mines, 1917. , 

larger pieces of rock were broken with a hammer. Waste 
was discarded. Prom the Ore-bin the ore was fed mechan- 
ically onto a J-in. screen placed at an angle of 45°. The 
oversize dropped into the crusher, the jaws of which were 
set to make a }-in. product. The undersize dropped 
through a chute into the boot of elevator No. 1, as did 
the material passing through the crusher. The material 
discharged from the elevator was carried by belt-con- 
veyor No. 1 across the building and dropped through a 
pipe into the feed hopper of the rotary drier. In passing 
through the drier the ore was repeatedly lifted by the 
shelves within and poured through the hot gases coming 
from the fire-box at the lower end. Considerable dust 
was liberated, which was carried with the gases and steam 



into the smokestack. To save this dust all gases and 
steam were drawn off by the fan through the pipe con- 
nected with the smokestack and blown into the cyclone 
dust-eollector. Through a pipe at the lower end of this 
collector the separated dust was drawn off. This dust 
formed concentrate No. 3. 

Dust from carnotite ore has a relatively high uranium 
content, and is very irritating to the nose, throat, and 
lungs, therefore health consideration alone necessitated 
the use of fans and dust-collecting devices. 

Considerable very fine dust carrying carnotite escaped 
through the opening at the top of the cyclone separator, 
and was blown through another pipe into the dust-col- 
lector, or bag-house. The dust so collected formed con- 
centrate No. A. The dried ore left the drier at its lower 
end near the fire-box and discharged into the boot of ele- 
vator No. 2. The hot ore was elevated to the vibrating 
screen, where the screw-conveyor distributed it equally 
over the screening surface. The oversize of both the -J-in. 
and 10-mesh screens fell through pipes into the feed-hop- 
pers of the two sets of rolls; the undersize passed through 
a chute to the storage-hopper of the Raymond mill. 

The oversize, after passing the rolls, dropped again 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, 1918 

into the boot of elevator No. 2, and was returned to the 
screen until all of it passed through the 10-mesh screen. 
The ground and dried ore from the storage-hopper was 
automatically fed into the pulverizer chamber of the 
Raymond mill, when the carnotite was separated from the 
silica grains, as already described. The tailing, which 
automatically discharged from the pulverizer, dropped 
onto the tailing conveyor and was carried to the dump. 
The tailing was practically free from carnotite dust. 

The blower-fan connected with the boots of No. 1 and 2 
elevators drew off the dust from these points, and blew 
it into the dust-collector already described. It is essen- 
tial in concentrating carnotite ore by the dry method that 
all apparatus be so enclosed and connected with each 
other as to make the entire unit dust-proof, for all dust 
created in the mill contains carnotite and is part of the 

The relative proportions of the four concentrates ob- 
tained in operating the mill were approximately as fol- 
lows: No. 1 concentrate, 88% ; No. 2, 2% ; No. 3, 7% ; and 
No. 4, 3%. The ore averaged 0.85% U 3 O s , and the four 
grades of concentrates 2.91, 3.55, 2.76, and 3.44% U 3 8 , 
respectively. Tailing averaged 0.37% U s 8 . The ratio 
of concentration was 6 : 1. The cost of concentration 
was $20.41 per ton, delivered at the mill warehouse. 

Production of Phosphate Rock 

The phosphate-rock industry, which suffered severely 
in 1915 and 1916 from the War, made a strong recovery 
in 1917. In spite of the shortage of railroad cars and 
fuel-oil that affected the output of the Eastern fields, 
the quantity of rock marketed last year, according to 
B. W. Stone, of the U. S. Geological Survey, was 2,584,- 
287 long tons, valued at $7,771,084, compared with 
1,982,385 tons, valued at $5,896,993, in 1916. 

The output by States is shown below : 

State Quantity, tons Value 

Florida 2,022.599 J5.464.493 

South Carolina 33.485 138.482 

Tennessee, including a little from Kentucky.... 513.107 2.126.353 

Idaho. Utah, and Wyoming 15.096 41.756 

Total 2.584.287 S7.771.084 

As a result of the falling-off of the foreign demand at 
the beginning of the "War, our output of rock fell from 
3,000,000 tons per year to less than 2,000,000 tons in 
1915 and 1916. Before the War exports were nearly 
half the domestic production, but in 1915 they decreased 
from 1,250,000 tons, the quantity usually exported be- 
fore the War, to only 250,000 tons, and were only one- 
seventh of the domestic production. In 1917 exports 
were 166,003 long tons, or only 6% of the quantity mar- 
keted. The rock exported went principally to Spain, 
France, England, Ireland, Scotland, Canada, and Cuba. 

A notable feature of the year # was the increase in pro- 
duction in the Western States, where there are now 
four producers instead of only one or two and the output 
was considerably greater than in any previous year. It 
is expected that the output from the Rocky Mountain 
phosphate fields will continue to grow, as the rock is 
high grade and abundant, and the demand for it should 

increase as the country on the racific slope is developed. 
The demand on the United States to supply food not 
only for herself but for her Allies, in larger quantity 
than ever before, means intensive agriculture and the 
use of greSt quantities of fertilizers. Phosphate rock 
should be produced in 1918 in greater quantity than in 
1917, and the output may approximate pre- War tonnage. 

Alloys of Manganese 

Manganese is used in the steel industry in the form of 
two alloys, ferro-manganese and spiegeleisen. These are 
both alloys of iron, manganese, and carbon. Ferro- 
manganese may contain as much as 80% of manganese, 
but averages in this country about 70%. In spiegeleisen 
the percentage of manganese is much lower ; the standard 
figure upon which the price is based is 20%. The aver- 
age manganese content is about 18%. Both alloys are 
high in combined carbon, the amount of which runs to 
7%. The manganese alloys are added to molten steel 
from the converter, or open-hearth furnace, for the 
purpose of introducing both manganese and carbon. The 
manganese cleanses the steel by combining with the con- 
tained oxygen and, to some extent, with the sulphur, 
and then carries these impurities into the slag. The 
carbon is for the purpose of giving the steel the re- 
quired hardness and strength. By adding larger amounts 
of the alloys, manganese steel is produced, which is noted 
for its hardness, tenacity, and durability. It is much 
used in the wearing parts of heavy machinery. In re- 
cent years the tendency has been to use more ferro- 
manganese and less spiegeleisen, on account of the much 
smaller amount of ferro-manganese that it is necessary 
to add to the steel. Spiegeleisen usually has to be melted 
in a cupola furnace before using, but ferro-manganese 
can be added direct. The latter also introduces less 
carbon, which sometimes is an advantage. 

Ferro-manganese and spiegeleisen are produced by 
smelting a mixture of manganese ore and iron ore in an 
ordinary blast-furnace. A high temperature is required 
and the amount of fuel used is much greater than in 
iron smelting. A considerable amount of the manganese 
goes into the slag. The slag from a ferro-manganese 
furnace may contain as much as 10% of manganese. A 
considerable tonnage of the iron manganese alloys is now 
produced in the electric furnace. — Manganese Circular, 
Colorado School of Mines. 

Barium carbonate is in great demand in England, 
where it is now selling as high as $170 to $196 per ton. 
Great Britain formerly depended on Germany for its 
supply, and it is said that the United States may per- 
manently control this market if steps be taken to pro- 
duce the precipitated carbonate in sufficient quantity. 

Barttes deliveries are greatly impeded for lack of 
cars. Spot prices average from $22 to $24 per ton for 
off-color grades, and from $28 to $36 for domestic, pure 
white, floated. 

July 13. 1918 

MINING and ScientiBc PRESS 


Hoisting by Stages From Deep Mines 


When a mine is producing ore and is being extensively 
developed below a vertical depth of 4000 ft. the hoisting 
problem becomes serious. The difficulties have boon thor- 


oughly studied on the Rand, in 
the copper country of Michigan, 
and in Europe. Without enter- 
ing into technicalities, the ques- 
tion is whether it is best to use 
an engine capable of hoisting 
direct from great depths, or to 
hoist by stages, that is, with one 
engine at the surface and an- 
other, say, at 4000 ft., where 
ore-pockets filled by the lower 
hoist in turn fill skips of the 
upper hoist. The surface engine 
may be air, electric, or steam- 
driven, but the lower one can 
only be actuated by air or elec- 
tric power. 

In California there are some 
deep mines, notably the Argo- 
naut, 4650 ft. deep on the in- 
cline; the Kennedy, 3950 ft. 
vertical; and the North Star, 
6300 ft. on the incline. While 

no great quantity of ore is hoisted at any of these, the 
amount being about 500 tons daily at the Kennedy, yet 
the problems presented have been of interest, especially 
at the Argonaut. When this mine became so far devel- 

oped that it was necessary to go deeper than 4500 ft., 
the engineers were confronted with the problem either 
of t liking out the hoist at the surface and putting in a 
larger one, or of placing a relay- 
hoist at the 4000-f t. level to work 
in conjunction with the one at 
the surface. It became evident 
that if the surface hoist were 
taken out and a larger one put 
in, it would be necessary to cease 
operating for a considerable 
etim, owing to the fact that the 
only available point for the new 
engine was on the same founda- 
tion, this being due to the site of 
the Argonaut shaft with respect 
to the road and adjacent hill- 
slope. A 1-J-in. rope is used. As 
the shaft is crooked and has a 
tendency to slip, it was found 
that a larger rope would be sub- 
ject to wear, increasing the ex- 
pense abnormally. Also, if the 
hoist were to work to a lower 


depth than 4000 ft., it would be necessary to increase the 
speed of winding, which the condition of the shaft would 
not permit. In other words, it would have been neces- 
sary to sink a new shaft if a surface hoist capable of 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, 1918 

hauling from a depth of 7000 ft. were to he used ; conse- 
quently it was decided to place a relay-hoist at 4000 ft. to 
supplement the hoist at the surface. It was also found 
that the cost of operating two hoists would be lower than 
working one large machine on the surface, taking into 
consideration the shut-down while the change from the 
present hoist at the surface to a larger one was being 
made. Moreover, it is found more satisfactory to con- 
duct development work with a small separate hoist than 
to use the surface hoist for this purpose, the consumption 
of power being lower. 

The hoist used at the surface was made by the Knight 
Engineering Co., of Sutter Creek, California, from a de- 
sign perfected about 20 years ago, and is still giving good 
service. It is operated by a 500-hp. Westinghouse phase- 
wound induction-motor, which, in turn, is controlled by a 
liquid rheostat. The equipment on the surface is capable 
of hoisting from a maximum depth of 4500 ft., raising 
the skip and four tons of ore at a speed of 820 ft. per 
minute. This is a double-drum balanced-hoist. 

The underground hoist is of the double-drum balanced 
type, built by Knight & Co. of Sutter Creek. The drums 
are 72 in. diameter and 27-in. face, with a single gear- 
reduction to the pinion-shaft in a 5 : 1 ratio. Mounted 
on this is a rope-sheave and brake-drum. The brake is 
of the post type, and is operated by a foot-lever from the 
operator's stand. The standard type of level-operated 
jaw-eluteh is used on the pinion-shaft for throwing each 
drum into connection. The drums are also connected by 
hand-operated.lever-brakes on the engine-man 's platform. 
The hoist is driven by a 225-hp., type CW, 3-phase. 60- 
cyele, 220-volt, 495-r.p.m. Westinghouse motor. It is 
connected to the hoist by a continuous manila rope-drive, 
consisting of ten 1^-in. ropes, kept taut by a tension- 
carriage designed by Meese & Gottfried of San Francisco. 
The control for this motor consists of a No. 1 liquid 
rheostat for the secondary and the type F magnet-switch 
control, which totally disconnects the motor from the line 
when the switch is opened as a primary control. Brass 
cooling-coils are used in the rheostat to prevent rapid 
deterioration due to acid that might be present in the 
mine-water, which is used for cooling and make-up. It 
is necessary to add a small amount of soda to make the 
correct density of electrolyte, owing to the natural salts 
in the mine-water. 

The temperature at 4000 ft. ranges from 90 to 93°, and 
the atmosphere is quite humid. It is necessary to im- 
pregnate the coils of the motor against moisture, also all 
coils operating the electro-magnets on the switchboard, 
and all. other parts likely to be affected by the dampness. 
After 17 months' operation there has been no trouble 
from this source. In case the plant is stopped for a con- 
siderable period, it is necessary to dry thoroughly all the 
switch-gear before starting, as the accumulation of mois- 
ture is inclined to cause trouble through leakage over the 
surface. The switches themselves during operation keep 
warm and dry enough. 

The switchboard carries a circuit-breaker, and also a 
graphic recording watt-meter. Directly in front of the 
operator is a long-scale ammeter, which shows how much 

current is being drawn from the line, and enables him, 
in this manner, to regulate the acceleration and to keep 
the current drawn to a minimum. The operating cycle 
for this hoist is laid out on the following basis : The 
skips weigh 2500 lb., and carry 5600 lb. of ore each. The 
speed of the skip is 800 ft. per minute. The size of the 
rope used is 1£ in. The accelerating time is 20 seconds, 
retarding time 10 seconds, and loading time 30 seconds. 
Dumping is done during the time the skip-tender at the 
bottom of the mine is riding from the chute up to the 
station and getting off at that point, consequently no 
time is allowed for discharging. The amount of ore to 
be handled from the lower part of the mine is 300 tons 
per day, plus 600 to 800 tons of waste, and 50 tons of 

A point of interest in maintenance is the fact that all 
the rope used on the lower hoist is taken from the engine 
at the surface. This is made possible by the fact that the 
rope, when operating over a depth of 4000 ft., will be- 
come worn to such an extent that it cannot be further 
utilized. It is quite safe for a considerable time on the 
underground hoist, and it is found that there will be 
enough rope obtainable from the surface to keep the 
underground plant in operation without the purchase of 
new rope for the relay-hoist. 

This is probably the first 2200-volt motor to be used in 
hoisting at any considerable depth underground, and it 
is considered that this pressure will prove satisfactory. 
Every precaution has been used to protect employees 
against injury from the high voltage, which is taken 
directly from "the bank of transformers at the surface 
and brought to the hoist by three conductors in a leaded 
and armored cable. The cable is of sufficient size, being 
No. 0, to allow of hoisting being started under a heavy 
load without a severe drop in . the line-voltage at the 

The engineer at the Argonaut, V. S. Garbarini,. .ar- 
ranged for and supervised the erection of this equipment. 

Hydrolysis in a 0.1% cyanide solution, according to 
James Moir, does not in practice amount to more than 
3.4%. These figures are based on a cyanide strength 
calculated as^KCN. Other investigators have concluded 
that the hydrolysis amounted to 5.4%, while an earlier 
study by Mr. Moir had given an average of 2.4%. An 
elaborate investigation of the solution of gold in cyanide 
is being undertaken by Worley and Browne in South 
Africa, and this subject will receive more extended treat- 
ment by them. 

Bismuth is used largely in the form of bismuth salts 
for surgical dressings. Important amounts now go to 
waste in the smelting of lead and copper ores, the re- 
covery of which is greatly desired by the Government. 
The imports have declined from a former high level of 
164,793 lb. to 69,250 lb. in 1917. 

Mica schist containing larg^. quantities of mica is 
resistant to high temperatures, and is recommended as a 
lining for furnaces. 

.July 13. 1918 

MINING and Scientific P 







General Mining Situation. — Tungsten, Fluorspar, Silver, 


A study of mining in Colorado leads to the conclusion 
that conditions are better than they have been for years 
past. There are persons who speak pessimistically con- 
cerning the status of mining (especially metal mining), 
but the fact remains that districts whose activities con- 
tinued throughout the long period when low metal prices 
prevailed are now making unusually good showings, while 
old centres that could not resist the depressed prices have 
taken on new life that is indeed significant. There are few 
attempts to develop new districts or even to open new mines 
in old districts. When an investor who might undertake 
such things is approached he shies away from the proposal 
by saying that he prefers to put his money into a property 
whose merit has been proved by past production, even with 
correspondingly depleted reserves. Assumption of this atti- 
tude is explained in various ways. One excuse is that 
national conservation demands us to make every old worthy 
mine produce to its complete exhaustion. One man will 
explain that this is not a time for developing new districts 
because this might entail the extension of railroads. An- 
other prefers to undertake operations in an old but equip- 
ped property because of the present difficulty in securing 
machinery. Although prospectors come to Denver with 
tales of discoveries in remote parts of the mountains, deaf 
ears are turned to their schemes, especially if the reported 
finds are of the precious or common metals. Notwithstand- 
ing attractive opportunities continually presented for en- 
gaging in operations in both old and new mines, interest 
certainly lags, primarily because of war conditions calling 
for the utmost conservation on the part of investors whose 
readily available cash resources are held at the call of the 
country. To such men the idea of large profits is not nearly 
so attractive as it was prior to the start of income and 
excess-profits taxation. Furthermore, recoverable profits 
from mining are not now measureable by the relatively 
high prices of metals. Enhancement in metal prices is 
more than discounted by the scarcity and high price of 
labor, supplies, and increased freight rates. 

All of us recently have probably heard more or less 
grumbling from goldfields. The Cripple Creek 'Times' calls 
upon Federal legislators to do either of two things, namely, 
to place a war-time premium of $10 per ounce on gold or to 
arbitrarily fix its permanent price at $30 per ounce. 

The tungsten market has received serious discussion in 
this State. The recent visit to Denver of the Federal Tariff 
Commission brought out many vital points relative to the 
future of tungsten mining in Colorado. The opinion pre- 
vailed generally among operators of these mines and reduc- 
tion works that Congress should promptly fix an arbitrary 
price or an import duty, or should devise some other scheme 
whereby tungsten products could be always saleable at 
approximately $35 per unit. 

One mineral that is actually bringing one of our old and 
formerly prosperous districts hack into notice is totally 
different from the one that was first mined. A trip to this 
former gold-producer — Jamestown — impresses one with 

the importance of mining fluorspar, the latest mineral. 
The road between 'Jimtown' and Boulder is lined with auto- 
trucks that, two or three years ago, ran over the road be- 
tween Nederland and Boulder with tungsten ore. Most of 
the fluorspar from the district is purchased by one Boulder 
company that operates a concentrating mill, in which the 
ore is raised in grade from 82 to 98% CaF 2> after which it 
is shipped to mid-West and Eastern consumers. Fluorite 
is being mined also at Evergreen in Jefferson county. Prices 


at the mines average around $6 per ton for 70% ore, with 
20 c. per unit above or below this. It is reported that a 
new company is about to take over the Wano gold mill at 
Jamestown, and purchase custom fluorspar ore upon a 
schedule starting with $3 per ton for 50% grade, and an 
additional 20c. per unit above. This is substantially better 
than the present schedule, and indicates a strong tone in 
the fluorspar market. The fluorspar at Jamestown occurs 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, 1918 

in veins, with various strikes and dips, in a great mass of 

Despite rising expenses in mining, there is an unmis- 
takable interest in silver. Reliable reports ol renewed 
activities come from Silver Cliff, Creede, Silverton, Ouray, 
Crismas, Caribou, and Ward. In these districts, abandoned 
mines have been or are being re-opened. The Bassick, at 
Silver Cliff, is to be equipped with a 100-ton flotation plant. 
This mine has long been a geological curiosity, the ore oc- 
curring as cementing material for gravel in an extinct vent 
or geyser. In addition to renewed production from the 
Equity mine, Creede is expecting big things from the Monon 
group, an old property that was about to enter the ship- 
ping list when the general depression of the 'nineties struck 
the district. Officers of the Monon Mining Co. are: George 
C. Manley, president; August Drumm, vice-president; 
Theodore H. Thomas, secretary-treasurer; and Thornton H. 
Thomas, attorney; these last two men being known in Colo- 
rado as the 'Thomas twins.' From the Silverton district 
comes news that the old Peerless San Juan mine, in Minnie 
gulch, is being revived, after years of legal entanglement, 
by the Caledonian Mining & Milling Co. New machinery 
will be erected in the mill that was operated for a brief run 
years ago. Boulder county, too, is enthused about silver 
mining. H. F. Corfield, in developing the Congo Chief at 
Caribou, has exposed an 18-in. shoot of ore assaying from 
250 to 400 oz. in silver. Alongside of this shoot is a 
2-in. streak of argentite assaying up to 3290 oz. silver per 
ton, the metal associated with galena. The White Raven 
mine near Ward continues to produce high-grade silver ore 
from the curious stockwerk whose genesis has never been 
satisfactorily explained. At Crisman, the Yellow Pine has 
passed into the management of J. W. Pherson of Cripple 
Creek. He proposes to introduce more intensive mining 
among the 18 sets of lessees. This mine, for which its 
original owner once refused a million dollars, has been a 
small but consistent shipper since its location in the 'seven- 
ties, and we expect to hear of even better production. 

The writer was agreeably surprised, during a recent trip, 
to see that the old Golden Age mine, at Springdale, Boulder 
county, is being worked. In this property there exists a 
system of parallel Assures traversing a mountain of miner- 
alized porphyry. Operations ceased at this mine when the 
buildings were burned in 1897. In general, the ore is a 
low-grade gold-bearing sulphide, and is being concentrated 
in the old Standard mill at the foot of the mountain 'along 
James creek. 

More interest is maintained in oil-shale, probably, than 
in any other new branch of Colorado mining. This is said 
advisedly. Showings in the field do not indicate any special 
progress, but the fact remains that actual construction of 
plants is withheld simply pending the selection of processes 
and equipment that will be reasonably sure of accomplish- 
ing success upon a commercial scale. This is a new in- 
dustry for Americans. There are no operating oil-shale 
plants in this country from which to compile data as to 
treatment and costs. It is understood that at least one 
strongly-financed company proposes to put in a modified 
Scotch system in the DeBeque field, but the majority of 
operators appear to doubt the adaptability of foreign sys- 
tems to our Western shales. Numerous American ideas 
are being developed, their progress being carefully watched.- 

Gold Output and Dividends. — Ore-Treatment Charges. 

Production of the district in June was as under: 

Where treated Tons Average value 

Golden Cycle. Colorado Springs 30,400 $20.00 

Smelters. Denver and Pueblo 2.500 55.00 

Portland. Independence 36.350 2.46 

Portland. Victor 13.880 2.15 

Vindicator. Cripple Creelt , 13.800 2.10 

The total was 102,930 tons, valued at $1,006,343. Divi- 
dends were paid by the Cresson, $122,000, and Golden 
Cycle, $45,000. 

The Portland company has announced the following 
rates for treatment of ore at its Independence mill, effective 
July 1: 

Value per ton 

Up to S3 

S3 to S3. 50 

S3. 50 to S4.00 

S4.00 to $4.50 

$4.50 to $5.00 

Freight on above grades. 

So to $8 

Freight on above grade. 

Charge per ton 
82.00 to 5.00 

The Golden Cycle company announces the following new 

schedule for treatment at its plant at Colorado Springs: 

New rate Old rate 

per ton per ton 

$6.90 S6.50 

7.50 7.00 

8.60 8.00 

New rate 

per ton 





The Roosevelt drainage-tunnel was extended 79 ft. dur- 
ing June. The flow is now 3480 gal. per minute. 

Armed guards accompanied two box-cars of ore from the 
Cresson mine to the Golden Cycle mill on July 2. 

Old rate 
per ton 
. . .S3.00 
. . . 4.00 
. . . 5.00 
. . . 6.00 

Review of Important Events in the Zinc Districts. 

Highland. — The New Jersey Zinc Co. is operating the two 
Clark mines successfully. Wages were increased generally 

at the beginning of the month 25c. per day. A new mine 

was developed on the Hying farm, one mile west of Clark 

No. 2. Drills were working on land adjoining. The 

Saxe-Lampe Co. reduced its working force from 25 to 7 
men, and kept going to keep its mine dry and raise a little 
ore. Six mines with mills however were idle in the first 
half of June. 

Montfort. — Local mining interests started seven drilling 
squads prospecting for pyrite one mile west, where large 
deposits are known to exist. 

Linden. — Indianapolis mining men purchased the Spring- 
Hill mine and mill for $6500. Operations were resumed, a 
shaft being sunk to ore. New ore was found last autumn 

by drilling. The Lucky-Six No. 2 of Milwaukee started 

the Vial mine on the first of the month. It was recently 
equipped with a 150-ton mill. , 

Mineral Point. — The Mineral Point Zinc Oxide Works is 
working full time. Sales of the product have been light 
this season, and the warehouse capable of housing 50,000 
bbl. is overflowing, so additional storage capacity has been 
provided. Sulphuric acid shipments are made from the 
acid plant daily. The two zinc-ore separators operated here 
on crude zinc concentrate turn out from 600 to 800 tons 
of high-grade blende weekly. 

Mifflin. — The Vinegar Hill Zinc Co., operating two pro- 
ducers, the Yewdall and Senator mines, is engaged in a 
large exploratory program. A new mine has been developed 
on the Franklin Rundell farm. Ore is to be trammed to 
the main mill on the Yewdall. On the Dale Rundell farm 
another big deposit of zinc has been opened, and a new 
zinc concentrator is being erected. On the Albert Rundell 
farm, the same 'range' extending across country has been 
traced by drills, so the prospect of an additional producer 

is good. Other good producers here are the Coker and 

Big Tom mines. 

Platteville. — This district is practically shut-down, no 
shipments of ore coming from the Block-House, New Rose, 
or Mann & Harding mines. At the first named there was 
held on June 15 about 4000 tons of concentrate and sepa- 
rator product. 

Cuba City. — The usual heavy receipts of raw ore at the 

July 13, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


National Separators from Vinegar Hill mines lias dwindled 

considerably, dropping from 20 to 8 cars weekly. The 

Linden Zinc Co., another ore-separating concern, was being 
supplied with raw ore from the Frontier mines. Shipments 

of high-grade finished ore fell to about 60% of normal. 

The Connecting Link Mining Co. completed a new mill 
and started it about the middle of June. 

Benton. — This district is the one bright spot in the 
region, the output and deliveries being over 2000 tons of 
concentrate weekly. No mine development was reported; 
mine equipment and building was brought to a standstill. 
Prospecting with drills continued at a brisk pace, never- 

Shullsburg. — Three fairly good zinc mines operated stead- 
ily here and shipments are regular. 

Hazel Green. — The only producer to continue shipments 
from this district is the Kennedy mine, completing 2 5 years 

of active work. The newly-equipped Jefferson mine was 

unable to get onto a producing basis on account of a heavy 

overflow. The Monmouth Mining Co., shut-down a year 

ago, resumed operations. 

Mining and Placers in Madison County. 

Dillon. — The old Pilares mine, about 40 miles west of 
here, is again being worked, employing 35 men. Several 
years ago, H. Armstead spent between $300,000 and $400,- 
000 erecting a smelter, etc., but production was practically 

A. H. French is leasing and shipping some lead-silver ore 
from the Argenta, 11 miles west of Dillon. A few other 
lessees are working. 

Smith and partners are working a graphite mine, 15 
miles south-east of Dillon, shipping a car per month of 
high-grade ore, which goes to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 

The Beaverhead Oil Co. is drilling out from Dillon about 
nine miles south-west. The shales are said to be favorable. 

Some work is being done on a new manganese property, 
10 miles north-east of Dillon, at the 'Hogback.' 

Bannack. — The two mines here are practically idle. A 
large mill was erected last year and much work done, but 
something went wrong. 

A lessee at the Delmonte lead-silver mine, near Bannack, 
recently shipped a car of ore. 

Virginia City. — The Conrey Placer Mining Co.'s opera- 
tions at Ruby, and above on Alder gulch for five miles, are 
about finished. There is IS acres on the north side, just 
above Ruby, yet to dredge; this is about all. Bedrock is 
low; they are now filling the pit to float and operate a 
dredge. The ground at the upper end has reached the area 
where it was all drift-mined years ago. Alder gulch, where 
dredged, seems to be from 100 to 200 yards wide. Above 
the last dredge it has been placer-mined for seven miles. 
The dredges are driven by electric power. Their costs have 
been just under six cents per cubic yard, and the average 
value of the ground at the lower end, four to eight miles 
down, has been 16 c. per yard, according to Government re- 
port (U. S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin, abstracted in the 
'Press' of September 23, 1916). Operations have been very 
profitable. The round boulders are not large and are easily 
handled. They appear to be much less worn at the upper 
end of the dredging area than lower down. This does not 
indicate a glacial deposit as its origin ( as sometimes 
claimed), nor is there any other placer ground found of any 
account, outside of this small, narrow, long gulch. The 
country rock is largely gneiss with limestone and some 

It is claimed that the records of Wells, Fargo & Co. show 
that $105,000,000 worth of placer gold was shipped out of 
Alder gulch by them in the early days. 

The Eastern Pacific, up toward the head and west of 

Alder, has had a large production (largely silver) for 25 
years. The owners are now cyanlding the tailing. The 
Hlghup, nearby, is said to make a good showing, now under 
option to Salt Lake City people, 

The Missouri, a few miles east and north of Virginia City, 
has been shipping high-grade gold-silver ore for years. It 
now has a mill about ready to start. It is owned by Filings 


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& Pankey. From the numerous known veins it would ap- 
pear that the old district of Virginia City should 'come 
back.' It is pretty country, well watered, and with a rail- 
road five or six miles below Virginia City (the county-seat 
of Madison county), a branch of the Northern Pacific from 

Rare Minerals Included in the Mineral Act. 

The Mineral Act of British Columbia has been enlarged 
by Order-in-Council to apply to tungsten, fluorine, vana- 
dium, radium, and uranium, or any combination of these 
elements "with themselves, or with any other elements." 
This action was taken by the Provincial government on 
recommendation of the Hon. William Sloan, Minister of 
Mines. It having been brought to the attention of the 
Provincial Department of Mines that there are occurrences 
of fluorspar and of scheelite. here, it was decided to lose no 
time in bringing these and other minerals, heretofore out- 
side the scope of the Act, within its provisions. It may be 
stated by way of explanation that the Provincial Mineral 
Act, and its definition of mineral, was drafted 20 years ago 
when the minerals in question were unconsidered, so that 
they have been in the anomalous position of being unstak- 
able under the Act in a legal sense, although common sense 
and the necessities of the times demanded their inclusion. 
Incidentally it is pointed ou that the British War Board 
has asked the Canadian government to produce as much 
vanadium as possible, while the need of tungsten is also 
great. Not an inconsiderable market for fluorspar exists at 
the smelter of the Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co. at 

Grand Forks. — The Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co. 
is said to have acquired under bond a large fluorspar deposit 
situated 20 miles north of this place. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, 1918 



Cordova. — The Chilty Oil Co., operating in the Katalla 
field, brought in a good well on July 5. 


Jerome. — On June 28 a committee, said to represent the 
Central Labor Union of Jerome, presented a demand to the 
Verde District Mine Operators Association tor an increase 
in wages amounting to an average o£ over $1 per day each 
for all mechanics and laborers employed in and about the 
various properties and plants in the district. However, the 
demand was for an increase of only 10c. per day for 
shovelers. The committee intimated that if such increases 
were not forthcoming by July 1 there would be a general 
walk-out of all employees. The demand was refused by 
the Operators Association in a formal reply, and the Secre- 
tary of Labor, Wilson, was informed by wire as to the na- 
ture of the demand and the refusal, and requested to send 
at once a Federal Mediator to the district to adjust mat- 
ters. From all reports it would appear that the movement 
has been put over by three or four of the extreme radicals 
here, and, although the rest of the men may be timid of 
continuing work in case a walk-out is called, the sentiment 
for the most part seems to be in favor of being loyal at this 
time, and stand by the agreement to abide by the decision 
of the Federal representative. 

Miami. — On August 15 the Miami Copper Co. pays $1 
per share. This makes $3.50 for the current year. 

Oatman. — The United Eastern produced 9000 tons of 
$26 ore during June, yielding a profit of $165,000. This is 
the largest output since the mine started operations. On 
July 26 the company pays 5c. per share. 

Walker. — The Lacey-Pabst company, former operator of 
the Union mine at Chaparral, has transferred its men to the 
Mud Hole gold mine at Walker. The first work will be to 
re-timber an old 80-ft. shaft where gold-silver ore was 
found; also the removal of an electric hoist from other 
workings to this shaft. W. J. Casey is in charge. The 
Mud Hole has produced more than $325,000 from shallow 
workings previous to the I. W. W. strike 10 years ago. 

Silver-sulphide ore assaying over 200 oz. silver and $48 
gold was opened in a 30-ft. shaft by W. McLeod last week. 
The vein is 4 ft. wide and the high-grade streak 8 to 12 

Development has been gratifying at the old Milliken mine 
on Spruce mountain, one mile from Walker. An old tunnel 
opened shows 125 ft. on a vein assaying from $8 to $48 in 
gold and silver. A new shaft is being sunk and shows rich 

The molybdenum property .owned by J. T. Burris and 
others is exceptional. The pay-streak is 18 to 30 in. wide, 
and assays by H. E. Woods & Co. of Denver show 3.6 and 
4.9%. The No. 2 prospect is opened by a 125-ft. tunnel cut- 
ting the vein at 45-ft. depth, also by a 50-ft. winze in ore all 
the way. Some bunches show almost pure metal. The 
molybdenite is well disseminated and not in seams. 

Placer mining along Lynx creek by C. H. McDonald has 
been suspended because of inadequate water supply. He 
will devote his attention to some lode claims. The clean-up 

was satisfactory. A number of $3 to $6 nuggets and much 
fine gold and amalgam are being saved. Lnyx creek, ac- 
cording to Government statistics, has produced over $5,000,- 
000 in gold. When water is available it is not an uncommon 
sight to see citizens and even school-children digging and 

The Black Diamond mine operated by Irving is now pro- 
ducing. Veins of gold-lead-silver ore, 24 to 36 in. wide, 
worth $55 per ton, have been opened on the 100 and 200-ft. 
levels, with drifts 50 ft. each way. Sinking is under way 
to 300 ft. The property is equipped with 35-hp. hoist, 
steam-boiler, pump, and shops. There is 75 tons of ore 
ready for the next shipment. 


Porterville. — Magnesite mining in this district is still at 
a low ebb, and likely to continue so. A large deposit of 
feldspar was found recently on the Entriken property, 18 
miles east of here. The orebody is on a steep hillside, and 


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is hauled on sleds to the bottom of the hill, then taken to 
the Globe station on the P. & N. E. line. 

Sacramento. — In the dispute between William Hales and 
the Central Pacific Railway Co., defendants, and the Power 
Timber Co., assignee, the Land Office here has decided that 
miners may file mineral claims to railroad lands in Cali- 
fornia found to contain chrome. The decision has been sus- 
tained by the Federal Commission. 

San Francisco. — Method of planning oilfield development 
is to be the subject of discussion at a public meeting called 
by the State Mining Bureau at the Engineers Club, 57 Post 
street, on July 15, at 2 p.m. This is the second of a series 
of meetings arranged by the State Mineralogist, Fletcher 
Hamilton. The first, held at Los Angeles for the purpose of 
discussing drilling methods involving the use of mud fluid, 
was well attended. 

Yreka. — Hugh McKinnie, of the Ora Grande Mining Co., 
associated with local people, announces that they will open 
chrome sampling works and an assay-office at Yreka, to buy 

July 13. 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


and ship ore for the outside market. It is estimated that 
there is a large quantity of available chrome ore within 50 
miles from the shipping point. 


• : 

Brcckenrldge. — To test an ore carrying lead, zinc, gold, 
silver, and bismuth, owners of the Royal Tiger mine (J. A. 
Traylor, principally interested), have erected an experi- 
mental plant. 

Durango. — One of the most interesting mining opera- 
tions in south-western Colorado is that of the Cumberland 
Mines Co., leased from W. B. Ritter by R. R. Selway and W. 
Goff Black. The syndicate has strong backing. C. B. 
Miller is in charge. A shaft is being sunk on the vein to 
the Carboniferous area, which at the Cumberland is only 
300 ft. from the porphyry. As there is no part of the dis- 
trict that is in the Carboniferous formation in which the 
Rico ore is found, this is attracting the interest of geologists 
acquainted with the La Plata mountains. The Cumberland 
has two strong veins carrying rich ore. Both have been 
slightly worked in previous years, and indications are 

Leadville. — Manganese producers here are not satisfied 
with the new prices for their product, especially on ore 
carrying less than 35% Mn, as brokers make low offers for 
this. There are few mines here that yield ore of better 

The Leadville Unit of the U. S. S. R. & E. Co., after 30 
months work in charge of H. S. Lee, has decided that Fryer 
hill does not justify further expenditure in development 
and pumping. Large sums have been spent at the Harvard, 
Jamie Lee, and Tip Top shafts. Results were discouraging. 
About 75 men were employed. The plants are to be dis- 


Chestatee. — The Chestatee Pyrites & Chemical Corpora- 
tion has completed the construction of its 10-mile standard- 
gauge railroad to Clermont, Georgia, and its 600-ton sort- 
ing and concentrating plant. Underground development 
has shown an important deposit of iron pyrite. Produc- 
tion will start some time in July. The company has its 
own hydro-electric power-plant and a large townsite with 
comfortable houses for employees. 


Bonners Ferry. — The Deer Creek Mining Co.'s gold prop- 
erty in the Buckhorn district of Boundary county has been 
sold to Montana people for $30,000. Conrad brothers, 
bankers of Montana, are interested. 

Gilmore. — The Pittsburg-Idaho, Gilmore, and Latest Out 
companies are employing 50, 15, and 40 men, respectively. 
All three are shipping ore to smelters in Utah, and are re- 
ported to be in good condition. 

Kellogg. — The Constitution M. & M. Co. on Pine Creek is 
to resume work now that the O.-W. R. & N. Co. is to com- 
plete the railroad. The mill is to be re-modeled and en- 
larged to 200 tons capacity. 

Mackay. — On July 1 the Empire Mines Co. paid 5c. per 
share, equal to $50,000. This makes $100,000 for 1918, 
and $500,000 to date. 


Treece. — A mile west of this place the Redskin Mining 
Co. is to erect a 300-ton gas-engine driven mill. Rich ore 
has been opened at about 50-ft. depth. P. R. Bouldin is 
general manager. 


Houghton. — At No. 20 level the Ahmeek shaft is in a 
badly-crushed ground, entailing heavy timbering. The 
present depth is 2799 ft. A good deal of mass copper is 
coming from No. 2 shaft. 

At the Qulncy mill, concentrate bins have been enlarged 
and a foundation has been put in for No. 4 stamp. 


Bi-lton. — Oil and gas possibilities in thjjj r i^n area, in 
Cass and Jackson counties, are discussed by M. E. Wilson 
in a recent bulletin of the Missouri Bureau of Geology and 
Mines. The region lies in a direct line of strike, north- 
east from the shallow pools of Kansas, and no doubt careful 
mapping will show similar structures along the strike line. 
A number of small oil and gas wells have been drilled. 
Possible variable sand conditions, and the presence of fault- 
ing and intense folding over part of the area inject an ele- 
ment of uncertainty as to results. 

Joplln. — Mines in this district were closed from July 3 
to 8 in order that the large reserves of concentrate might 
be reduced, also that miners could go to their farms for a 
few days. 


Butte. — Davis-Daly made a profit of $59,973 in May. 
This was from ore mined in the Colorado. The flow of 
water in the Hibernia is easing considerably. 

The Anaconda company has raised miners' wages 50c. 
per shift. This equals about $3,000,000 per year addi- 

Elkhorn. — The Boston & Montana Development Co. re- 
ports as follows for 1917: 

Expenditures totaled $443,969, including $217,528 for 
development and equipment, and $213,315 for railroad con- 
struction. Cash assets amount to $117,199, and accounts 
payable $44,079. To bring the property to the productive 
stage it is proposed to increase the capital from 3,000,000 
to 5,000,000 shares, $5 par. 

The general manager, J. D. Pope, reports that mining was 
confined principally to the 1000-ft. level of the Elkhorn 
mines. The advance was 3125 ft. This was largely in open- 
ing the Idanha vein along its course and the Park vein west 
of the fault-Assure. The Idanha maintained its average 
width of 20 ft. Where cut, the Park vein is 61 ft. wide, 
somewhat affected by the fault. In 3 00 ft. driven the width 
was reduced to 30 or 40 ft., assaying $20 per ton in gold 
and silver. Some rich shoots carried 10 oz. silver, 2% 
copper, 7% lead, and 50c. gold. Estimates of ore in both 
veins give between 600,000 and 800,000 tons. 

On the railway between Divide, on the Oregon Short Line, 
to the Elkhorn mines, 35 miles, 90% of the grading has 
been done, 75% of the ties cut, and equipment purchased. 
The gauge is 36 in., and the line can handle 2000 tons 
daily. No work was done on the 500-ton mill, pending com- 
pletion of the line, but foundations and buildings will be 
constructed before the road is complete to bring in ma- 
chinery. Although the company can develop hydro-electric 
power, on account of difficulty in securing plant it has been 
decided to construct a transmission-line from the Montana 
Power Co.'s plant on the Big Hole river, 31 miles away. 


Ely. — The old Silver Eagle mine has been purchased by 
W. S. Bennett and others of Cody, Wyoming, while the 
Taylor mine has been taken under option by the same in- 
terests. Both properties are lead-silver producers,, and are 
16 miles south of Ely. Ore worth $1,000,000 is estimated 
to be available. 

Goldfleld. — The strike here may be settled by the con- 
tract-bonus system being started by the Goldfield Consoli- 

Manhattan. — A consolidation between the White Caps 
and Manhattan Consolidated is being negotiated. Develop- 
ments in both mines are said to be very satisfactory. The 
White Caps mill is working regularly. A new Gould triplex 
pump has been installed on the 400-ft. level of the Con- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, 1918 

Tonopah. — The Belmont company states that at the end 
of May the net income for the quarter was $186,553. Avail- 
able resources were $294,002 from smelters, $156,286 from 
others, and $233,943 cash in banks. Disbursements in re- 
spect of subsidiaries to May 31 were $1,296,872 to the Bel- 
mont Surf Inlet, B. C.J $396,896 to the Belmont Shawmut, 
California; and $331,203 to the Belmont Wagner, Colorado; 
a total of $2,024,971. 

The Tonopah Divide, at Gold Mountain, has sunk its 

body that is spoken of in the annual report of the latter com- 
pany as one of the title of which is "expected to be settled 
amicably." The discovery of the large body of ore in dis- 
pute between these two companies was made last fall when 
the Utah Metal, after following down a lime-bed in its 
property for over 1400 ft., came upon a large orebody and 
discovered tftat its neighbor, the Utah Consolidated, was 
raising from below in the same bed. The workings of the 
two companies here came together and the respective man- 

shaft to 350 ft. Fifty tons of ore has been sent to the Gold- 
field Consolidated mill at Goldfield. It is said that the ore 
contains molybdenum. 


Alia. — The railroad into this district is now in good order 
and many mines are shipping ore to smelters. The South 
Hecla is sending out up to 125 tons per day. The Michigan- 
Utah is averaging a carload daily. 

Bingham. — The Bingham Amalgamated is to resume work 
on the Lark side of its property. 

From the 'Boston News Bureau' is abstracted the fol- 
lowing; The never-ending question of apex rights has again 
turned attention to the Bingham district, between the Utah 
Apex and Utah Consolidated. On the side-lines sits the 
Utah Metals & Tunnel Co. awaiting a decision between the 
two that it, too, may enter a claim. Utah Apex last summer 
discovered the largest ore deposit that had ever been found 
in its property. This was between the 1500 and 1800-ft. 
levels and was rich in lead and precious metals. It is said 
that from this orebody Utah Apex has added substantially 
to its surplus cash that on January 1 last totaled $1,200,000. 
Since the first of 1918 the company is understood to have 
been earning net profits of from $75,000 to $100,000 per 
month, most of which was taken from this newly discovered 
vein. Now comes the Utah Consolidated, which has entered 
suit against the Yampa Copper Co., claiming it has been 
mining on the lime-bed of the Utah Consolidated, and sets 
forth that the Utah Apex's newly discovered ore is but a con- 
tinuation of the Yampa lime-bed, and as that orebody apexes 
in Utah Consolidated ground, Utah Apex is liable for having 
mined there. Several conferences have been held between 
Utah Apex and Utah Consolidated, but as yet no definite 
step has been taken to bring the matter before the Court. 
Another large deposit of ore was developed last year by 
Utah Metal & Tunnel Co. in a lime-bed which is in dispute 
between the Utah Consolidated and itself. This is the ore- 

agers have arranged to have the underground conditions 
examined by engineers whose reports are to be submitted by 
agreement to the officials of the companies. 

Utah Consolidated pays 50c. per share on July 17, This 
makes $1 for 1918. 


British Columbia 

The five leading mining companies of British Columbia 
have declared dividends for the first half of the year 1918 
as follows: 

Granby Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co $749,924 

Consolidated Mining: & Smelting Co 523.872 

Howe South Co. (Britannia mine) 198.415 

Hedley Gold Mining Co 96.000 

Crow's Nest Pass Coal Co 62,126 

Total (51,610,337 

The Howe Sound Co. leads in the ratio of dividend to 
capitalization, its rate being 5% per quarter or 20% per 
annum. Granby leads as the largest dividend payer in the 
Province, its total to date aggregating $10,198,895. Both 
Granby and the Consolidated M. & S. Co. pay dividends at 
the rate of 10% per annum. 



Juarez. — Epifanio Holguin, the Villa leader who has been 
robbing trains and looting ranches in northern Chihuahua, 
has ordered the Erupcion Mining Co., an American com- 
pany operating mines 85 miles south of here, to stop all 
operations, according to the owners of the mine, who 
reached Juarez recently. Freight wagons, lumber, and 
other materials at the mine have been burned, and the 
workmen warned not to approach the property. The reason 
given for the order was the refusal of the company to pay 
Holguin a ransom. Miguel Holguin, brother of the Villa 
leader, has accepted amnesty and has joined the Federal 

July 18, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


forces at Chihuahua City, having appeared at Villa Ahu- 
mada and surrendered. 


Pmchnca. — The 0. S. S. K. & M. Co., operating the Real 
del Monte mines and mills, reports for the first half ui 1 !i 1 s 
that an average of 56, aim tuns of ore has been treated 
monthly, an Increase of 1900 tons compared with the 
second period of 1917. Silver realized 93c. per oz. for the 
current year. 


Etzatlan. — The Aiuparo Mining Co. has issued its report 
for 1917. During the first half, capacity was at 50%. For 
the first seven months there was a shortage of cyanide. 
Supplies advanced in price from 50 to 300%. Considerable 
development was done, and repairs made. Flotation was 
tried, but, although encouraging, cyanidation will be con- 
tinued. The year's receipts totaled $1,220,964, including 
$1,052,239 from bullion and concentrate, and $138,302 
profit on silver certificates sold. The operating profit was 
$195,565, less Philadelphia expenses and taxes, leaving 
$17S,065 net. Dividends amounted to $320,000. The sur- 
plus of $1,581,139 at the beginning of the year was reduced 
to $1,269,037 at the end. Current assets total $1,293,455, 
and liabilities $517,850. 

The general manager, J. H. Howard, states that although 
bandits took the town of Etzatlan, operations were little dis- 
turbed from this source. Military protection and watchmen 
cost $38,199. Development amounted to 1616 metres in 
ore and 1110 metres not in ore. A large stope was opened 
at 1000 ft. depth, but little has been exposed at 1300 ft. 
Reserves, according to the engineer, W. R. Askew, total 
481,572 tons, of which 341,622 tons is positive. 

The mill worked 67.7% of possible time, treating 84,277 
metric tons of ore, a decrease of 14,763 tons compared with 
1916. The average assay was 7.93 grammes gold and 326 
grammes silver per ton, an increase of 8 of silver, but a de- 
crease of 2 of gold. The theoretical extraction was 87.84%, 
a drop of 3.26%. Costs are given in considerable detail; 
they were as follows: mining, $2.58; development, 85c; 
crushing and tramway, 25c; treatment, $3.73; selling ex- 
penses, 67c; general charges, $1.23; taxes, $1.15; premium, 
82c; miscellaneous, 9c; a total of $10.79 per ton. 

Total bullion extracted was 24,250 kilogrammes of silver 
and 608 kilogrammes of gold, equal to 776,000 oz. and 
19,456 oz., respectively. 


El Oro. — The Esperanza Mining Co. has issued its report 
for 1917. Bullion and concentrate production, etc, was 
valued at H,822,895. Mine operations and taxes cost 
tt, 435, 436. The profit was 1*121,965. Dividends amounted 
to P112.500. Current assets total 1*1,074,458, and liabilities 
P61.359. The political conditions in Mexico were satis- 
factory, but the economic conditions did not improve. The 
mill treated 181,935 metric tons of ore, filling, and dumps, 
a gain of 68,014 tons. Development totaled 9908 ft. Dia- 
mond-drilling at El Sirlo was not encouraging. A re-esti- 
mate of ore-reserves showed 65,368 tons, with a recoverable 
value of ¥=1, 400, 000, and profit of P400.000. This does not 
include old filling. At present the tailing dump is not profit- 
able to treat. 


Nacozari. — The Progreso Silver Co. is constructing a 
100-ton all-sliming cyanide mill to treat ore from the 
Progreso-Colorada silver-gold mine on the east side of the 
Moctezuma river, 100 miles south of Nacozari. This mine 
has shipped $1,000,000 of high-grade silver ore at different 
times since 1898 to the Douglas and El Paso smelters. 
Dumps and reserves in the mine total 40,000 tons, avail- 
able for the new mill. Five parallel veins are worked. 
The ore is highly silicious, carrying 25 oz. of silver and 
0.2 oz. gold per ton. 


Note: The Editor invite* membcn of the pra/enMon to Bend partiadarml their 
work and appointment*. This information in interesting to our reader*. 

Pnul Couldrey is in active service in France. 

Kirby Thomas has returned to New York from Arizona. 

K. ('. Brown has returned to Boise, Idaho, from a trip to 

W. B. McPhee, recently at Como, Nevada, is now in San 

Ben. B. Lawrence is returning to New York from Cornu- 
copia, Oregon. 

F. D. Adams, professor of geology in McGill University, 
has gone to London. 

William W. Mein was in San Francisco this week-end, on 
his way to Los Angeles. 

E. B. Thornhill, of the General Engineering Co., has 
moved from Ottawa to New York. 

AVilliam Loeb Jr., C. K. Lipman, and P. R. Poraker, of 
the A. S. & R. Co., were here this week. 

Ernest J. Stanley has been appointed chief engineer for 
the El Tigre Mining Co., Sonora, Mexico. 

F. W. McXear, president of the Michigan College of Mines, 
is doing Government work at Washington. 

A. D. Cox has gone to Dome, Yuma county, Arizona, to 
take charge of an old lead-silver mine for the Reorganized 
United Mines Company. 

Rensselaer H. Toll is investigating chrome production in 
Fresno and neighboring counties under Albert Burch, for 
the U. S. Bureau of Mines. 

M. M. Summerhayes, formerly manager for the Porcupine 
Crown Mines, is now manager for the Bluestone Mining & 
Smelting Co. at Mason, Nevada. 

P. R. Bradley, of the Alaska Juneau and Treadwell mines, 
has been appointed Food Administrator of Alaska to suc- 
ceed the late Judge R. A. Gunnison. 

O. McCraney, mine superintendent for the White Caps 
Co., Manhattan, Nevada, has accepted a similar position at 
the Eagle Shawmut mine, California. W. L. Taylor suc- 
ceeds Mr. McCraney. 

M. J. Murphy succeeds W. L. Cole as superintendent for 
the Mountain Copper Co., Kennett, California. Mr. Cole 
retires on September 1 after 23 years service. E. L. 
Stenger has been appointed assistant superintendent. 

H. R. Robbins has severed his connection with the Granby 
Consolidated M. S. & P. Co., Ltd., for the duration of the 
War, and has been commissioned Captain, National Army, 
assigned to special duty with the General Staff. 


William Johns, foreman of the Camp Bird, died at Ouray, 
Colorado, on July 2. 

Angus Mackay, manager of the Vulture mine, in Yavapai 
county, Arizona, died suddenly at Oakland on June 29. He 
was the son of the late Senator Mackay of Montreal and 
graduated at McGill University. 

The Mining Society of Nova Scotia held its 26th annual 
meeting at Sydney on May 1 and 2. There were sixty pres- 
ent, the retiring president, D. H. McDougall, being in the 
chair. The new officers are: Thomas Cantley, president; 
A. J. Tange and G. D. McDougall, vice-presidents; and E. C. 
Hanrahan, secretary-treasurer. Four interesting papers 
were read, generally dealing with coal-mining problems. 


MINING and 'ScienlftgPH&S 

July 13, 1918 



Sao Francisco, July 9 
Aluminum-dust, large and small lots, cents per lb . . . 

Antimony (wholesale), cents per pound 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound, in carload lots. 
Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound, in small quantities . 

65 — 70 


Lead, pig, cents per pound 8.30 — 9.30 

Platinum. Government price, per ounce . ■. S105 

QuickBilver. per flask of 75 lb S120 

Spelter, cents per pound 11 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 17 ^ 


July 9 

Antimony, 45% metal, f.o.b. California, per unit SI. 10 

Chrome. 38 to 48%. California, per unit SI. 25 — SI. 50 

Magnesite, crude, California, per ton (nominal price) $7.00 — S8.00 

Manganese, domestic. 35 to 54%, f.o.b. South Chicago, per 

unit (Government price, effective May 29) SO. 86 — S1.30 

Manganese, domestic, 35 to 54%, f.o.b. east of South Chicago. 

per unit (Government price, effective May 29) S1.01 — Sl-45 

(Manganese, domestic, penalty of 50c. to SI per ton for 
8% and up to 25% silica, and bonus of 50c. to $1 for 
less than 8 and 5%.) 

Molybdenite, per lb.. 90% MoS. S1.25 

Pyrite, per unit of sulphur, cents 28 

Tungsten. 60% W0 8 . California, per unit S24 

Tungsten prices, as quoted by this and other mining journals, have 
been declared as being too high; but we learn that large sales have been 
made at S25 per unit, disproving such assertions. 


(By wire from New York) 
July 9. — Government price for copper advanced to 26c. on July 2. 
Lead is quiet, though strong. Spelter is easier, but firm. 


Below are given official (not Government) quotations, in cents per 
ounce of silver 999 fine. In order to make prompt settlements with 
emelters and brokers, producers allow a discount from the Government 
price of SI. hence the lower price. The Government has not fixed the 
general market price at SI. but will pay this price (as from April 23, 
1918) for all silver purchased by it. The equivalent of dollar silver 
(1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 pence per ounce (925 fine), cal- 
culated at the current rate of exchange. 
New York, London, 

Date cents 

July 3 99.62 

" 4 Holiday 

5 99.62 

6 99.62 

7 Sunday 

8 99.62 

9 99.62 





Jan 66.76 

Feb 56.74 

Mch 57.89 

Apr 64.37 

May 74.27 

June 65.04 


Monthly averages 

Average week ending 

28 99.50 

4 99.50 

11 99.50 

18 99.50 

25 99.50 

2 99.50 

9 99.62 



July 63.06 

Aug 66.07 

Sept 68.51 

Oct 67.86 

Nov 71.60 

Dec 75.70 


Advice from Samuel Montagu & Co. of London, dated June 13, says 
that the tone of the silver market continues good, especially now that 
Shanghai exchange has risen to a point closely approximating that at 
■which silver purchases for China might become profitable. The scarcity 
of silver in Europe is suggested by a report that current silver coin is 
being melted down in Holland in order to provide material for industrial 
purposes. In normal times such an operation could not have been 
profitable in Holland, unless the local quotation for silver had exceeded 
the parity of 60Md. per oz. There is a reduction of 91 lacs (S2.730.000) 
in the silver holding of the Indian Treasury, but the amount of silver on 
the way from the United States is considerably less, and the total within 
India has increased by a couple of crores (S32.000.000) . The stock in 
Shanghai on June 1 consisted of 29.500.000 oz. in bars and 15.300,000 
Mexican dollars, compared with 31.300,000 oz. and 15.900,000 dollars on 
May 25. 


Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. Governmen* 
metal receives 7c. per lb. until August 6. Early in July producers agreed 
to fix prices at 7.90c. per lb.. New York. 

July 3 . 

4 Holiday 

5 : 


7 Sunday 





Average week ending 


June 6.88 






. . 8.05 
. . 8.05 
Monthly averages 










. 6.40 

. 6.28 

. 6.86 

. 7.02 

. 7.07 

. 7.56 



On September 21, 1917, the Government fixed copper prices at 23.50c. 
per lb. for large lots, and 24 .67 tec for small lots, effective until June 1, 
1918. On this date the prices were re-fixed until August 15: but on 
July 2 the price was increased to 26c. and 27.30c. respectively, until 
August 15. Quotations in cents per pound are as under: 




July 3 26.00 

4 Holiday 

5 26.00 

6 26.00 

7 Sunday 

8 26.00 

9 26.00 

Monthly averages 

1917 1918 

29.53 23.50 

34.57 23.50 

36.00 23.50 

33.16 23.50 

31.69 23.50 

32.57 23.50 

Average week ending 
28 23.50 

4 23.50 

11 23.50 

18 23.50 

25 23.50 

2 23.60 

9 26.00 


Jan 24.30 

Feb 26.62 

Mch 26.65 

Apr 28.02 

May 29.02 

June 27.47 


July 25.66 

Aug 27.03 

Sept 28.28 

Oct 28.50 

Nov 31.96 

Dec 32.89 


Additional to the above heading on the increased price for copper, the 
small or high-cost producers are to be considered by the War Industries 
Board on August 6. 

Secondary copper produced in the United States in 1917 totaled 383.400 
short tons, all from scrap, 


Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands. New York delivery, 
in cents per pound. On May 25. 1918, the Government fixed prices until 
September for grade A spelter at 12c. per lb. for itself and the open market. 
Lower grades can make their own prices as usual. Sheet-zinc is fixed at 
15c, and plate at 14c. per pound. 


4 Holiday 



7 Sunday 







Average week ending 




Jan 18.21 

Feb 19.99 

Mch 18.40 

Apr 18.62 

May 16.01 

June 12.85 








Monthly averages 



July 9.90 

Aug 9.03 

Sept 9.18 

Oct 9.92 

Nov 11.81 

Dec 11.26 



The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. The Government is taking 40% of the United States quicksilver 
output, paying therefor S105 per flask. Outside of this business the com- 
petitive market can make any price as usual. Prices, in dollars per flask 
of 75 pounds: 

Date I June 25 110.00 

June 11 110.00 July 2 120.00 

" 18 110.00 I " 9 120.00 

Monthly averages 




Jan. . . 




Feb. . . 

. ..295.00 



Mch. . . 

.. .219.00 



Apr. . . 

. ..141.60 



May . . 

. . . 90.00 



June . . 

. . . 74.70 




July 81.20 

Aug 74.50 

Sept 75.00 

Oct 78.20 

Nov 79.50 

Dec' 80.00 



Prices in New York, in cents per pound. These prices are nominal. 
Monthly averages 

Jan 41.76 

Feb 42.60 

Mch 60.50 

Apr 51.49 

May 49.10 

June 42.07 







July .. 

.. .38.37 




Aug. . . 

.. .38.88 




Sept. . . 

. . .36.66 




Oct. . . 

. . .41.10 




. . .44.12 




Dec. . . 

. . .42.55 


ORES (New York) 

Antimony: No transactions or developments are heard of in this 

Ferro-manganese: Imports in May are officially reported as 4138 tons, 
with the prospects that the June figures will show at least 5000 tons. 
Electrolytic 80% ferro from Japan has appeared in this market. 

Manganese: The market seems to be easier. Offerings of Indian high- 
grade ore have brought bids of SI. 38 per unit, compared with a former 
recent price of 51.45. Brazilian ore is also said to be available at 51.05 
per unit, seaboard, but this is hardly credited. 

Molybdenum: A report is to the effect that a small lot has been sold 
at SI .25 per pound. 

Tungsten: A fair business for the last week is reported done at the 
unchanged prices of $20 to 524 per unit. Ferro-tungsten seems strong at 
52.40 per pound of contained tungsten. 

July 13, 1918 

.■MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Eastern Metal Market 

n X^r >t 

New York, July 3. 

The markets are all strong but none are particularly 
active. Price changes have been of little consequence ex- 
cept in zinc. 

A change in the copper price has been made, a result of 
yesterday's unexpected meeting in Washington, the price 
being advanced to 26c. per pound. 

Tin is extremely quiet with practically no business be- 
cause of lack of offerings. 

Lead is quiet but strong at agreed maximum prices. 

Zinc is moderately active, but strong and higher. 

Antimony is quiet and unchanged. 

In the steel trade striking news is not abundant. An 
important item is the fact that the steel manufacturers' 
committee is in conference in Washington this week with a 
view to fixing prices on rails, wire-rope, and steel and malle- 
able castings. The question of some re-adjustment in pig- 
iron is also to be discussed. Lake Superior ore producers 
have decided that the 45c. advance in price noted last 
week shall apply only in part to 191S contracts, that is, to 
ore unloaded at Lake Erie docks after midnight on June 30. 

June pig-iron returns by wire to 'The Iron Age', with 
several furnaces estimated, show a slight falling off as com- 
pared with May, the total being 3,323,791 gross tons for 
30 days or 110,793 tons per day against 111,175 tons per 
day in May. 


An entirely unexpected meeting was held in Washington 
on Tuesday afternoon, July 2, between the representatives 
of copper producers and the War Industries Board. The 
former were summoned to Washington by telegraph. It is 
understood that this is the August 7 meeting, previously 
arranged for late in June, advanced to the present time. 
When in June the price question was settled by a continua- 
tion of the present 23.50c. price to August 15, there was 
much dissatisfaction, and another meeting was later called 
for August 7. It was believed that there was something in 
the wind as to a new price and that an advance was to be 
authorized, to be retroactive to July 1, but no higher price 
than 25c. was expected, although the conditions justify 
several cents above that figure. One reason offered for the 
rise is the increase in freight rates. Believing that a 
change in price was likely, producers were booking orders 
only on the condition that they be subject to any new price. 
It is a fact that there has been no acquiescence by producers 
in the continuance of the old 23.50c. price after June 1. 
The announcement of an increase in price to 26c. has shown 
a disposition to accept the opinions of producers, and this is 
encouraging. The demand is now larger and it is stated that 
producers are very much behind in their May deliveries. 
An interesting rumor is to the effect that a proposition has 
been made to the Government that it temporarily take over 
the operations of all small producers having a high cost of 
output, and who produce 75,000,000 to 100,000,000 lb. per 
year. Another proposition is that the Government take the 
output instead of the control and allow a reasonable profit 
to the small producer. The May output of blister copper is 
estimated to have been 170,000,000 to 175,000,000 lb. or 
10,000,000 to 15,000,000 lb. under estimates. 


Due to a decided lack of offerings the market has been 
dull and slow again. There has been a dearth of offerings 
of all kinds, which has for the time put a decided check on 
transactions. Considerably more interest has been mani- 

fested by buyers, but they could not obtain what they have 
wanted during the last week. According to a large im- 
porter there have been no offerings of Straits tin in the 
week covered by this report. The licenses to ship English 
Lamb and Flag tin have been temporarily held up. Con- 
firmation of this statement has been unobtainable in this 
market but one large dealer believes there is something in it 
because of the dearth of offerings cited above. The price- 
fixing matter is still in the air, but nothing definite is 
heard about it. It may come to something and it may not. 
It is certain that a fixed price is obtainable only by agree- 
ment between the American and British governments. 
Deliveries of tin in June were larger, totaling 6782 tons, of 
which 9 98 tons came in at Atlantic ports, and 5784 tons at 
Pacific ports. Stock and landing on June 30 was 95 tons. 
The June deliveries compared with a little over 5000 tons 
in March and April, and 4056 tons in May. The London 
market is a little higher than a week ago or £332 10s. per 
ton for spot Straits as compared with £332 per ton a week 


A concerted and determined effort on the part of lead 
producers to prevent the market reaching premium prices 
has resulted in a mutual agreement to fix the price at 7.75c. 
per lb., St. Louis, or 7.90c, New York. The American 
Smelting & Refining Co. took this position early last week 
and it has become general. The object is clear — to avoid a 
maximum price by the Government. Not very much is being 
offered, but such as appears is generally going at 7.90c, 
New York. There is evidently a scarcity, at least supplies 
are no more than equal to the demand. The re-adjustment 
of the New York price to 7.90c, as compared with 7.82Jc. 
a week ago, is due to the advance in freight rates. There 
may be further changes from this same cause. 

The market has continued to advance during the last 
week until yesterday prime Western had sold and was 
quoted at 8.65c, St. Louis, or 8.85c. per lb., New York, for 
July or early delivery. As high as 8.624c, St. Louis, or 
8.87Jc, New York, was noted, with a premium of at least 
Jc per lb. asked for August-September delivery. One cause 
of a stronger market has been large buying in the last 10 
days of prime Western and grade C by the Government. 
This is estimated to have amounted in all to at least 10,000 
tons. The Navy Department has also bought 1000 tons of 
grade B and 500 tons of grade C which are reported to have 
gone at 9.75 and 8.36c per lb. respectively. The sale price 
of the prime Western, 9000 tons of which went to the 
Ordnance Department of the Army, is not publicly known. 
At present the demand has died down, though a sale of 1000 
tons of prime Western is noted as of yesterday. It is 
believed that the crest of the upward movement has been 
reached for the present, and that an easier market is likely 
for a time at least, due to the fact that some producers who 
did not sell to the Government are probably ready now to 
sell to others. In fact, one quotation yesterday appeared 
for 8.50c, St. Louis, or 8.70c, New York, for July delivery. 
There has been some inquiry from galvanizers. 

Sheet zinc is officially fixed at 15c. per lb. base, with plate 
zinc at 14c per lb. Grade A zinc has also a maximum price 
of 12c per pound. 


The market is quiet and dull at 13 to 13.25c, duty paid, 
New York, for prompt and early delivery of Chinese and 
Japanese grades. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, liUS 

Book Reviews 

Powdered Coal as a Fuel. By C. F. Herington. Pp. 
XI-211, S4 ill., index. D. Van Nostrand Co., New York, 
1918. For sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press.' Price, $3. 

The use of pulverized coal is expanding with great rapid- 
ity. The efficiency obtainable, as compared with coal 
burned in the ordinary way, is so great that it offers the fuel 
engineer an opportunity to still further decrease the cost of 
generating steam, and the smelter an opportunity to largely 
augment the capacity of his furnaces. When it is realized 
that steam engineering has advanced to such a point that 
two years ago, at the costs then prevailing, it was possible 
to ship bituminous coal as much as 200 to 3 00 miles from 
the mines to the Atlantic coast and to burn the run-of-mine 
under boilers with the aid of automatic stokers, and convert 
the power developed into electric energy at a cost of about 
0.4c. per kilowatt hour at the switchboard, it will be seen 
that the added efficiency of burning the coal in the pulver- 
ized form will long sustain the steam-plant as a competitor 
with hydro-electric installations. Although powdered coal 
was employed for burning cement clinker as much as 40 
years or more ago, it is probably not an over-statement to 
say that the development of the art is still in its infancy. 
This finds substantiation in the fact that the engineers who 
have written upon it seem to have no exact idea of the char- 
acter of the new physical conditions that are created when 
the coal' is reduced to a fine state of subdivision, although 
they recognize that some marvelous change has taken 
place. Until the nature of a substance is completely compre- 
hended the most intelligent adaptation of it to industrial use 
is not possible. It is true that the combustibility of coal, 
that is, its rate of combustion, increases in proportion as the 
superficial area is extended by fine-grinding. The smaller 
the particle the greater its specific surface, as every mathe- 
matician knows. If this be continued until the smallest 
particle that can be produced mechanically has been reached, 
this minimum dimension yields what is called a colloid. It 
consists of an aggregation of only a few molecules, and in 
that state the original nature of the material in some 
notable respects has become fundamentally changed. Sus- 
pended freely in a medium the particles will be found to 
possess erratic movements of their own, quite unrelated to 
the effect of gravity. Moreover, such particles condense 
upon themselves large quantities of certain gases. This is 
the phenomenon of adsorption, and in the case of coal or 
other carbonaceous colloids the oxygen is preferentially 
adsorbed, until the gas, to the extent of many times the 
volume of the particle, is thus condensed upon it. Under 
these circumstances it will appear why the velocity of chem- 
ical combination between the carbon of the colloid and the 
associated oxygen takes place at such a high velocity. 
Herein also lies the explanation of the fact that carbon- 
aceous colloids, under some conditions, develop explosive 
energy. This occurs, apparently, when the amount of air 
holding it in suspension is such that practically the total 
quantity of oxygen contained therein becomes adsorbed. 
Beyond this volume no more oxygen can be condensed, 
but, the dilution of the mixture being greater, the separa- 
tion of the particles is wider, so that the velocity of the com- 
bustion is retarded; to state it otherwise a detonating wave 
then cannot develop because it cannot be transmitted on 
account of the gap between the particles. In crushing coal, 
as practised today, only a fraction of it becomes subdivided 
to colloidal dimensions, and it is evident that enormous 
possibilities exist for improvement in such details as the 
methods of preparation, determination of the conditions 
favoring maximum adsorption of oxygen, the admixture with 
air for feeding into the combustion chamber, and similar 
problems. The volume written by Mr. Herington treats 

these theoretic features lightly. For information of that 
kind the reader must resort to periodical literature, for it 
has not yet become crystallized in book form, and much 
remains to be investigated in our research laboratories. 
The thing, however, that Mr. Herington has done, which is 
an important achievement, is to discuss correctly and fully 
the present state of the art. On this account, and because 
he gives the detail so abundantly, the work is of great 
value. He tells what coals yield the best results under the 
existing systems of handling it, how the coal is crushed, 
the efficiency of a large number of different machines, costs 
of preparation, influence of moisture on the thermal effi- 
ciency, how to dry the coal economically, and the practical 
means adopted for successful feeding in cement kilns, boiler 
fire-boxes, and reverberatory furnaces. His summary of the 
earlier use of pulverized coal in copper metallurgy at the 
plants of the Canadian Copper Co., and at the Washoe Re- 
duction Works, at Anaconda, will be of special interest to 
mining engineers. The book was issued before the brilliant 
success recently achieved at the smelter of the Nevada Con- 
solidated Copper Co., at Ely, Nevada. The growth of this 
practice of firing with pulverized coal in reverberatory 
copper-smelting bids fair to drive oil out of use for that 
purpose. The data collected in this volume will be of great 
value to engineers who wish to keep abreast of the times. 
It gives the practical facts necessary as a preliminary to a 
more exhaustive study of the subject. C. DeK. 

Coal Catechism. W. Jasper Nicolls. Pp. 249, index. J. 
B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1918. For sale by 'Mining 
and Scientific Press.' Price, $1.50. 

This handy little book is a reprint from an edition pub- 
lished originally in 1915, and is in fact a development from 
a catechism that has been before the public since 1S9S. 
Such continued demand shows that it fills a want. Mr. 
Nicolls is a member of the American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers, and is a thoroughly competent authority; in addition 
he possesses the unusual merit of being able to explain that 
which is essential as an answer to pertinent questions that 
could be propounded by any bright person. This is the 
peculiar quality of mind required for presenting knowledge 
in the form of a catechism. As a short and easy course to 
a considerable volume of information regarding the occur- 
rence of coal, the mining of coal, and problems of distribu- 
tion, together with the elementary theory of heat, and of 
power-development, the book is to be commended. The 
chapters on metallurgic uses, gasification, and coke are 
quite satisfactory, but we regret that he has not added a 
chapter on pulverized coal and an extension to his chapter 
on by-products in coking, considering the recent interest in 
those subjects. The book will continue to be useful. 

The Elements of Coal Mining. By Daniel Burns, London. 
Pp. 236, ill., index. Longmans, Green & Co., New York. 
1917. For sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press.' Price. 

In the writing of elementary treatises upon technical sub- 
jects the English practitioners possess a peculiar knack, 
which generally gives a high practical value to their pro- 
ductions. This praise may be justly bestowed upon the 
neatly printed and well illustrated book before us. It is 
distinctly elementary, but it deals with the problems that 
arise in everyday operations, and tells how to overcome the 
difficulties that are encountered. It is a book that will be 
appreciated by those having to deal with coal, and it also 
will be found suggestive in many details regarding mining 
methods applicable to metalliferous deposits; this applies 
particularly to methods of laying out coal-veins for exploita- 
tion, of supporting roofs and sides, and of ventilation. The 
chapters dealing with handling water and with winding 
appliances are most useful. 

July 13, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 






The Meyer dry concentrator marks a new development 
in the practice of dry concentration, and is the result of 
several years' experimental work. The concentrator is 
operated upon the principle of the exhaust instead of pres- 
sure. It is claimed that this produces a more delicate ad- 
justment with a resultant increase in the selective action, 
making a much cleaner separation than heretofore has 
been possible. Test runs have been made on practically 
every kind of concentrating ore, comprising sulphides, car- 


bonates, and many of the oxides, while lead, zinc, copper, 
molybdenum, tungsten, pyritic and complex sulphide ores 
have been given special attention. It is claimed that ex- 
tractions of 90% of the metallic content of these ores have 
been made with a remarkably clean product. Various 
models are being manufactured. Model B, shown in the 
accompanying illustration, represents one unit of the con- 
centrator, the mechanical construction being a radical de- 
parture from established methods. This concentrator is 
equipped with an exhaust fan of variable suction capacity, 
and by means of a blast gate-valve each fan can be regu- 
lated so that practically any desired suction can be obtained. 
The smallest concentrator consists of three units, gener- 
ally termed 'cylinders', being equipped with one each of 
the three sizes of exhaust-fan used. The standard sizes 
have eight and ten cylinders, the cylinders all being of the 
same size, while the exhaust-fans may be of various sizes 
or all of one size, depending upon the fineness of the ore to 
be treated. The standard sizes of concentrators have a 
capacity of about 25 to 30 tons of ore per day. It is claimed 
that all of the various sizes of crushed ore from the largest 
down to dust can be treated "with success. 

The ore is crushed dry, and a specially designed 'unit' or 
cylinder of this concentrator receives the crushed ore, the 
exhaust-fan drawing off all the dust made in the process of 
crushing. The entire apparatus is enclosed so that no 
dust can escape into the atmosphere of the concentrating- 
room. Whatever dust may remain in the ore is eliminated 
through the exhaust-fan as the tailing is being withdrawn, 

and is delivered wherever desired. The dust and such 
liner sizes as it may be desired to eliminate can be stored 
and treated, if sufficiently valuable, by flotation, cyanida- 
tion, or amalgamation. The concentrator is patented. It 
consists of inclined revolving cylinders into which the ore 
is fed by gravity through a hopper at the middle point. 
The cylinders are riffled on the inside, causing the ore to be 
elevated and tumbled into the middle of the air-current as 
the cylinders revolve, and the suction of the fan draws the 
gangue farther up the cylinders with each revolution, while 
the concentrate, being too heavy for the suction, falls toward 
the lower or concentrate-end of the machine. The exhaust 
fan connects with the cylinders through an air-tight com- 
partment, termed a settling-box, which discharges the tail- 
ing from the air-current before the fan is reached, the tail- 
ing being removed in a steady flow through a small adjust- 
able door in the lower end of the settling-box. Model A of 
this concentrate is equipped with a light agitating-brush, 
which revolves within the cylinders, causing a thorough dis- 
semination of the ore. It has been found that in two years 
the wear on the brush has been negligible. The concen- 
trator is controlled from the concentrate end, the same as 
in the other models, and several turns of the adjusting- 
wheel, manipulating the blast gate-valve, close or open the 
valve in the blast-gate so that the suction is decreased or 
increased as desired, permitting a smaller or larger size of 
ore to be fed into any cylinder, and so changing the feed 
that each size can be run one after the other. The suction 
force of any fan can be controlled so as to successfully con- 
centrate any size, the range of 10 different sizes being 
within the capacity of the fan. In case there should be 20 
different sizes to be treated an installation of 20 cylinders 
is recommended. This permits each size to be permanently 
connected with its own individual cylinder, and once con- 
nected it keeps on continuously concentrating that size. By 
means of this appliance lead sulphide has been separated 
repeatedly from zinc sulphide and from copper pyrite, while 
iron pyrite, also, to a considerable extent, has been separated 
from both lead and zinc sulphides. Tungsten minerals have 
also been separated from copper pyrite. 

The Meyer dry concentrators are made of metal through- 
out, the cylinders being of heavy sheet steel, while the frame 
is substantially built of channel and angle-iron. The 
National Milling & Refining Co., of Canton, Ohio, is manu- 
facturing and marketing the concentrator. Various sizes 
are being made to meet the requirements of both the large 
and small operator. Its catalogue describing the Meyer 
concentrator and the process of dry concentration has just 
been issued. The company is ready to submit to thorough 
investigation by mining engineers of the concentrator and 
its performance. Mining engineers who have witnessed 
demonstrations of these concentrators in operation in the 
testing mill at Canton, Ohio, state that an extremely clean 
separation is made. 

W. H. Callan, general manager of plants, and W. P. Pres- 
singer, general manager of sales, have been elected vice- 
presidents of the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., Chicago. 


MUSING and Scientific PRESS 

July 13, 1918 


10 WAUG 


The puncher shown in the illustration is a- unique and 
efficient little pneumatic device that is now being put forth 
by the Denver Rock Drill Manufacturing Co., Denver, Colo- 
rado, as an attachment to its model 8 sharpener. Its pur- 
pose is to open the hole in the end of a piece of drill-steel 
while being worked into a bit, collar, or lug. The punch is 
held in a tappet-chuck. This chuck and a hammer are set 


in an air-feed cylinder. When opening up a water-hole the 
punch is simultaneously hammered and fed forward into the 
steel. The action of the hammer and air-feed cylinder are 
controlled by a single handle. The device will open a bit 
or shank in one-tenth the time required to perform the op- 
eration by hand. Where such an arrangement is desirable 
it may be mounted separately or even adapted to other 

The National Tube Co., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, calls 
attention by an illustrated circular to the progress that 
it has made in 28 years in the production of steel pipe. 
It is interesting to note that steel pipe was first made in 
this country in 1887, the first year's output being about 
300 tons. Comparing the products of years of normal 
business only, the output of wrought-iron pipe in 1915 had 
declined to 262,198 tons, from its position at 500,000 tons 
in 1888, while steel pipe had grown to 2,037,266 tons. 
This merely emphasizes the change in metallurgic methods 
within that period. It was about that time when Alexander 
Holley made his famous reply to critics of the new steel 
process that he had been so earnest in developing, that "the 
open-hearth process will live to attend the funeral of the 
bessemer process." At that time the advocates of besse- 
merizing were struggling vainly to produce steels to meet 
the ordinary requirements of wrought and malleable cast- 
iron. Defects in the steel, however, limited Its application 

to a few large structural uses and to steel rails, while the 
open-hearth process was demonstrating wider efficiency, 
and giving promise of the great future that is now a reality.- 
The manufacture of wrought-iron is costly, because an 
excessive employment of hand labor is unavoidable in the 
process. Che open-hearth steel furnace, by almost wholly 
mechanical methods, will turn out an enormous tonnage 
of metal, with great economy in the application of the fuel, 
and the product is a dependable steel of almost any grade 
desired, fulfilling the conditions where either steel or 
wrought-iron would have been specified in the older prac- 
tice. The tables and curves of progress in the use of steel 
for pipe, presented in the circular issued by the National 
Tube Co., therefore, illustrate the advance in metallurgic 
methods in this country during the last 30 years. 


Sutton, Steele & Steele, Inc., of Dallas, Texas, announce 
the appointment of L. G. E. Bignell as sales manager of 
their business. 

N. C. Palls and W. C. Doak, of Toecane, North Carolina, 
are planning for the immediate installation of mining ma- 
chinery for the development of asbestos properties in that 

The Empire Graphite Co., Ashland, Alabama, is consider- 
ing plans for the immediate re-construction of its plant re- 
cently destroyed by fire, the loss being estimated at about 

The Magnolia Metal Co., 113 Bank street, New York, has 
recently completed construction work on a large new smelt- 
ing plant at Matawan, New Jersey. The works will be used 
for the treatment of antimony. 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Co. reports that extensive use of 
its silica-graphite paint, made by John Gribble, mechanical 
engineer of the Niulii plantation, Kohola, Hawaii, has 
demonstrated an unusual resistance to the severe effects of 
a tropical climate. This is a far more severe test than 
paint is subjected to in temperate climates. 

The United States Graphite Co., Goodwater, Alabama, re- 
cently organized with a capital of $300,000, is planning for 
the immediate development of about 120 acres of graphite 
properties, to have an initial output of 100 tons. It is pro- 
posed to commence work at once on a flotation plant to 
cost $100,000. B. L. Daddis is president and T. C. Hadley 
is vice-president and manager, both of Montgomery, Ala- 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. announces a bulletin on portable mine- 
car air-compressors, designed to meet conditions in the 
service, for use where electric power is available. The com- 
pressor is driven by a bath-lubricated herring-bone gear, 
enclosed to keep out dirt. The pamphlet is illustrated, and 
shows the machine at work underground. The same con- 
cern has published a circular describing a compact high- 
speed steam engine, listed as class 'FP,' made in four sizes, 
developing from 15 to 90 indicated horse-power. 

Contracts have been awarded by the Butterworth-Judson- 
Corporation, of New York, for construction work in con- 
nection with the erection of the large new plant at Bruns- 
wick, Georgia, to be devoted to the production of picric 
acid for the Government. Necessary structures for two 
sulphuric-acid concentrators, commissaries, warehouses, 
etc., will be erected at once by Hugger Bros., Montgomery, 
Alabama. The site for the proposed plant comprises about 
1400 acres on Turtle island, in the Turtle river, near Bruns- 
wick. An investment of approximately $5,000,000 will be 
involved in the construction of the plant and $2,000,000 for 
townsite development. The works will give employment to 
about 5000 men. 

Edited by T. A. RICKARO 

Volume 117 
Number 3 


15 Cents per Copy 
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\,][ J PASO Eleetrical Apparatus, General Alining 
Maebinery, Mill Equipment. 


In This Issue: 

Mining on the Rand 

Cascade Method of Froth Flotation 

Buyers' Guide, page 40 
Advertisers' Index, page 48 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20, 1918 


is 100% efficient 

as compared to other battleships 


Hardinge Mill 


is 100% efficient 

when compared to other grinding devices as evidenced by 

Repeat After Repeat Order 

for dry and wet grinding ball and pebble mills 

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Published at 420 Market St., San Francitco, 
by the Dewey Publishing Company 


E. H. LESLIE. m«i luli.r Bd«„ ChiaUO 
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Science has no enemy save the ignorant 

Issued Every Saturday 

San Fkamcisco, July 20, 1918 

$4 per Year — 15 Cento per Copy 







. 72 

Statement by Mr. Hugh F. Marriott on the South 
African goldfield; progressive improvement in 
mining practice; the use of deep shafts; applica- 
tion of colliery methods to help solve Rand prob- 
lems; the limit of ore is banket that will yield a 
profit; it is a fallacy that the mines of the Rand 
do not show impoverishment with depth; they are 
'unique', but they do fail in depth; Mr. Marriott's 
figures demonstrate it; the decline in dividends 
shows it; in seven years the holdings in three big 
consolidations have diminished in value $204,- 
000,000. M. & S. P., July 20, 1918. 



Importance of gold production as the basis of 
growing credits; insistence of Secretary McAdoo 
on the necessity for sustaining the gold mines; 
meeting of gold producers in San Francisco with 
Mr. Raymond T. Baker, Director of the Mint; ways 
and means for fostering the industry; bounties 
suggested; fallacy of increasing the official value 
of gold; proposal to export to countries that will 
pay a premium; suggested to exempt gold mines 
from taxation; cause of the trouble with gold min- 
ing. M. & S. P., July 20, 1918. 



By W. J. Loring 75 

Gold mining in California a pioneer industry; 
large population dependent on it; investors in gold 
mines should not be treated like producers of lux- 
uries; Secretary McAdoo's letter on gold to Mr. 
Sulzer; false rumor that gold was to be discrim- 
inated against as non-essential; duty of Govern- 
ment to protect the gold industry. M. & S. P., 
July 20, 1918. 


By H. W. Morris 76 

The untrained man and his achievements; notable 
Calif ornian examples; distinction between the 
'rough neck' and the self-made man of ability. 
M. & S. P., July 20, 1918. 



By Hugh F. Marriott 77 

Early exploration; use of bore-holes; difficulties in 
drilling; shaft-sinking; drawback to use of in- 
clined shafts; problems connected with vertical 


shafts; ventilation; efficiency of present ventila- 
tory methods; circular shafts; underground haul- 
age; hoisting problems; sampling procedure; 
stoping practice; filling stopes with tailing; table 
of gold contents in shillings over stoping widths; 
production and profit; tonnages, values, and costs; 
large tonnages do not necessarily mean low costs; 
evidence of the stability, consistence, and con- 
tinuity of the Rand deposits. M. & S. P., July 
20, 1918. 


By W. A. Fahrenwald 87 

Agitation by fall of pulp; head-room required; 
new type of apparatus utilizing that principle, but 
with economy of head-room. M. & S. P., July 20, 


M. & S. P., July 20, 1918. 


Development of electro-metallurgic operations on 
the Pacific Coast; description of the plant of the 
Pacific Electro Metals Co., at Bay Point, near San 
Francisco. M. & S. P., July 20, 1918. 


Review of costs of explosives delivered at the 
mines in South Africa, New Zealand, and Aus- 
tralia; explosives manufacturing plant of the De 
Beers Consolidated Mines, and its effect in keeping 
down the cost of explosives for the mining in- 
dustry. M. & S. P., July 20, 1918. 


By Arthur H. P. Moline 91 

Formulas for calculating the percentage of re- 
covery in milling when the assay-value of feed and 
tailing and the weight of the concentrate are the 
known factors. M. & S. P., July 20, 1918. 


M. & S. P., July 20, 1918. 












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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20, 1918 


*, Tf\ /ir h- 

"Miners, produce; 

Produce to your utmost capacity!' 

came the nation's call. Copper production doubled 
within the year, our coal production exceeded that of all 
of the rest of the world. In fact, the entire metal in- 
dustry was called to again increase production, notwith- 
standing that 1916 's output was many times that of 1913. 

Electric light reduced mine accidents and delays; 
electric drills, cutters and locomotives kept the ore stream 
flowing to the hoists; electric pumps eliminated delays; 
electric hoists broke all previous tonnage records and 
electric trains were often used to rush the ore or coal to 
electrically operated smelters and refineries or breakers. 

Only through electricity's magic power has it been 
possible to produce this great mineral tonnage, in spite 
of the shortage of labor. 

Both the cost and quantity of marketable fuel neces- 
sary for power purposes in mining have been greatly 
reduced by using electricity from centralized power 
plants. Electricity produced from water power and used 
in mining operations releases millions of tons of coal for 
other industrial purposes. 

We of the electric industry are proud of electricity's 
part in "Conserving our natural resources." 

General Electric Company 

July 20. litis 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



l ! l« ; ^Ki 

T> ISES in the prices of metals, namely, copper to 26, 
-*•*- lead to S, and zinc to 8.85 cents per pound, have 
been followed promptly by an advance in wages at the 
mines. In Arizona. Montana, and Utah, the copper com- 
panies have granted an increase of 50 cents per shift, 
likewise the silver-lead mining companies of the Coeur 
d'Alene in Idaho. 

"Y7"UKONERS and Alaskans, not to mention other min- 
-*- ing men nearer the centres of civilization, will have 
read with pleasure the dispatch from Paris telling how 
"an American from Nome, Colonel Joseph Boyle" saved 
Rumanian deputies from exile and was rewarded by a 
decoration at the hands of the king of Rumania. Joseph 
W. Boyle is a big-hearted broad-chested Irishman, con- 
spicuous in pre-war days for his dredging operations on 
the Klondike and prominent during the War for his 
effective patriotism. We are not surprised that he has 
distinguished himself, for he is a born leader of men. 

4pHROMITE' is the title of a 30-page pamphlet 
^ written by Messrs. Albert Burch and S. H. Dolbear, 
and published gratuitously for them by us for distribu- 
tion among those seeking or producing this important 
war-mineral. The pamphlet is now ready ; anybody de- 
siring a copy should write to Mr. Burch, at the Crocker 
building, San Francisco. Incidentally it may be added 
that the Government has ordered the construction of a 
road in Siskiyou county, California, to make available 
30,000 tons of chrome that Mr. Burch has estimated to be 
mineable. In the Mining Summary this week we show 
a plan of the new road and of the region generally. 

CALT LAKE CITY has been elected to greatness by 
*-* natural endowments and no one is disposed to be- 
grudge the distinction, because geographic advantage is 
a fact that human sentiment cannot alter. It is unbecom- 
ing, however, to allow economic superiority, which is a 
matter of circumstances only, to encourage megalomania. 
The senator from Utah, Mr. William H. King, did not 
specifically mention Salt Lake as a permanent abode for 
the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Mines in bill 
S.4789, which he introduced in Congress the other day, 
hut the ambition to grasp a goodly portion of the Interior 
Department from Washington was hardly concealed in 
the suggested legislation. Mr. King was undoubtedly 

'talking for Buncombe', and may his 'Buncombe' give 
him the honor due. If these great bureaus of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior should be wrenched loose from their 
proper place at the centre of government and trans- 
planted "west of the Mississippi river", to quote the bill, 
politicians would demand some rare new plums for party 
fealty. We suppose Seattle would want the Post Office 
Department; Reno would soon aspire to the Department 
of Justice ; and Nebraska might specify the fitness of the 
town of Lincoln as the home for the Department of State. 
' ' Resist the beginnings of evil, ' ' wrote the author of the 
'Imitatio'. The bill was read twice and referred to the 
Committee on Public Lands. Requiescat in pace ! 

/"< OLD as an essential for financial health is discussed 
^-^ at length on another page. As soon as Mr. McAdoo's 
letter, quoted by Mr. W. J. Loring in this issue, was 
made public the quotation of Alaska Gold jumped to $4, 
from its former dead level of $1 . per share. This ec- 
centricity of the market is hard to explain, except by 
manipulation; the idea that the mine increased in value 
four times by reason merely of a recognition of the fact 
that gold is essential to the national effort at this time 
of war is too absurd. The only factor justifying such a 
rise would be the sudden uncovering in the mine of an 
orebody containing, say, a million tons of ore averaging 
$5 per ton. 

A KINDLY old lady is said to have remarked to a 
- f " s - recruit at Camp Lewis: "Well, my dear boy, are 
you prepared to lay down your life for your country ? ' ' 
"No, ma'am," he replied, "but I am preparing to make 
a German lay down his life for his country.", No mock 
heroics for him ! He understood the art of war, which 
is to kill your enemy. The report of a German intelli- 
gence officer, recently captured, says that the individual 
American soldier is "very good." One of them had 
said: "We kill or get killed." This intelligence officer 
found the American prisoners "alert and pleasing," 
but shockingly ignorant of military affairs; "for ex- 
ample, most of them have never seen a map, they are 
unable to describe the villages and roads through which 
they marched, their ideas on the organization of new 
units is entirely confused," and so forth. Like most 
Germans, this intelligence officer imputed to others a 
stupidity that was all his own. Simply, our boys would 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20. 1918 

not give away valuable information, and so pretended 
ignorance concerning vital matters, of course. Mean- 
while General Von Ardeene, a high German military 
critic, tries to lay the American bogy: "What is a mil- 
lion of Americans compared to the ten million well 
trained and equipped Russians who have fallen out of 
the battle-line?" He is discovering the difference al- 
ready. "We seem to have heard that the Russians were 
not "well equipped" except with German pacifist tracts, 
and "ten millions" seems too flattering to the Enemy. 
This military critic continues: "We would not be afraid 
of five million Americans. They do not know what they 
are fighting for." Yet even the unintelligent officer of 
the intelligence department confesses in his report that 
"a certain moral background is not lacking; the ma- 
jority of the prisoners simply take it as a matter of 
course that they have come to Europe to defend their 
country. Only a few of the troops are of pure American 
origin ; the majority is of German, Dutch, and Italian 
parentage, but these semi- Americans, almost all of whom 
were born in America, and never have been in Europe, 
fully feel themselves to be true-born sons of their 
country." Indeed they do. We venture to add this: 
The Germans are going to find the American soldiers 
most unpleasant, they will find them playing the game of 
war in no amateur spirit, but with a professional in- 
tensity that knows only one end, and that is the killing 
of Germans. It may not be as romantic as it ought to 
be, but it is the one sure way to end this War and bring 
the Germans to a realization of the' fact that they proved 
themselves the biggest fools in human history when they 
thought they could place their military heel on the free 
peoples of the earth. 

Mining on the Rand 

In this issue we publish an authoritative and interest- 
ing article on the great South African goldfield by Mr. 
Hugh F. Marriott, during recent years consulting engi- 
neer to Wernher, Beit & Company and to the corpora- 
tions controlled by that famous firm of financiers and 
promoters. The article was delivered as a presidential 
address before the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 
in London, so that it has several claims upon the atten- 
tion of the profession in the United States. Mining, as 
Mr. Marriott says, is a subject less easy to discuss than 
metallurgy, because the older art depends so much upon 
local conditions, but this need for adaptability gives it a 
peculiar technical interest. Mr. Marriott reviews the 
progressive improvement in mining practice on the Wit- 
watersrand from the inside and gives outsiders an ex- 
cellent idea of the adaptation of method to the gradual 
expansion of local operations until they became among 
the most impressive in the industrial world. The engi- 
neers of the Rand have been proud, to the point of self- 
sufficiency, of their accomplishment, and not without 
reason, but today, of course, our big copper mines are 
worked on a much larger scale and present a much wider 

range of technical procedure, due in part to the greater 
complexity of the metallurgy required to recover the 
copper as compared with that which suffices to extract 
the gold. The value of diamond-drilling, for exploratory 
purposes, is made clear in Mr. Marriott's resume of early 
days on the Rand. He himself did a good deal of this 
work skilfully and we do not wonder that he dwells upon 
it. Next came the sinking of deep shafts, and the equip- 
ment of them with special hoisting-engines, a department 
of technique in which American engineers, notably 
Messrs. Hennen Jennings, Hans C. Behr, A. M. Robeson, 
and R. M. Catlin, took a prominent part. The increas- 
ing depth of the mines, and the inevitable tendency 
toward subsidence as the stopes became extended under 
the overhanging wall of the lode, rendered the incline 
dangerous as a main entry and caused the engineers to 
plan vertical shafts of large capacity. In doing this 
work resort was had to colliery practice, leading to the 
engagement of several colliery engineers, notably Mr. H. 
Stuart Martin, and under their auspices the circular 
shaft and multiple-stage hoisting were introduced. At 
this time also the importance not only of ordinary ven- 
tilation, but of ensuring a lavish supply of fresh in- 
vigorating air to the workers, was realized in practice. 
Then came the dust problem, intensified by an epidemic 
of phthisis, threatening the vitality of the miners, and 
that of their white overseers. The use of water in 
sprays and through the drills, together with the aid of 
respirators, has done much to mitigate this evil, which at 
one time threatened to decimate the drillers and tram- 
mers. Notable improvements have been made in pump- 
ing and haulage, as Mr. Marriott indicates succinctly. 
He refers to the inclusion in the ore-reserves of rock too 
poor to yield a profit and emphasizes the fact that the 
prime object of mining is to exploit mineral at a profit. 
In this department of mining economics he has exercised 
a healthy influence ; he has used it against the inclusion, 
as ore, of 'banket' that under no reasonable expectation 
could be mined at a profit ; he has recognized the fact 
that the only real 'profit' is one that is divisible among 
the shareholders — or, at least, among the controlling 
houses. The statistics of the Chamber of Mines will re- 
main ludicrous for all time on account of their utterly 
misleading figures of 'cost' and 'profit', as Mr. Marriott 
knows, for he has tried hard, and successfully, to intro- 
duce a more scientific system of accounting into the re- 
ports of the important companies with which he is con- 
nected. On this subject he is entitled to be heard with 
respect. We have published his lengthy address in full 
for this reason, for its general interest, and also because 
we have recently criticized him frankly for his pathetic 
attempt to substantiate the fallacy that the mines of the 
Rand do not show signs of impoverishment in depth. In 
the early stage of development much timidity was felt 
concerning the continuity of the ore in depth ; such 
timidity gave place later to the confidence that justified 
deep mining on a large scale and eventually stimulated 
an unreasonable expectation of indefinite persistence. 
This childish belief still obtains. It is curious that, well- 

-Inly 20, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


informed aiul widely experienced as were the leaders of 
the profession b South Africa, they did not profit by 
tho evidence afforded by the Calumel & Becla conglomer- 
ate, which is a 'banket, ' likewise rich in metal, and con- 
stituting a lode extensive both in strike and dip, but not 
without definite limits to its enrichment in both direc- 
tions. Even to this day it is assumed at Johannesburg 
that I lie so-called reefs of the Hand are unique. In some 
respects they are, as Alexander and Napoleon were 
unique, but just as surely as Alexander and Napoleon 
■were human, and died, so surely any deposit of ore, how- 
ever remarkable, must fail in depth. Men think all men 
mortal but themselves, mine-owners believe that event- 
ually all mines must 'peter out' except their own. Share- 
holders are encouraged to anticipate an indefinite per- 
sistence of ore, and their ignorant optimism is only too 
often encouraged by engineers that know, or ought to 
know, better. Mr. Marriott returns to the charge. Of 
course, nobody takes the yield 'per ton milled' as the 
basis for an argument on impoverishment in depth, 
knowing that the decrease of cost incidental to expansive 
operations and improved technique tends to lower the 
grade of ore that becomes profitable. On the other hand, 
the selection of a specified grade, say, 35s. per ton, as 
the arbitrary limit to 'rich' ore, ignoring the large ton- 
nage of much richer ore won in the upper workings, is 
equally illogical. In his address Mr. Marriott refers to 
the compilation that he had the pleasure of exhibiting to 
the members of the Institution in 1914, and on this later, 
more auspicious, occasion he appears to have exhibited a 
■similar, but more complete, compilation of the same kind 
as "concrete evidence of the various gradations of gold 
deposition. ' ' The compilation was a longitudinal section 
of the Central Rand on which the exhausted stopes were 
marked in blue, the 'rich' ground in red, the poorer, but 
profitable, ground in orange, and the unprofitable ground 
in yellow. "We are not sure of the colors, but the scheme 
was about as stated. This exhibit might have been 
evidence if his 'rich' ground had not been delimited on 
a basis much below the current yield, say, of the Robin- 
son and Robinson Deep mines, and, of course, still 
further below the yield of these and other mines in their 
■earlier years of production, before they became 'deep'. 
Such evidence is non-scientific ; it is not the kind to sub- 
mit to a technical society. Turning to the evidence on 
■which he appears now to rely, namely, the record of the 
Village Deep mine and of its neighbors, we venture to say 
that while the Village Deep has the deepest workings on 
the Rand, it is a fact that the neighboring deep shafts of 
the Jupiter, Cinderella, and Simmer Deep, expose ore so 
poor that they have been abandoned. The tabulation of 
yields, given on page 83 of this issue, is interesting, but 
it proves more than Mr. Marriott intended. It will be 
noted that he gives the average yield of equal blocks of 
ground along the strike for 40,000 feet, covering the 
Central Rand. At about the centre are the Village Main 
Tfceef and Village Deep, making a fine showing of per- 
sistence, at least of ore of average grade, namely, 30 to 
35s. per ton. On the edges, however, the blocks average 

at one end, 24, 21, 28.3, 20, L9 33, and at tl ther end, 

31.10, 20.(io. 24.77, 29.33, 21 shillings per ton. The 

table, in effect, is the graph of an ore si I, in the centre 

of which is the Village Deep shaft. Ee omits the first 
1500 feet. "Why so much? Oxidation ceases locally at 
300 feet below the surface. The truth about the Hand is 
better exemplified by the second of the group of blocks as 
given in his tabulation, namely, from E to I, covering 
the Robinson mines, the yield of which for the five 
horizons of 1500 feet each is 66.74, 45.12, 40.19, 32.12, 
and 27.41s. per ton. In short, Mr. Marriott cites an ex- 
ception to prove a rule. He knows better. When ore- 
bodies become impoverished in depth they do not dec line 
in grade uniformly; bunches of rich ore may persist long 
after other parts of a lode have ceased to be profitable ; 
impoverishment is marked by a restriction of the orebody 
or a shrinkage in the length of stoping ground. "What are 
his compilations and tabulations worth in face of the fact 
that out of the £7,095,066 in dividends paid by the mines 
of the Rand in 1916 (we have not received the details 
for 1917), only £2,233,810 came from the mines of the 
Central Rand, as against £3,650,220 out of a total of 
£8,887,185 in 1910. During the interval of six years 
the new and relatively shallow mines of the Far East 
Rand have helped to redress the impoverishment of the 
older mining area to such an extent that in 1916 they 
contributed £2,471,083 in dividends, as against only 
£778,250 in 1910 ; and at the present time the market val- 
uation of nine of them exceeds that of the 40 productive 
mines in the Central Rand. "We refer Mr. Marriott to 
the bank-books of the trusting shareholders, who, in 
seven years, have seen their holdings in three of the big 
consolidations, namely, the Crown Mines, Rand Mines, 
and East Rand Proprietary companies, diminish in value 
$204,000,000. The decreased valuation of the very mines 
to which Mr. Marriott refers so optimistically is sug- 
gested by the quotations for the shares of the Rand 
Mines, Ltd., which, in seven years, has depreciated 
$52,000,000. Mr. Marriott should propound his fallacy, 
his grossly misleading fallacy, to the horse-marines, not 
to an institution of mining engineers. 

Sustain the Production of Gold 

No official of the Government, no committee in charge 
of war preparation, no representative man anywhere 
has ventured to suggest that gold mining is a non-essen- 
tial industry. The disabilities under which it has 
labored have, however, been overlooked until recently in 
the hurry to build ships and to manufacture shells aud 
powder. Even the Treasury Department has been so 
concerned with the trying task of financing the War as 
temporarily to disregard the difficulties that the gold pro- 
ducers were facing on account of the enormous increase 
in costs. Suddenly, however, Secretary McAdoo awoke 
to the fact that the industry was doomed unless measures 
for relief were taken promptly. At his request a hear- 
ing was given last week in San Francisco by Mr. Ray- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20, 1918 

mond T. Baker, Director of the Mint, to the gold miners 
of California, at which ways and means for saving the 
industry were considered. Prior to that Mr. McAdoo 
had written to Mr. Charles A. Sulzer on this subject, 
making the unequivocal statement that, "at no time 
has this country so much required the largest possible pro- 
duction of gold as at present. Next to food and ammuni- 
tion gold is one of the most needed war essentials. In 
order to face the enormous amount of Government bonds 
required to finance our war expenditures a large credit- 
structure will inevitably be erected on our gold reserves, 
and it is necessary that those reserves, which are the 
foundation of the structure, shall be maintained on the 
broadest possible basis. ' ' Confirmation of this authorita- 
tive opinion has been given by many of the leading 
financiers of America. The importance of gold mining, 
therefore, is not being debated; the question is merely 
that of finding a practical means of fostering it. 

The California Metal Producers Association has laid 
before the authorities at Washington the facts regarding 
the' stress of weather against which the gold miners are 
contending, and Mr. Charles G. Yale has made a special 
report on the subject at the request of the Treasury De- 
partment. The value of the gold produced in the United 
States, including Alaska and the Philippines, was $84,- 
456,600 in 1917, being $7,133,700 less than in the previous 
year. It is estimated that the output this year will de- 
crease 35% unless an effective stimulus be applied. In 
California the decline in the first six months of 1918 has 
been alarming. The output was 66,668 ounces, against 
89,830 for the corresponding period of 1917. In one of 
the leading districts of the Californian gold belt the cost 
this year has increased $1 per ton, against a recovery of 
$7 per ton of ore. On the Mother Lode, which yields 46% 
of the total output of the State, the added cost has been 
nearly as great, and the average recovery is about $4.20 
per ton of ore ; this shows how the industry is threatened. 
The difficulty is aggravated by the growing fear among 
the miners that gold mining is destined soon to end, and, 
as a result of this apprehension, an exodus of labor to 
more promising fields has taken place. The first and 
most obvious remedy that would serve to hearten the gold 
miners is to secure a definite order from the War Indus- 
tries Board placing them on the priority list. Some com- 
plaint has been made that supply-houses have discrimi- 
nated against the gold industry by declining to contract 
for steel and other materials beyond immediate require- 
ments. No industry can prosper if placed on such a 
hand-to-mouth basis. The War Industries Board should 
stop this at once. The next problem is to relieve the 
stress eaused by exorbitant prices. Gold, as the standard 
of reference for all markets, bears an immutable rela- 
tion as regards a unit quantity of the metal to the unit 
of exchange. All values, all wealth, all credits, are based 
on the fixedness of that relation. To tamper with it is 
to undermine the whole credit structure of commerce 
and of nations. As we pointed out in a recent issue, the 
real trouble that overshadows the gold industry is the 
consequence of mistaken policies at the beginning of the 

War whereby the profiteer was permitted to escape from 
Governmental restraint. Only direct and specific reme- 
dies will suffice to rescue an industry that already con- 
fronts an operating cost as great as the market value of 
the article ^produced. Had a more rational plan been 
followed the disparity between the purchasing power of 
gold and the cost of its production could have been 
obviated. The problems of individual and national 
credit would then have been simplified. It was not done, 
however, and as one result we now confront a shrinkage 
of the very basis of our credit. Not only would such a 
shortage of gold be serious during the War, but it must 
be remembered that the closure of mines at this time 
would involve a shortage of gold for many years. Mines 
that are operating on a narrow margin of profit at all 
times will not soon resume if forced into idleness. De- 
terioration of plant and equipment, rotting of timbers 
underground and collapse of stopes, gangways, and 
shafts, inevitable under these circumstances, would dis- 
courage revival of the industry unless gold were to com- 
mand a considerable premium. That is an evil from 
which the Nation may devoutly hope to be spared. 
The peril of it will increase unless gold mining be 
sustained. In an effort to escape from the dilemma, 
proposals are being made that would be condemned as 
wrong in principle were it not for the serious peril con- 
fronting the gold industry. The plan that seems to have 
gained the larger number of adherents is to pay a bounty 
of $10, or some would have it $20, per ounce on all new 
gold produced. The American Mining Congress is 
urging this idea upon Congress, with the approval of 
many Western miners. It is a crude and reactionary 
method, but, for a time at least, it would be effective. 
That it would prove a relief for the duration of the War, 
and through the period of reconstruction afterward, is 
open to "erious doubt. It is like keeping a patient alive 
by stimulants instead of finding a cure. Nevertheless it 
has something to commend it, whereas the proposal to 
increase the unit value of gold is a contradiction in 
terms. That notion seems to have been advanced inde- 
pendently in America and in England. Another sug- 
gestion, which must appal sane financiers, is to permit 
the exportation of new gold to foreign markets at a 
premium. Such a course would precipitate a panic and 
would force gold to a premium in our own country. We 
may mention a much simpler method for relieving the 
stress, namely, to exempt gold mines from Federal 
taxes, and to supplement this by according similar ex- 
emption from local taxation. On the time-honored 
theory that gold belongs to the sovereign, this mark of 
sovereign favor and need, on behalf of the sovereign 
people of this democracy, would introduce no new and 
extraordinary principle. It would merely accentuate the 
distinction of the monetary metal as vitally necessary 
for the Nation's financial health and for the stability of 
its public obligations; it would be no more an unfair 
discrimination than the exemption enjoyed by certain 
bonds, and it would tend to make gold mining, if not the 
most profitable, at least a gilt-edged industry. 

July 20, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


D I 3 

'* P\ 

Gold is Essential 

The Editor: 

Sir — In your issue of June 29, I am pleased to note 
that you deal with 'The Slump in Gold.' I need not 
attempt to eover the same ground that you have so ably 
covered, but I will deal with another side of the situation. 

1. Gold mining in California, and elsewhere, has 
usually been the pioneer industry from which all other 
industries have started. So old is gold mining that it 
has become a part of our national business. Further- 
more, the stoppage of gold mining would cause great 
local dislocation to business, and hardship to those who 
for several generations have depended upon gold mining 
for a living. There are thousands of men engaged in 
gold mining who know nothing else, and to take away the 
one thing known to them would create great hardship. 

2. The investor also should have some consideration, 
as he has invested his capital in gold mines, expecting to 
be as well treated as if he had made his investment in 
any other business. People with money to invest are an 
asset to the country, and should have the protection of 
the Government, as without moneyed people the develop- 
ment of our resources would be very slow. This is a ques- 
tion that all must agree is so much in favor of protec- 
tion, that it is useless to waste time in its discussion. 

3. When an industry has persisted for sixty or more 
years, as gold mining has done in California, it would 
be a great calamity to the State to peremptorily close 
down the mines, because it would be as dislocating as if 
some large cotton-mill in an Eastern town closed down 
after having been the main support of the community for 
many years. 

The Secretary of the Treasury has already acknowl- 
edged that gold is an essential, as you will see from the 
following letter addressed to the Alaskan delegate in 
Congress : 

"I beg leave to acknowledge receipt of your letter of 
June 1, in relation to the present conditions surrounding 
the production of gold in Alaska. I fully appreciate that, 
with the rising cost of raw material and labor and with a 
fixed value for their output, the gold miners of the world 
are facing difficult conditions. I should be sorry, how- 
ever, if for this reason there were any relaxation in the 
effort to produce gold. At no time has this country so 
much required the largest possible production of gold as 
at present. Next to food and ammunition, gold is one of 
the most-needed war essentials. In order to place the 
enormous amount of Government bonds required to 
finance our war expenditures, a large credit structure 

will inevitably be erected on our gold reserves, and it is 
necessary that those reserves, which are the foundation 
of the structure, shall be maintained on the broadest 
possible basis. 

"The United States and its associates in the War are 
heavy purchasers of raw materials and other commodities 
for the War in many neutral countries, and our war re- 
quirements make it impossible for us to pay our bills in 
those neutral countries as we have been in the habit of 
paying them in times of peace, namely, through the ship- 
ment of manufactured goods and commodities which 
those countries are eager to buy from us. This means 
that a certain amount of debt to those countries must be 
paid for in credits or in gold. 

"This brief statement will, I hope, make clear to your 
constituents the great necessity that exists for the main- 
tenance of gold production at the maximum point. The 
man or the community that maintains or increases its 
production of gold in the face of difficulties and dis- 
couragement is performing a patriotic service which de- 
serves recognition no less than the more obvious but not 
less useful services that are more in the public eye." 

It will be noted that Mr. McAdoo states, "next to food 
and ammunition, gold is one of the most needed war 
essentials. ' ' This being the case, why should gold miners 
be awakened every few weeks by a scare report that, as 
"gold is considered by the Government as non-essential," 
freight and supplies accommodations hitherto enjoyed 
would be suspended. At the present moment I am 
suffering from such a report given out by a representa- 
tive of an important hardware house in San Francisco, to 
the effect that his house had instructed him to take no 
orders from gold mines for iron and steel, as the Govern- 
ment considered gold non essential, and the mines would 
close down. This report has been spread broadcast 
throughout the Mother Lode region. 

Upon the occasion of my last visit to the Mother Lode 
mines under my control, I was asked by many of my 
employees the meaning of the statement, as they were 
forced to work for a living, and stated that they would be 
leaving for steady employment, etc. I am responsible 
for the operation of three gold mines, the Plymouth Con- 
solidated Gold Mines, the Carson Hill Gold Mines, and 
the Pacific Coast Gold Mines Corporation. The first two 
are producers, while the latter is being developed on two 
new levels after sinking the main shaft from 1800 to 
2300 ft. We are also trying to build a mill to treat 300 
tons of ore daily. It will be seen how disconcerting it is 
for us to have these reports started from time to time 
with the result that our labor becomes uneasy and scarce. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20, 1918 

I would strongly recommend that gold be given a place 
in the essential list, and I hope that it may be near the 
top. There can be no question as to its necessity in 
greater annual production now than at any other period 
in the history of the world. Gold has, as you say, de- 
preciated in purchasing power, caused by the War, while 
base metals have appreciated in purchasing value. There 
are a few waj r s that gold can be cared for as it deserves 
for the good of our country : Place it upon the essential 
list where it belongs, and remove as much taxation as is 
within the power of the Government until twelve months 
after peace is declared. Even this will not compensate 
the gold miner for his greatly increased expenditure on 
account of increases in wages and supplies, but be would 
be quite content if he felt that for all his efforts to pro- 
duce gold, which is so much needed, he was receiving the 
recognition of the Government that gold mining deserves. 

It is not sufficient for Mr. McAdoo merely to say that 
we should increase our output of gold. If gold is as im- 
portant as he says, namely, third on the list of essentials, 
then why not at once place it upon the essential list and 
give it the proper rating so that we, as gold producers, 
may feel that we may expect the same consideration as 
producers of other essentials. Mr. McAdoo, I am sure, 
would be surprised if he really knew the true situation 
regarding our gold-mining industiy. Several of the 
largest producers are running short-handed and are con- 
templating closing down, while several have already 
closed down. 

It is too bad indeed that the gold producers have had 
to face these uncalled for fights to maintain our produc- 
tion, but the struggle will be fruitless for us unless we 
receive the support that we deserve, which Mr. McAdoo 
admits is due us. 

I hope that this question will be discussed in your 
columns by other producers. 


San Francisco, July 5. 

In Defense of the Rough-Neck Super- 

The Editor: 

Sir — In the article 'A 10% Tax on Commodities,' 
appearing in your issue of June 22, a great injustice is 
done the 'rough-neck,' and the business-man. 

In a life-time experience of selling mining machinery, 
and mining supplies, the aggregate of the transactions 
running into millions of dollars, the number of times com- 
missions were paid to buyers, or to those who had charge 
of the buying, could be counted on the fingers of one 
hand. The average business-man detests the practice of 
paying commissions. A buyer has to plainly ask for it, 
before it is paid, and strong Hints on the subject are not 
met. Rather than lose business, a commission will gener- 
ally be paid, but not always. 

Now as to the 'rough-neck,' as you term him. He is 
the father of mining. My experience does not extend 
beyond California, but certainly the old-time mine-man- 

agers in this State would compare favorably with the 
best of today. They mined the ore just as cheaply, 
followed up the ore as intelligently, were well versed in 
the reduction processes of their day. I was intimately 
acquaintefl with William Johns, and William James, 
who were in the different capacity of manager and sup- 
erintendent of the different properties of the Sierra 
Buttes Gold Mining Co., and the Plumas Eureka Gold 
Mining Co. Mr. James subsequently went to South 
Africa. Many millions in bullion was extracted from 
these mines, and more than $5,000,000 paid the stock- 
holders, under their management. J. F. Parks, the 
superintendent of the Kennedy mine for many years, is 
another man with whom I was fairly well acquainted. 
The purchases these men made would run into the 
millions, but anyone who knew them, knows that a hint 
at a commission, or so much as a present of a box of 
cigars, would have been resented in a manner that would 
have been very uncomfortable. These men are but fair 
types of many like them, who are dead now, but who 
worked hard and faithfully for different companies who 
employed them, and obtained good results. 

George W. Starr, superintendent of the Empire mine, 
at Grass Valley, Webb Smith, superintendent of the 
Kennedy mines, at Jackson, and Fred J. Martin, super- 
intendent of the Utica mine, at Angels Camp, are the 
legitimate successors of the men mentioned above. All 
would come under your term of 'rough-neck', yet their 
work would compare most favorably with the educated 
mining engineer, whom your article places on a plane 
far above. 

The business-man of California, selling mining ma- 
chinery, and mining supplies, is not running around try- 
ing to find someone on the staff to pay a commission to. to 
introduce his goods, and the man on the staff is not look- 
ing for the commission. 

c, „ t o i H. W. Morris. 

San Francisco, June 24. 

[Mr. Morris has misunderstood our reference to 
'rough-neck' superintendents. It is ludicrous in such a 
connection to mention the names he cites — the names of 
men that we know and honor just as he does. Apparently 
he assumed that we class every engineer that is not a 
college graduate as a 'rough-neck'. This is absurd. 
The reference was intended for quite another class of 
men; the low type of smart working-man without char- 
acter that happens to be lifted to a position of responsi- 
bility in a frontier community. It is unnecessary to 
specify further. For the rest, such men as are cited by 
Mr. Morris will be the first to agree that the morale of the 
profession has been raised by the increase in number of 
those that have undergone a special technical training 
for their work, because, among other reasons, these in- 
clude their own sons. — Editor.] 

Fluorine is suspected to have been partly responsible 
for intense sericitization in some copper deposits con- 
taining large quantities of chalcocite. The fluorine is 
thought to have been in the primary mineralization 

.Illlv 20. 191S 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Mining on the Rand 


Introduction. *a presidential address should have 
for its primary object the dissemination of information 
in a concrete form, and in considering what should be 
my subject tonight I was met by the point so often ex- 
pressed that, whereas the metallurgist can select a 
process or a plant and construct therefrom a thesis 
which becomes a standard statement, the miner has no 
definite line to adopt, for every case he deals with is dif- 
ferent. It may be said of metallurgy that success de- 
pends upon invention and improvement of process, while 
in mining, success mainly depends upon past experience. 
You cannot learn mining from a book. 

It has, therefore, occurred to me that the best use to 
which I could put this occasion would be to follow 
through some of those points in the history of the Band 
with which I have been closely connected during my pro- 
fessional life which do not appear in textbooks or in com- 
pany records, in the hope that they will be interesting to 
those who know them, and will also help to direct the 
action of those who are now only commencing a pro- 
fessional life. 

I have had exceptional opportunities for following the 
course of operations and the growth of the Rand in that 
the mining house with which I have been connected since 
1891 controlled in that year 33.8% of the monthly out- 
put of the fields and now has charge of the operations of 
mines amounting to 49.1% of the output. It is of in- 
terest to note that in 1891 the average monthly output 
was 62,426 oz., or £213,027, while the average monthly 
output for 1917 was 728,868 oz., or £3,096,035. 

Today the mining student who has qualified has oppor- 
tunities for enlarging his mind undreamed of a quarter 
of a century ago, but a hard schooling in the practical 
side of the work remains as necessary a portion of his 
training as ever. Men fitted for the more responsible 
positions in the mining world are found among those who 
have made a success of each stage of a hard-fought youth 
— not among those whose ascendancy has been like that 
of the comet. It is the steady record that produces the 
best results. 

The Rand started with very keen man who were bound 
to progress, not only on account of the success of the 
industry and of their own natural ambitions for ad- 
vancement, but the stimulating air of the high plateau 
was in itself sufficient to convert even a sluggish consti- 
tution into a means of rapid thought. 

The possibilities of the extensions of the deposit were 
rapidly grasped and raked from end to end, and, after 
the 'deep levels' had become an accepted fact, in 1892, 
the outlying work that has been done since consisted 

•Delivered before the Institution of Mining and Metal- 
lurgy, London, on April 11, 1918. 

mainly of going over ground that had already been tried 
again and again. 

Where, then, has been the cause of improvement in 
succeeding years if the main facts of existence have been 
known for so long? It has been one of method, partly 
evolved by experience gained locally, and also in con- 
siderable measure by judicious introduction of experi- 
ence gained in other fields and other channels of knowl- 
edge in the world. This should be so, for a self-centred 
isolated community produces in time the same faults 
that come from in-breeding, not the least being intoler- 
ance to outside co-operation and intellect, which only acts 
to the detriment of those who seek to preserve their in- 
sularity. The minds of individuals move rapidly, and the 
minds of masses move slowly, and it may almost be said 
in inverse proportion to the size of the masses. "We want 
no more forcible example of the necessity for rapid action 
and the exercise of individuality as contrasted with the 
expression of mass thought and movement than the pres- 
ent world struggle. 

Let us see how improvement of method has had its 
effect and what scope still lies before us for further 
progress. In the early days those mines which started 
well on rich reefs continued their successful career, and 
made the fortunes and reputations of many who by fore- 
sight or good luck obtained control of them. Then came 
the steady hunt for gold in the gaps and on the exten- 
sions to the proven mines. It is in these directions that 
science and experience have had immense advantages 
over the old rule-of-thumb methods of development. 

Early Exploration. Following on the results of the 
prospecting trenches and mining operations from the 
outcrop, the most progressive method of the early days 
was to sink boreholes to cut the reef at comparatively 
shallow depths. The first of these was at the Village 
Main Reef, where in 1890 the South reef was intersected 
at a vertical depth of 517 ft. It is interesting to observe 
that while in those -days there was a doubt about the ex- 
istence of the ore deposit even at this short distance from 
the outcrop, today it is not considered an undue risk to 
invest a million and a half in equipping a property in 
which the reef lies at a depth of 5000 ft., and the major 
portion of the expenditure has to be undertaken before 
the reef is cut. The second effective borehole was on the 
Rand Deep Level ground, and was the first proof of the 
continuation of the ore below the boundary of the Crown 
Reef. This was sunk in 1892, and cut the South reef at 
823 ft. Intense interest was taken by the community in 
this borehole, and it was on the results therefrom that the 
ground immediate to the dip of the working outcrop- 
properties was recognized as having a definite value. 

These early boreholes had a twofold object. The first 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20, 1918 

was to prove the continued existence of the orebodies, for 
in those days, however assured the scientist might have 
been of the continuity of the deposition, it had to be 
demonstrated by results to the world at large if the re- 
quired confidence in the stability of the fields was to be 
established. The second was to obtain as accurate as 
possible cross-sections of the reef formation and to fur- 
nish material for assays on which to base estimates of the 
gold-contents of the reefs passed through. 

In the first requirement the early boreholes were ex- 
traordinarily successful, and as the evidence accumulated 
it became possible for a skilled observer to determine, 
from the results brought up, the distance at which the 
Main Reef series would be encountered to within a few 
feet. As an indication of the value of the reef the results 
were not so decisive, but it must not be too readily as- 
sumed on the records of past work that no weight can be 
given to results obtained by this method. On the Central 
Rand, where the reef formation is compact and lies in 
hard country, the assay-results from boreholes have in 
several instances been since proven to be very nearly the 
average of the reef they intersected ; but this again must 
have been very largely chance, as there are often wide 
differences between closely spaced min samples. No 
miner would attempt to value a block of ore-reserves on 
a single sample. 

In the Eastern Rand, owing to the friable nature of 
the foot-wall of the reef, which portion is also the main 
gold-carrier, this was often penetrated without previous 
warning owing to the absence of reliable upper indicators 
as found in the Central Rand, and as the core was being 
cut, the hard quartz pebbles often ground up the soft 
foot-wall shales and dispersed all the fine-gold contents, 
barely leaving a trace in the core-barrel for the assayer. 
In the Far East Rand, as in many other cases on dif- 
ferent classes of ore, full success has been deferred owing 
to too close adherence to an assumption of a normal posi- 
tion for the valuable contents. 

At the present day it is possible to divert boreholes at 
some distance above the reef, and to take another section. 
The exact location of the reef is then known, and the sec- 
ond sample can be carefully drilled. Cores of much 
larger diameter are now obtainable in this formation by 
shot-drilling, thus rendering it possible to obtain a more 
coherent core. 

In general it may be said of the returns of values 
afforded by boreholes that, provided the formation is 
there, a poor result is no criterion that profitable con- 
tents do not exist in the locality. On the other hand, if 
a rich result is obtained it is extremely improbable that 
the sample of ore secured haphazard as one solitary rep- 
resentative of a large area should happen upon an abnor- 
mally high-grade patch. It is much more probable that 
the value disclosed will be found to be repeated many 
times over in the vicinity. 

The positions of the reefs at depth having been proved, 
this indeterminate method of valuation gave way to de- 
velopment by shafts, and then the successful opening up 
of the rich resources of the Rand at depth commenced in 

Shaft-Sinking. The next step affords material for 
comparison of present practice with the "methods of a 
quarter of a century ago. Having found the reef and 
proved its probable character at several points sufficiently 
widespread, the first shafts were located. The main 
shafts, which had to do the double duty of prospecting 
the deposit ahead of the mine and of providing the means 
of getting the ore out, were then started from the sur- 
face either as inclines directly on or under the reef, or as 
verticals which cut the reef at no great depth, and were 
there turned off on the underlay and continued down 
as inclines. These latter, known as compound shafts, 
have proved to give the minimum of capacity combined 
with the maximum of expense. The bends seriously re- 
strict the speed of hoisting and shorten the life of the 
ropes. In addition, the ground above the reef at the 
bend is usually the weakest in the formation and entails 
great expense of upkeep. 

The incline from surface has much to recommend it, 
and there is no doubt that in a new mining country it 
helps to educate the population to underground life by 
degrees. Timbering is simple to construct and replace; 
air, water, and electrical connections are more easily at- 
tended to; and the ladder-way forms a ready means of 
communication between the underground workings and 
the surface, being especially valuable in case of emer- 
gency. When the shaft is carried either on or close to 
the reef, the results obtained during sinking operations 
are of importance and interest as indicating the future 
character of the deposit. The chief drawback is insta- 
bility of the ground as the worked-out areas increase in 
extent and cause movements which crush the timbers 
and cause stoppages in the work of the mine. If the 
shaft is sunk in the foot-wall out of reach of these dis- 
turbances, its value as a pioneer in obtaining knowledge 
of the deposit ahead of the lateral development is largely 

Recent practice is based on the recognition that it is 
not wise to try to make the shafts fulfil all these require- 
ments at the same time. The inclines sunk on the reef, 
while offering the best means of prospecting ahead of 
mining operations, are recognized as being unstable in 
character, and only valuable as hoisting-ways until the 
stopes on the horizon through which they pass are worked 
out. They are capable of producing all the output likely 
to be dealt with until the deposit has been sufficiently 
proved to warrant expenditure in plant on the larger 
scale. Then, when relative permanence of profitable ore 
is assured, a central vertical shaft is located and the con- 
nections to it so laid out that it can be fed with ore from 
all over the property, and it will take up and increase its: 
duties as the other channels of supply become inoper- 

How great has been the revolution in mining practice- 
is shown by the fact that before the principle of cen- 
tralizing the underground transport was introduced, the- 
average number of tons hoisted per shaft per day was; 
400 tons, whereas now the shafts laid out as described 
deal readily with 4000 tons in the same number of hours-, 
per day, or ten times the former amount. The innova- 

July 20, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20, 1918 

tion was not evolved from within by gradual changes. 
The time-honored method of calling for ore at each and 
every level of the mine as the ore-bins were filled was too 
firmly established. The change was effected through the 
appreciation of the fact that the two great branches of 
mining, coal and metal, were not so far apart as custom 
had hitherto decreed, and that each had much to learn 
from the other. The introduction of coal-mining experi- 
ence to the Rand and the completion of the first example 
of colliery practice in hoisting from one central loading- 
station was sufficient to demonstrate the superior effi- 
ciency gained thereby, and the system is now the ortho- 
dox method of layout of a new property. 

One point in connection with the further development 
of the centralizing system remains to be solved, and is 
now being tackled in various ways. I refer to the position 
which arises in the ease of a vertical shaft fully equipped 
which is already dealing with all the ore tributary to it, 
either from above the horizon of the shaft-bottom or 
hoisted to it by means of subsidiary inclines. 

There are three methods. First, to deepen further the 
main shaft from the surface, or, if it has already reached 
its economic limit, to sink a vertical shaft just alongside, 
so that the ore hoisted from greater depths can be trans- 
ferred directly from one to the other by trucks or through 
ore-bins. This will necessitate longer cross-cuts at each 
succeeding level, and does not assist in providing reef 
exposures ahead of the subsidiary mining operations. 

The second method may be taken to be the sinking of 
a main incline-shaft under the reef from the bottom of 
the vertical shaft, the ore being transferred in one opera- 
tion as above. This has the advantage that evidence is 
obtainable of the value of the deposit as the work pro- 
ceeds, and the minimum amount of cross-cutting is re- 
quired. The chief drawback is the smaller output ob- 
tained from each hoisting-way, thus possibly requiring 
two inclines to feed the main vertical shaft. There is 
also the risk that the inclines may be affected by move- 
ments of ground at a later stage. 

The third method has only recently entered the arena, 
and consists of a cross-cut from the bottom of the main 
vertical shaft in the direction of the dip and a sub- 
vertieal shaft sunk from this cross-cut in a position suit- 
able to control all the lower ore included in the estimates 
of future working. 

This system of layout is in the first instance subject to 
the same criticism as the first method, in that it does not 
offer facilities for ascertaining the value of the deposit 
till the work is all completed. But when once the reef is 
reached, and the subsidiary inclines have also been sunk 
to the horizon of the bottom of the sub-vertical, it may 
be found that development can proceed more quickly by 
this than by any other method. 

The chief drawback to this system is that the ore is 
subject to one more transfer than by either of the other 
two layouts, and this, if it does not restrict the output, 
must cause a permanent increase in costs of hoisting. 

My opinion is that as regards these three methods no 
endeavor should be made to arrive at a set rule vf pro- 

cedure, but every mine to be equipped should be con- 
sidered in the light of the special conditions obtaining 
and the requirements to be met. 

This is a case in which the Rand has to lead in mining 
practice, and the comparative results of the different 
methods of multiple-stage hoisting will be of great value 
to all who are engaged in deep mining. 

Ventilation. One factor which has to receive its due 
weight in considering the problem of mine layout is ven- 
tilation. Here improvement in method has altered the 
whole aspect of mining and has been more instrumental 
in removing doubts of the practicability of mining at 
great depths than any other branch of the science. 

In the early days of mining, the ventilation was left to 
look after itself, and as the air below is always hotter, at 
any rate at some periods of the 24 hours, than at the sur- 
face, a replacement of the vitiated mine air by fresh air 
from the surface must take place, though sometimes very 

Coal mines were the first to introduce artificial ven- 
tilation, not from any attention to the requirements of 
the workers, but to remove the dangerous gases given 
off from the coal. 

I think I am right in saying that it was left for the 
Rand to initiate the installation of mechanical ventilation 
on a comprehensive scale as an aid to efficient mining 
from the point of view of supplying an adequate amount 
of fresh air to the workers. 

The old way of looking at the question was — can it be 
reasonably shown that the minimum air required by the 
regulations is passed down the mine? Today the ques- 
tion is how much air do we require to ensure that fresh 
air is provided in sufficient quantity at every working- 
face so that the workers are naturally induced to put 
forth the greatest enei-gy at their work. Sunlight we 
cannot give below, but fresh air that comes direct from 
the sunlight is the next best insurance of health, and a 
healthy atmosphere is the best incentive to intelligent 
u-ork and an increased output. 

Recent researches with the action of dry ventilation 
on the damp surfaces underground have shown that a 
considerable reduction of temperature is obtained by the 
evaporation thus set up. The results have been sufficient 
to demonstrate that a judicious application of this 
principle will enable the mines to be carried down some 
thousands of feet deeper than would have been feasible 
had no means been found to reduce the rock temperatures 
which gradually but surely increase as greater depth is 
attained. As it is, it may be fairly estimated that rock 
temperatures will not be the limitation of practical min- 
ing on the Rand. 

The health of the underground workers has also been 
further assured by the regulations enforcing the use of 
water throughout the workings to lay the dust caused by 
drilling. The clean pure air of the mines of today is a 
benefit which can only be fully realized by those who 
have worked below in the dust and fog of the earlier days 
of the Rand. 

Circular Shafts. A very decided factor in the ca- 

Julv 20, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


paeity of the deeper mines to produce ore by providing 
ventilation for tlie workers, and by tin- Consequent effect 
on the temperature, is the introduction of the circular 

shaft on modern lines. The rectangular shaft had 
reached very large dimensions, with seven compartments 
measuring over all some 45 by S ft. With the forest of 
timber required for its construction, the equipment and 
upkeep has become a costly matter, and though the out- 
put per skip-way has been increased by improved meth- 
ods of hoisting to very creditable figures, the design re- 
mains, of necessity, very inadequate for ventilation pur- 
poses. The increasing activity in the Far Eastern Rand 
favored the practical solution of the question as the flat- 
ter formation and the Carboniferous measures in that 
district are more nearly comparable to the strata in this 
country in which circular shafts are the normal design. 

The advantages of the first examples had only to be 
seen to be copied, and today there is no part of the forma- 
tion which is considered unsuitable for this class of con- 
struction. The original cost and the upkeep are both 
considerably less than in the case of the timbered rec- 
tangular shafts. They can be equally well equipped for 
cages or skips, and the ventilation capacity is much 

It will be of interest to some of you to refer to the 
record for circular shaft sinking which was obtained on 
the Crown Mines in 1916 : 246 ft. was sunk in 30 days, 
from 685 ft. to 931 ft. in depth, and the walling was com- 
pleted in 6 days more. The new Modderfontein circular 
shaft, which was completed in 1912 at a depth of 2258 
ft., is 18 ft. in the clear and was sunk at an average cost, 
including walling, of £22 10s. per foot. 

Pumping. Another problem has arisen in recent years 
for dealing with which the circular shaft is preferable. 
I refer to the passage of shafts through watery strata. 
There have been cases of excessive influx of water in the 
course of sinking shafts in the quartzites of the Wit- 
watersrand series. These have been met by the installa- 
tion of powerful pumps, and notable records of sinking 
have been done under trying conditions. Today the con- 
ditions on the extensions of the Rand are different, and 
the shafts in their upper portion have to pass through 
limestone formation in which there exist fissures con- 
nected with underground reservoirs which may produce 
water in overwhelming quantity. This problem is now 
well on the way to being solved by the introduction and 
successful application of the Francois cementation proc- 
ess on the fields. After an investigation of the successful 
application of this method of shutting off water from 
workings in this country, and the results of sealing up of 
the high-pressure water-zone on the Bast Rand, it is not 
too much to say that it may be relied on to deal expedi- 
tiously with any water difficulty that may be met with 
in shaft-sinking in the future, provided always that it 
is properly applied. 

Underground Haulage. Another variation in the 
method of mining that has assisted toward economy of 
working is the method of laying out drifts. This altera- 
tion has been largely brought about by the centralizing 

system of transport. Formerly the drifts followed the 
reef as closely as the developers could carry it. and after- 
wards the ore had to be transported over the track with 
all its drawbacks to efficient tramming on account of l In- 
sharp bends and changing elevations. Now the drifts 
arc put in with a view to their use for transporting the 
ore, and are often carried a short distance under the reef, 
which is tested at regular intervals as driving proceeds 
by cross-cuts for sampling purposes. 

The methods of transporting the ore along these drifts 
are many, and will continue to be so, for the decision as 
to the best system for the purpose depends on the indi- 
vidual conditions at each property. 

When a great and continuous tonnage is assured, an 
independent transport system by means of locomotives 
and trains of trucks of large capacity may be estimated 
to repay the large capital expenditure involved in in- 
stalling the roads and the rolling-stock, but the develop- 
ment ahead should be sufficient to assure that the capital 
sunk would be more than returned by the saving in work- 
ing expenses before schemes of perfection of this nature 
are undertaken. Endless ropes and main and tail haul- 
ages of the designs well known in colliery practice are 
now generally applicable in mines where the transport 
service can be laid out along defined lines. They have 
the advantage of a less expensive road-bed, the use of 
trucks in normal mining use, and are not limited closely 
in gradient. 

There are cases, even where very large tonnages are 
involved, in which it is found that gangs of tramming- 
boys working under a properly controlled system will 
transport the ore along the levels for long distances at a 
cost which is so little in excess of that of mechanical 
haulage that the installation of a power-driven plant is 
not justified. This method has of course the advantage 
that the labor force employed is movable at will to any 
part of the mine. The choice from all these various 
systems must be governed by the amount of ore to be 
collected within their range of action and the period over 
which it is to be worked. Any system of mechanical 
transport when working considerably under its rated 
capacity is uneconomical. 

The alternative methods of carriage of ore to the sur- 
face have not yet had that amount of consideration paid 
to them which will have to be done when the deposits of 
ore to be worked are more restricted and more difficult of 
access, and the profit available from each individual sec- 
tion or block in a mine is more closely calculated. I 
refer to the question of skips and cages. The skip can 
more conveniently take the larger tonnage per trip — it 
can be rapidly loaded and discharged with little extra 
labor requirements. On the other hand, it is fed from 
ore-bins which must be of large capacity to meet the 
needs of the mine. They are expensive to construct and 
are only useful for the particular section immediately 
above them. All the different classes of ore that are 
dumped into them are mixed together and go to the mill 
as- one product. Too often no separate arrangements are 
made for the disposal of the waste-rock that is produced 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20, 1918 

in mining-work off the reef, and this also is dumped into 
the ore-bin, and then has to pass through the treatment 
plant with the valuable' material, thereby adding to the 
cost, occupying valuable space that might be used in 
earning profit, using up labor and skilled attention in 
eliminating it at the successive stages of treatment, and 
sometimes rendering the actual process of extraction 
more difficult. 

There is nothing in the world more misleading than 
the figures which can be compiled, and often with every 
appearance of accuracy, to show that rock which contains 
gold of less value than the normal cost of extraction can 
be made to produce a profit. If it is found after the 
closest critical examination that this is the ease, then it 
can also assuredly be found that the anomaly is due to 
the disproportionate layout of some portion of the mine 
or plant, and the proper procedure is to remedy the 
defect at the source and readjust the proportions, for it 
is only thus that the true object of mining is attained, 
namely, to get the greatest profit out of the deposit being 

There are many in all branches of the profession and 
mining business who can never free themselves from the 
glamor of gold. It cannot be too often reiterated that it 
does not pay to extract gold from rock of the value of a 
sovereign if the cost of getting it is 20s.6d.. and yet how 
often is it not found that mining accounts do not include 
all the current charges against the company 's operations 
and therefore the pay-limit is taken at too low a level 
and the shareholders suffer loss. This appears to be a 
digression, but it is so closely interwoven with the argu- 
ment on the methods of transport of ore which otherwise 
is restricted to a comparison of direct costs of each sys- 
tem, that I have left it where it comes in logical sequence. 

As against the mixed ore supplies from the mine ore- 
bins, cage hoisting includes some distinct advantages. 
Ore from any one stope or section of the mine, or even 
from any one portion of the reef in the stope if mined 
separately, can be labeled and transported' to the sur- 
face, passed through the crushers, and carried on to a 
separate section of the mill where the actual contents 
can be closely gauged by sampling the issuing pulp. In 
older practice the actual amalgam from any one section 
of the orebody thus treated could be obtained in the mill, 
but with the more recent methods cf placing the plates in 
a separate building this is no longer possible. 

Another advantage is the disposal of the waste already 
referred to, as the trucks containing this would be 
diverted to the waste-dump, and at a minimum of ex- 
pense. This alternative involves the capital cost of a 
larger number of trucks which thus act as storage capac- 
ity in place of the bins. It also involves the enlarge- 
ment of the mine-workings in the vicinity of the shaft so 
that there is sufficient track' accommodation to ensure 
continuous hoisting as required. Cages have also the ad- 
vantage that men and materials are more easily conveyed 
in them than in skips. 

I have said enough on this subject to show that the 
question involves far more than the mere figures of cost 

of installation and working, and an investigation of the 
comparative merits of each system as affecting the whole 
method of mining and treatment would often prove of 
value to an engineer engaged in laying out the develop- 
ment andxreatment plant of a new property. 

Sampling. In sampling and mine valuation there is 
no radical change to record. Mine samples are taken at 
closer intervals than used to be considered sufficient, but, 
on the other hand, owing to the greatly increased dimen- 
sions of the blocks of ore constituting the reserves each 
sample has a greater responsibility, and the greater 
number will tend to lessen the effect of errors. A review, 
of the last six years shows that the gold extracted in 
treatment is about 92% of that estimated in the first 
instance to have been in the ore as blocked out. This 
estimate cannot be taken too literally owing to the in- 
clusion of development rock, and the varying widths of 

There is still a missing link in the chain of evidence 
of ore values in that the valuation of the ore as stoped 
cannot be said to have a definite relation to the ore de- 
livered into the mill-bin, and this connection will prob- 
ably not be satisfactorily made until the ore sent to the 
mill is weighed and sampled on a sufficient scale to secure 
comparative accuracy. In this event this valuation 
would be the starting-point to correct the estimates made 
both for the original reserves and the finished product. 
The system of truck-hoisting already referred to would 
go a long way toward removing the remaining discrep- 

Mining. Of stoping it may be said that as an art it is 
dying out. The old miners who knew their work by in- 
tuition are disappearing, and the great numbers of men 
who have taken to underground work owing to the in- 
creasing output have not had the long training necessary 
for the best efficiency. As a science it is difficult of in- 
vestigation — there are not enough constants. The best 
that can be done today is to divide the work up between 
several skilled supervisors, each of whom has sufficient 
time to keep continually in touch with every one of the 
stopes allotted to him. It would be his particular busi- 
ness to learn the characteristics of the ground being 
broken, and to vary the system employed, when by so 
doing an increased profit is shown by trial to be obtain- 

Methods of stoping are now often closely connected 
with sand-filling and waste and reef packing, particu- 
larly so in the Central Rand, where, so far as the upper 
portion of the mining area is concerned, the withdrawal 
of support due to the progressive extraction of ore has 
been followed by an equally progressive settlement of the 
superincumbent strata which sometimes comes into action 
with detrimental effect on the mine-workings. 

To meet this situation as it developed, sand-filling was 
introduced in 1908. Previous to this date some of the 
older mines close to Johannesburg had been showing 
signs of movement, and it became evident that prepara- 
tion was necessary to meet this tendency, which was 
bound to increase in intensity as mining progressed. 

.lulv 20, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Central Witwatersrand, inclusive averages of all Main Eeef Leader Development. 
Gold Contents in Shillings over. the Stoping Widths. 




















on dip. 




















1500 to. 

3000 to 

4500 to 

6000 to 

7500 to 




















•39 | 



45 12 























54 65 
























Crown Mines. 
L. Deep Sect. C. Deep Sect. Robinson Deep 




000 ft 

i Dee; 

3ub. Wolhuter. 

). City Deep. Nourse Mines. 



^ xw 

Total Average excluding Outer 

op Zone 

■ 32-222 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20, 1918 

The coalfields of Silesia formed a good object lesson in 
the support of overlying ground, and, after the methods 
employed there had been studied, a similar system was 
iutroduced on several of the mines on the Band. This 
consisted briefly of the hydraulic transport of sand from 
the surface down to the stopes through pipes, returning 
the water by pumps specially installed for the pur- 

Filtration difficulties arose on the Rand which had not 
been experienced in Silesia. The tailings which are em- 
ployed for the purpose are composed of extraordinarily 
hard and sharp quartz grains, and the pipes through 
which they were lowered in the shafts were cut through 
in a very short time. Various linings were tried at the 
points most affected, and progress was being made on 
these lines which bid fair to overcome the difficulty. Con- 
fidence in the efficacy of the sand-filling process had, 
however, in the meantime become more established, and 
the more stable method of sinking boreholes of several 
inches diameter, for lowering the sand was being under- 
taken. It was feared at first that choking might take 
place, causing long delays, but this was found not to be 
the case, and after more experience was gained it was 
found possible to reduce the percentage of water in the 
mixture largely below the proportions which had been 
adopted at the commencement from the Silesian practice. 
This lessens the quantity of water to be returned, and 
thus considerably reduces the main item of cost. 

Boreholes have now been sunk on several of the mines, 
the deepest being at the City Deep, where a borehole of 
7 in. diam. was sunk to a depth of 2000 ft. by means of 
the shot-drilling process. 

It has been found that after the earth pressure comes 
on the filled areas, the sand is compressed to a greater 
degree than had been previously estimated for from 
Silesian results. It is not yet clear whether this is due 
to the greater pressure exerted, to the difference in the 
filling material, or to a variation in the method of hy- 
draulic settlement. The effect is that the overlying strata 
are not immediately supported in their original position, 
but break away to some extent, thus permitting a certain 
amount of movement which is subsequently arrested. 

Waste-packs are largely used as supports, and their 
construction has been highly developed on scientific lines. 
They are, however, subject to a much greater degree of 
compression than the water-borne sand, and consequently 
allow of subsequent earth movements of greater intensity. 

For purely local purposes the control of the pressure 
by means of waste-packs or broken ore has been found 
effective, and indeed has largely assisted stoping opera- 
tions by loosening the ore in the faces, but from the more 
general point of view the policy should be to support the 
whole mass of the ground over the reef to the greatest 
extent possible in order to protect the deeper mines from 
the undue pressure which otherwise might be caused by 
subsidence in the upper areas. 

It is found that the areas of disturbance caused by 
mining operations are largely localized by the great dikes 
which traverse the reef-bearing strata in all directions. 

The existence of these breaks, together with the modifica- 
tions being made in mining practice to suit the changing 
conditions, should form a sufficient safeguard against 
any but purely local breakaways. 

All these references which have been made to past and 
current practice are necessarily only of the nature of 
headlines, but I trust that the description is sufficient to 
illustrate to engineers who are interested in one or other 
of the subjects the lines on which they can make further 
inquiry to meet their particular needs. 

Time will not permit of reference to several other 
branches of mining work in which improvement of 
method has assisted in arriving at the degree of efficiency 
obtaining today. 

The notable advance made in the mechanical and 
metallurgical sections of the industry have received due 
attention by the vigorous and progressive technical 
societies on the fields, and many a specialist either in min- 
ing machinery or in metallurgical practice who has 
turned his attention to the Rand has modified his first 
enthusiasm for his projected innovations when he has 
learnt the amount of research that has already been paid 
to his favorite subject and the reduced scope that still 
remains for further improvemeent. This does not mean 
to imply that perfection has by any means been reached, 
but that the further improvement of the future is more 
likely to be attained by close attention to details on the 
part of those who have an intimate knowledge of the local 
conditions than by startling surprise involving radical 
alteration of method. 

Organizations of staffs and centralized control of the 
purchase of stores have materially assisted in the success 
of the industry, and are rightly included in records of 

Production and Profit. We now come to an interest- 
ing part of the investigation, namely, to what extent 
have these methods of improvement been responsible for 
the enhanced prosperity of the goldfield, and to what 
extent has any variation in the gold contents of the ore 
deposit affected the industry 1 To answer these questions 
has required the compilation of figures of some magni- 
tude, but if you will follow me through to the conclusion 
I think you will find that the results arrived at have re- 
paid the effort. 

Previous to the South African War the official publica- 
tions dealing with returns from the Witwatersrand gold- 
fields did not extend to a statement of the average tn— *i 
yield, cost, and profit for each year. Neither is this a 
very important omission, as the methods of arriving at 
costs and profits were many and various and often did 
not reflect to anj r useful degree the figures that were 
ultimately required before the divisible profit, which is 
the only true profit, could be ascertained. 

So far as the records have been traced, the costs in the 
last few years of the 19th century were not far removed 
from those which obtained during the first years in which 
normal working was resumed after the war, and these 
may therefore be taken to represent the earlier standard 
for general purposes. From 1902 to the present date the 

July 20. 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


averages for the whole Band are available, and they are 

as follows : 

tons Profit 

.1 s. .1 R. ,1 

IMS 8.418.813 i" 18 B 

1903 8 105 018 38 8 :l :i I I 11 

1904 8 068 888 38 8 -:i l l t 8 

1808 11.100.428 35 10 83 8 18 il 

1800 13 571.554 34 8 ■.".' •: 12 d 

1807 15.523.228 33 11 20 10 13 3 

1808 18 188 588 31 .'. lis 13 .". 

1808 20.643,769 28 11 IT 1 I I il 

1810 21.432.641 28 6 17 7 10 tl 

lllll 23.888,268 87 11 In 7 

1918 25.480,381 29 m lx 8 10 

1913 26.028,438 87 9 17 11 !i 6 

1914 25.701.954 88 6 17 1 HO 

1916 28.314.678 28 3 17 :> 8 5 

1SU0 28.525,252 28 8 18 1 8 2 

To those unversed in the practice of mining, these 
figures might, in the bald state in which they are pre- 
sented, lead them to the conclusion that the ore in the 
deposit had depreciated in value as the mines were ex- 
tended. But to those who are acquainted with the inner 
conditions, the only positive evidence that is afforded by 
this statement is that, whereas in 1902 the costs were 
25s. 9d. per ton milled, only ore above this figure could 
be worked at a profit, while in 1916 all ore which gave a 
yield over and above 18s. Id. came into the same category. 
The result of the lowering of the cost has been that not 
only have the fresh developments of lower-grade ore 
above the reduced pay-limit been included in the reserves 
and sent to the mill in due course, but, as each drop in 
cost has been attained, ore which was previously stand- 
ing in the upper levels has been taken into the official 
calculations of ore reserves, which have thus had two 
sources tending to lower their average grade. Herein 
lies one of the weak points of the system of keeping 
records on the variable basis of ' per ton milled. ' 

Had the returns of new development always been 
issued as gold contents per unit of area of ground de- 
veloped, be it foot, yard, metre, fathom, or claim, the 
successive annual statements of ore reserves would have 
been comparable and the improvement in methods of 
mining recognized at its true value, as it would have been 
shown at once in the reduced costs of working each unit 
of area. 

As the annual yields from the various mines are thus 
shown to be of no value in arriving at comparisons of 
the gold contents of the successive zones opened out at the 
mines are deepened, it has been necessary to construct a 
new compilation of records practically from the grass 
roots. Taking into account the many interests con- 
cerned, and the varied methods of keeping the earlier 
records, the inclusion of the whole 55 miles of mines of 
the Band would have been infeasible. Further inquiry 
has also shown this to be unnecessary. 

The Central Band was at the commencement the hub 
of the industry and has remained so till today. The 
mines are connected together in one continuous network, 
and in the centre of operations the Village Deep main 
shaft has attained the greatest depth in Band mining, 
namely, 5350 ft. vertically from the surface and 9800 ft. 
from the outcrop measured on the dip of the reef. . This 
section of the Band may be taken for the present pur- 
pose as stretching from the west boundary of the Crown 

mines to the east boundary of the Nourse mines, and 
measuring about eighl miles along the outcrop, 

Richness op < >be in Depth. In order to ascertain the 
original value of the deposit Erom which the major por- 
tion of the gold has been obtained, I continued the com- 
pilation which I had the pleasure of exhibiting to some 

of you in 1914. and il is nuw completed, .'is far as il is 
possible to obtain the details, up In the end of 1916. The 
reason for which this work was originally undertaken was 
to obtain concrete evidence of the form finally assumed 
of the various gradations of the gold deposition, and in 
this it lias usefully served its purpose. As you know, 
the times are difficult both for private work and also 
regarding supplies of paper, but I am glad to have been 
able to have had printed a limited number of copies of a 
reproduction of the plan. Copies are before you tonight, 
and you will see that the key to the gold-values denoted 
by the colors is included on the sheets so that each of 
you may study the record and draw his own conclusions. 

This plan shows the original gold contents of the Main 
Beef Leader in the Central Witwatersrand as disclosed 
by mine development operations. The extreme eastern 
portion, which does not affect the main conclusions, has 
been omitted owing to printing limitations. The Main 
Beef Leader was chosen for the purpose as being the most 
important and consistent gold-carrier, and in offering the 
advantages of a greatly extended continuous series of 
exposures for correlation. 

I have made a close study of this plan for some years, 
and have from time to time made forecasts of the future 
prospects of the deeper levels and have compared them 
later with the actual results of development. I have 
never yet been able fo ascertain from this accumulating 
evidence any general indication of depreciation of the 
gold-values at depth, and my reading of the plan now 
placed before you is that the same conclusion holds good 

In order to demonstrate still more clearly the final 
results of the great mass of evidence which has been 
brought together to construct this map, the original 
assay-records have been compiled into blocks of equal 
area over the whole district. These are set forth in the 
statement on page 83. 

These block-values include all the original sampling 
results, both payable and unpayable, and may therefore 
be taken as representative of the original gold contents 
of the deposit. Next, the average results of larger sec- 
tional areas have been compiled from these blocks with a 
view to providing comparative figures at depth over as 
nearly as possible equal distances along the strike. The» 
the whole of the recorded results have been averagea lo 
give one figure of value for each horizontal zone. These 
have been taken for the purpose of convenient calcula- 
tion in successive depths of 1500 ft. measured along the 
dip of the reef. Finally, these horizontal valuations are 
averaged into one grand total average for the whole of 
the mines included in the calculation. 

It will be seen that the outcrop zone records a consider- 
ably higher average gold content than the remainder. 
This was only to be expected, as it includes all the results 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20, 1918 

of secondary enrichment which form the residue from 
denudation, which must have amounted to some thou- 
sands of feet. 

In order, therefore, to arrive at a final result for the 
purpose of comparison, the outcrop zone should be omit- 
ted, and if this is done it is seen that the average gold- 
content of the Main Reef Leader of the Central Wit- 
watersrand as disclosed by the original valuation was 
32.22s. per mine-ton. Now let us see what bearing the 
individual zone results have on this figure. The upper- 
most or second zone on the list is 31.19s., and the lowest 
or sixth zone is 30.60s., a remarkable degree of approxi- 
mation when it is noted that they are separated by nearly 
a mile of workings on the dip. 

In the third zone a remarkable rise of the gold-content 
is noted, which falsified the predictions of many who 
based their estimates on a descending scale from the 
mines immediately above, and on the records of gold 
mines in other localities which have since been proved 
in no way comparable to the unique occurrence in the 

The remaining two zones, the fourth and fifth, closely 
approximate to the general average, and indeed the whole 
series of averages now set forth show so little variation 
in gold-content for the different horizons that scepticism 
would be expected were it not that the figures are 
founded on fact carried to the minutest detail. 

If any further corroboration of these decisive results 
should be needed, it is given by the crushings from the 
mines included in the calculation since the commence- 
ment of gold production. The total results for the 
Central section to the end of 1916 are : 

Ore treated, tons : 93.468.055 

Yielding gold to the gross value of £170,463.933 

or at the average rate of 36s. 6d. per ton milled. 

When due allowance has been made for sorting, this is 
seen to be an extraordinarily close confirmation of the 
original valuation of 34.2s. for the ore as it stood in the 
mine, a credit to the accuracy of the samplers and to the 
ingenuity of those who have been charged with the ex- 
traction of the gold. 

From the commencement of gold production to the end 
of 1916 the results for the whole Witwatersrand are : 

Ore treated, tons 311. 755. 786 

Yielding gold to the gross value of £492,364,791 

or at the average rate of 31s. 7d. per ton milled. 

The total tonnage and yield from the Central Rand 
represent respectively 30 and 34.6% of the totals for the 
whole of the Witwatersrand, so that it may be fairly 
claimed that the conclusions of this investigation can be 
applied to the whole extent of the deposit covered by min- 
ing operations. These figures are conclusive evidence of 
the stability, consistency, and continuity of the Rand 
deposits as gold-carriers for all practical purposes. 

A further encouraging feature in support of the pros- 
pects of the next deeper zones below those already opened 
out is the number of points at which high-grade ore has 
been exposed in the deepest workings. 

It is thus seen that the gold-contents of the deposit 
have remained remarkably constant throughout the whole 

life of the Rand, and that the extension of mining opera- 
tions and the steady growth of the industry are almost 
entirely attributable to the improved methods of mining 
and treatment that have been applied as a result of per- 
sistent and* progressive research. 

The problem today is — what is the best method of work- 
ing the deeper levels now being entered upon so that the 
greatest profit is obtained for the shareholders of the 
mines concerned? 

A study of all the evidence I have placed before you 
lends weight to the opinion, which has already some ad- 
herents, that the mode of deposition of the gold in the 
Central Rand will eventually be found to be not so far 
removed from that which has been more rapidly proven 
in the Far Eastern Rand, and that the richer portions 
of the deposit, while retaining their grade, will be found 
to be segregated within more closely defined limits. En- 
quiry should therefore be conducted on lines which will 
lead to a better knowledge of the characteristics of these 
channels, lenses, or aggregations of richer ore, and, when 
located, development should be laid out so that the com- 
plete blocking out of ore-reserves should only be carried 
out in those areas which have been shown by the pre- 
liminary driving operations to give undoubted profitable 
results, while the poorer stretches of country should be 
intersected by the minimum number of levels considered 
requisite to prove their low-grade character. In other 
words, the program should be selective development 
where the money spent in opening up new mining ground 
should be devoted as far as possible to the more likely 
areas, and the sections which offer but small promise of 
profit should have sunk in them only sufficient expendi- 
ture to prove their limitations. This is no new theory in 
mining, but it has not yet been applied to the older 
established mines of the Rand. It will necessarily follow 
that tonnage outputs will be restricted. 

The diagram showing the average monthly tonnages 
and the yield, cost, and profit, with the averages per 
mine, for the mines of the Rand for 1917 will repay 
careful study. In character it bears out the deductions 
made from those similarly constructed for several pre- 
ceding years. The chief points that stand out are that 
large tonnage outputs do not necessarily carry with them 
low working-costs, and that high yields give high profits. 
It follows, therefore, that the chief endeavor should be 
to raise the yield per ton from each mine as high as is 
consistent with the average grade of the definitely profit- 
able ore in the reserves, and to modify the organizations 
and the scale of the treatment plants to suit the output 
under these conditions. The evidence now before you 
leads to the belief that the more general adoption of this 
policy will be attended by a greater measure of success. 

Here, then, we can leave the future to bring what it 
may, fully assured that behind the average returns of 
the mines which represent the practice of today there 
exists a reserve force in the continuance of the high-grade 
ore at great depths, which, while it brightens the specu- 
lative outlook of the mines more directly concerned, may 
be counted upon to uphold the reputation of the Rand 
goldfields for a long time to come. 

Julv 20, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Cascade Method of Froth Flotation 


During the past few months 1 have been experiment- 
ing with a cascade machine which I believe to be new 
and which perhaps will be of interest to those working 
along this line. In cascade flotation the froth formed is 
the result of agitation and the entraining of air pro- 
duced by causing a stream or jet of pulp, or rather an 
ore-water-oil mixture, to be injected into the main body 




1 1 
1 1 

1 1 

1 1 
1 1 



FftO/fT Y/EW 

5/DE r/£W 

Fig. 1 

of pulp. The agitation, may be caused by natural gravity, 
or by artificial means such as centrifugal pumps. By the 
first method a considerable drop is required between 
cells in order to impart sufficient force to the stream of 
pulp. This requires a great deal of head-room in the 
mill, and necessitates raising the pulp to the upper- 
most cell. If the second method be used little head-room 
may be required, but the cost of repairs on the pumps is 
considerable. Also the first method requires little atten- 
tion when once installed, while the pumps require more. 

The apparatus shown in Fig. 1 and 2 was designed 
with the object of eliminating mechanical appliances for 
giving velocity to the jet of pulp and to minimize the 
head-room required. Fig. 1 shows a sketch of the test- 
machine used, which is self-explanatory. It consists of a 
spitzkasten A, which extends downward to afford suffi- 
cient submergence for the use of the air-lift B. The pulp 
is elevated considerably above the spitzkasten into the 
small reservoir R; from here it is injected into the main 
body of the pulp by gravity, through three small pipes 

Fig. 2 

arranged step-like as shown in the front view of Fig. 1. 
The pulp circulates in closed circuit as shown by the 
arrows. Pulp may be drawn off at any stage of tne te=i 
for assay through the plug P. I have obtained results 
with this test-machine that compared well with what 
could be secured in a mechanical frothing machine, using 
the same ore. 

A convenient arrangement for a commercial size ma- 
chine, working on the same principle, is shown in Fig. 3. 
It consists of seven cells, that is, 14 spitzkastens back to 
back. The feed enters the first cell through the intake 
pipe 8; from here, by means of four air-lifts a, t, c, d, 
as shown in cell No. 4, the pulp is lifted to the reservoir 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

Julv 20, 1918 

B and thence through the three pipes x, y z, into cell 
No. 2. This cycle is repeated throughout the series of 
cells, thus affording numerous chances for each valuable 
mineral particle to be floated. With this machine no 
drop between the cells is required ; hence the head-room 
necessary is small. As there are no wearing parts, the 
cost of operation would be that required for air only. 
The slender portion of the machine (m, n, o, p) could be 

Ribbon Zinc as a Substitute for Brass 

END y.'ElY 

S/DE rj£>Y 

Fig. 3 

situated in a trench, and several of these machines could 
be placed side by side, giving a large capacity per square 
foot of floor-space. A head of four or five feet of water 
can be obtained easily, which gives considerable force to 
the jet of pulp, and produces good agitation and 

Mining companies using motor-trucks in cold weather 
are often bothered with water freezing in radiators. A 
careful study into anti-freezing compounds by the U. S. 
Bureau of Standards leads to the conclusions that (1) 
calcium chloride compounds should be used with cau- 
tion, if at all, on account of their corrosive action; (2) 
kerosene or similar oils should not be used on account 
of their inflammability, high boiling-point, and effect on 
rubber; (3) mixtures of glycerin and alcohol can be 
used, but the price of glycerin and the need for it in the 
manufacture of munitions at the present time should 
preclude its use; (4) solutions made from either wood 
alcohol or denatured alcohol seem at the present time to 
be the most desirable anti-freezing solutions to use. If 
the wood alcohol is free from acid, there is little choice 
between the two alcohols. Wood alcohol costs more than 
denatured alcohol and is more volatile, but its lower 
freezing-point allows a less amount to be used, which 
may counteract the above disadvantage. The ideal anti- 
freezing compound is one that will prevent freezing of 
the radiator liquid without injuring either engine or 
radiator, that will not lose its non-freezing properties 
after continued use. and that does not materially change 
the boiling-point of water when dissolved in it. 

Before the Government fixed the price of copper and 
when that metal was selling as high as 34c. per pound, 
endeavors were being made by those whose prosperity 
depended on marketing alloys of copper and zinc or 
copper and tin to find substitutes. About this time a 
company put on the market a substitute for sheet brass 
called ribbon zinc, and it was given a trial. 
In spinning shallow canopies, say about 2 
in. deep and about 4 in. diameter, it is 
fully equal to brass. When attempts are 
made to spin it to a depth of 4 in. it will 
not stand annealing, but cracks. This also 
occurs in shallower shells if spun into a 
small diameter making a pronounced neck. 
Considerable of this metal has been used 
in spinning rings for holding glass dishes, 
or bowls for close ceiling lights, and fix- 
tures which are suspended by chains. 
These are all diameters from 8 in. upward, 
but do not run much over 2 in. deep. In 
the manufacture of hall and vestibule 
lanterns, which is hand-work exclusively, 
ribbon zinc has proved an excellent sub- 
stitute for brass. After being laid out and 
cut, the parts are soldered with the same 
ease, and the completed frame is as firm as 
in the case of sheet brass. In the manu- 
facture of lighting fixtures the new metal has proved 
successful. It takes a heavy copper plate, after which 
it is possible to apply any oxidized finish, whether it be 
a Japanese bronze or an antique brass. If a white 
finish be desired the enamel can be applied direct. 
Other manufacturers are finding uses for ribbon zinc 
and it will probably develop a field for the consumption 
of zinc after the War as well as at the present time-. 

Air Mair 

Crystalline graphite for making crucibles should 
contain as high as 85% of graphitic carbon and should 
be free from mica, pyrite, and iron oxide, which are 
particularly harmful impurities. It should also prefer- 
ably contain a large proportion of flakes one millimetre 
or more in diameter, so that its fragments may interlock 
and thus be more easily bound together by the clay with 
which it is to be mixed. Most makers of crucibles prefer 
to use a mixture of Ceylon graphite with American 
flake graphite, as the former is more nearly free from 
impurities and its more nearly cubical fragments have 
a much smaller surface area in proportion to their 
volume than the thin flakes of the domestic graphite, so 
that it requires the use of less clay as a binder. Do- 
mestic flake graphite may be used alone for making 

Flux for welding high-speed steel to other steel or 
iron, consisting of 40% bicarbonate of soda, 40% car- 
bonate of soda, 10% sodium borate, 5% precipitated 
silica, and 5% lithium carbonate was recently granted 
patent No. 1,256,420, to A. F. Beaulieu, of Chicago. 

Julv l'ii. 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Making FerroManganese in 

A oatural development for the Pacific t'oast is that 
of electro-metallurgy. In California, particularly, there 
arc ores suitable for reduction and water-power available 

for electric energy, much of it as yet undeveloped. The 
use of electric furnaces in this state is not new, three 
having been operated in Shasta county by the Noble 
Electric Steel Co. for several years. There is a fair de- 
mand in the West for alloy metals, but in the East the 
demand is enormous. 

A new company to take advantage of these favorable 
conditions is the Pacific Electro Metals Co. Its plant is 
at Bay Point, 30 miles east of San Francisco, on the bay. 
It is easily accessible, having three railroads close-by, also 
water transportation. The company is now operating a 

and local raw materials aii' utilized. This building is 

also of concrete, holding the necessary baking kiln and 
apparatus for making electrodes. The directors of the 
company are C. D. Clarke, San Francisco, president; 
.1. M. Kroyer of Stockton, vice-president; Eenry Coster, 
San Francisco, treasurer; and ('. F. Potter and .1. \V. 
Beckman of San Francisco. Western capital exclusively 
is represented in this undertaking. The plant was de- 
signed by the Beckman & Linden Engineering Corpora- 
tion of San Francisco, consulting engineers to the Pacific 
Electro Metals Company. 

A total computed lumber-cut for the United States 
in 1917 of 35,831,239,000 ft. is announced by the Forest 
Service. This is based on reports received up to May 
15 from 16,408 sawmills out of the 24,815 believed to 
have operated last year. It is estimated that the actual 
cut in 1917, on the basis of compiled figures, was 10% 


40-ton silico-manganese furnace, and will in the near 
future have a furnace making ferro-manganese. Each 
of these furnaces has a capacity of 3000 kw. In addition, 
three 300-kw. furnaces are being erected, in which ferro- 
nickel, ferro-molybdenum, ferro-chrome, and ferro-tung- 
sten will be made as the raw materials are available. The 
main buildings are of reinforced concrete. The main 
furnace building is 120 ft. long and 50 ft. wide. The 
transformer-building is adjacent to this and is also of 
concrete. The necessary cooling and packing rooms for 
the alloys, as well as machine-shop, store-room, wash- 
house, office, laboratory, and gate-house are all placed in 
close proximity to the furnace building. The electric 
furnace in which silico-manganese is made is a three- 
phase furnace with an open top. The raw materials are 
fed by shovel around the electrode, and the metal is 
drawn from a tap-hole at the bottom of the furnace. The 
operation of smelting is continuous. The electrodes are 
of 24-in. diameter. The load-factor of an electric furnace 
should always be good, and the power-factor, owing to 
the careful interlacing of the leads, is also high. The 
transformer equipment for one furnace is composed of 
four single-phase 1000-kw. transformers, one of which is 
a spare. 

To make the plant self-contained and non-dependent 
on outside sources for electrodes, a plant has been erected 


less than the production in 1916. The falling-off during 
the past year is attributed principally to largely de- 
creased private building operations, the scarcity of 
labor in connection with small operations, transporta- 
tion difficulties, curtailment of demand on the part of 
wood-using industries, and a more or less general dis- 
location of lumber distribution through ordinary chan- 
nels of trade. A considerable portion of the total quan- 
tity produced was utilized in meeting the exceptional 
demands for Government construction and other war 
emergency projects, including ship material. The State 
of Washington was again the largest producer, with a 
cut of 4,570,000,000 ft., Louisiana was second with 
4,210,000,000, and Oregon third with 2,585,000,000 ft., 
crowding into fourth position Mississippi with a cut of 
2,425,000,000 feet. 

Mica to the extent of 1,216,816 lb. was marketed in 
this country last year.' Sheet mica has become an im- 
portant war-material, especially in condensers, magnetos, 
and spark-plugs, in the windows of gas-masks, and for 
windows in armored cars, and the conning towers of war- 
ships and submarines. The prices rose nearly 20% 
over those obtaining in 1916, the quotations ranging 
from 18e. per square inch for pieces 2 by 3 in., down to 
9.4c. in pieces measuring 8 by 10 inches. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20. 1918 

The Price of Mining Explosives 

In his annual address to shareholders of De Beers 
Consolidated Mines (diamond producer), the chairman 
of directors, Capt. Francis Oats, made sundry inter- 
esting remarks on the price of explosives and their effect 
on mining in the Union of South Africa. Before quoting 
him we may mention that the De Beers group of mines, 
at Kimberle}', in South Africa, is the greatest producer 
of diamonds, the output in 1913, the year before the 
"War, being 2,293,000 carats, worth $30,400,000 from 
8,695,000 loads (1600 lb. each). This company controls 
the Cape Explosive Works which in 1917 produced 
437,158 cases of dynamite. He said: 

Thanks to the Cape Explosives Works, which, as you 
know, are entirely owned by De Beers company, the 
mines of South Africa have been kept regularly supplied 
with dynamite, etc., since the commencement of the War, 
and at prices which I am justified in saying will bear 
favorable comparison with those charged at the different 
centres of consumption where our explosives do compete, 
and much more so where they are not allowed to com- 
pete. One may without hesitation say that were it not 
for the existence of our factory, mining operations in 
South Africa would today be seriously curtailed, an 
event that would be greatly detrimental, firstly, to the 
thousands of artisans and other workers employed in 
and affected by the mining industry; and, secondly, to 
the revenue of the State. I dread to think of the prices 
that would have been demanded from consumers of this 
indispensable mining requisite if they had been left to 
the tender mercy of those who controlled the production 
and distribution of explosives before the advent of our 
factory at Somerset West. Let me put before you a few 
interesting facts: Prior to 1899, the price paid in the 
Transvaal for blasting gelatine to Nobels (who had the 
monopoly) had reached as high as £5 7s. 6d. ($25.80) 
per case (50 lb.). When the Transvaal was subsequently 
proclaimed a British colony, the Nobel" monopoly was 
cancelled, with the result that in 1901 the prices dropped 
to 87s.6d. ($21) per case, and in 1902, when our works 
were nearing completion and the shadow of the Somerset 
West factory was already hovering over the horizon of 
the then existing monopoly, it declined to 67s.6d. ($16.20) 
per case. As soon as the Cape Explosives factory en- 
tered the field in 1903, our price worked out at 58s.9d. 
($14.10) per case, delivered in Johannesburg, and in 
subsequent years the prices were as follows: In 1906, 
53s. ($12.72) per case; in 1907, 48s. ($11.52) ; in 1908, 
46s. ($11.04); and in 1911, 45s.6d. ($10.92). At or 
about that figure the price remained until 1913, when it 
rose temporarily to 48s.9d. ($11.70), and then it gradu- 
ally descended until in June 1916 — nearly two years 
after the commencement of the War — it stood at 45s.9d. 
($10.98). Since then the price has slightly risen, owing 
to the high cost of raw materials due to the War. 

The price paid in Bulawayo [Rhodesia] had in 1901- 
'02 reached as high as 80s.3d. ($19.26) per case, but at 
the end of 1903, when the Cape Explosives Works came 

into competition, the figure dropped to 69s. ($16.56) ; 
and in 1907 it was 60s. ($14.40) ; in 1908-10 it was 
49s.3d. ($11.82) ; in 1911- '12, 47s.6d. ($11.40) ; in 1913, 
50s.6d. ($12.12) ; and on June 30, 1916, the price was 
47s.6d. ($11.40) per case. It has slightly risen of late 
for the same reason as applies to the increased prices in 
other markets. 

At Kimberley, before De Beers manufactured its own 
dynamite, there were two classes of explosives used iu 
the mines, which were supplied by the Trust, and the 
respective prices were 65s. ($15.60) and 57s.6d. ($13.80) 
per case. In 1903 De Beers manufactured their 40% 
'ligdyn,' which was sold on delivery at 33s.6d. ($8.04) 
per case. The price gradually dropped until in June 
1916 it stood at 28s. ($6.72) per case delivered. 

From 1903- '07 the price charged at Melbourne, Aus- 
tralia, was 75s. ($18) per case, and during the latter 
year it fell to 70s. ($16.80), and continued at that level 
until the end of 1908. When our company came into 
the Australian market early in 1909, the price dropped 
to 54s.6d. ($13.08) per case delivered, and in June 1916 
it had fallen further to 52s.3d. ($12.54). 

At Broken Hill, New South Wales, in 1905, the price 
was 51s.6d. ($12.36) per case, rising to 67s.6d. ($16.20) 
in 1908 ; but on the entry of our company into competi- 
tion in 1909, the price immediately dropped to 59s. 
($14.16) per case, and on June 30, 1916, our price was 
56s.9d. ($13.62) per case, delivered. John Darling, 
chairman of the Broken Hill Proprietary Co., in a 
speech to the shareholders of that company on February 
25, 1910, said, with reference to the introduction of the 
Somerset West Works explosives into the Australian 
markets : ' It is computed that the saving to the 
mining companies in Australia from this competition 
amounts to no less than £125,000 ($600,000) per annum.' 

In April 1917 the price of the Giant Powder Co. at 
San Francisco for blasting gelatine stood at 100s. ($24) 
per case, while our cost for the 10 months July 1916 
to April 1917 was 42s.l0d. ($10.28) per case, and our 
provisional price to the Johannesburg mining com- 
panies was 43s.6d. ($10.44) per case. 

I wonder what the world would be paying for ex- 
plosives today were it not for the competing influence of 
the De Beers Explosives Works. . . . Roughly speaking, 
the explosives used in South Africa for mining purposes 
are today half the price they were before we commenced 
the erection of our large works at Somerset West. Prices 
charged for explosives in Cornwall, England, are much 
in excess of those' at our factory, notwithstanding the 
fact that wages are much higher in this country (Africa) 
and that we have to pay heavy freights on the raw ma- 
terials. To show the contrast in the figures I will give 
you the following examples: In February last 50% 
gelignite was 60s. ($14.40) per case in Cornwall, and 
our price free on truck at Firgrove was 30s. ($7.20) ; 
75% gelignite in Cornwall was 70s. ($16.80) per case, 
against 38s.3d. ($9.18) at our factory, while gelatine was 
77s.6d. ($18.60) per case in Cornwall, compared with 
43s.6d. ($10.44) at Somerset West. 

July 20, L918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Cyanidation at San Juancito, Honduras 

During 1917 the New York & Honduras Rosario Min- 
ing Co. treated 125.900 tons of ore. This assayed 15.026 
oz. of silver and 0.1165 oz. of gold per toil, equal to 
$9.84. The extraction of silver was ,SS.:!1\ . and of gold 
94%. The cost of treatment was $2.61 per ton. The 20 
stamps weigh 1850 lb. each. The average time of treat- 
ment was as follows: 


Batteries to high agitation-vats (in weak solution) 4.0 

In high .isnoilion-vats (in strong solution) 40.2 

High agitation-vats to filter-presses 12,5 

Total period 50.7 

Chemicals used were 2.463 lb. of sodium cyanide, 0.917 
lb. of zinc-dust (on 18,650 tons), 0.306 lb. of aluminum- 
dust (on 107,250 tons), 1.912 lb. of soda-ash, 0.009 lb. of 
lead acetate, and 17.878 lb. of lime per ton. 

The increasing cost and scarcity of cyanide made it 


imperative that a means be found whereby less of this 
chemical be used, at the same time not decreasing the 
extraction. The substitution of aluminum-dust for zinc- 
dust as a precipitant seemed to solve the difficulty, as it 
is well known that under certain conditions a good deal 
of cyanide is regenerated when aluminum is used. In 
1916 laboratory experiments were under way, and al- 
though these did not prove entirely satisfactory, pre- 
cipitation by aluminum-dust, in place of zinc-dust, was 
nevertheless definitely adopted on a working-scale in 
February 1917. In spite of some discouraging features 
at the outset, one of which at first affected extraction 
somewhat adversely, while another prevented a contem- 
plated increase in the rate of milling, it is pleasing to 
state that aluminum precipitation has proved a most 
important economic success. 

•In comparing the cyanide consumption since the alu- 
minum process was adopted with that of the year 1915, 
when zinc was used entirely, an average saving of 1.215 
lb. per ton of ore is shown. As 107,250 tons of ore has 
been treated under the new process, 130,309 lb. af cya- 
nide has therefore been conserved. 

Using the latest cost of cyanide, aluminum, zinc, and 

soda-ash as a basis, there is a saving of 38 oentavoa i 17.5 
nuts) per ton, and as the decrease of Lime consumption 

from 29.7 lb. per ton in 1916 (when zinc dust was aged I 

to 17.9 lb. per ton in 1917. is almost entirely attributable 
to the adoption of aluminum precipitation, a further 
saving of 20 ccntavos (9.2 cents) per ton has been 
effected, which in all makes a total saving of 58 ccntavos 
(26.7 cents) per ton. 

At the present time improvement in two directions 
presents itself in connection with the aluminum process. 
The first is a saving in aluminum-dust; the second the 
further prevention of incrustation by calcium aluminate 
in the mill-piping. Hopes of success in solving each of 
these problems are entertained, and they will have full 
attention during the current year. 

Melting the precipitate into dore bullion continues to 
be the practice. Since aluminum precipitation was 
adopted more fluxing materials are necessary, but the 
bullion produced is consistently finer, therefore the extra 
cost for flux is somewhat offset. As precipitates by alu- 
minum weigh considerably less than an equal volume 
produced by zinc, it is now even more advantageous to 
do the melting in Honduras instead of shipping the pre- 
cipitate, in spite of increased cost in materials. 

Properties of Electrolytic Copper. Previously pub- 
lished values for the modulus of elasticity having varied 
so much, tests were made by E. Melbourn ('Jour. Brit. 
Inst. Elec. Eng.') to determine it for stranded cables 
under actual working conditions. An experimental span 
of about 150 ft. was set up with specially reinforced ter- 
minal blocks. The wires used were 7 strand, 0.025 sq. in. 
total area ; 7 strand, 0.05 sq. in. ; 19 strand, 0.10 sq. in. ; 
and 37 strand, 0.25 sq. in., bare copper cables. The tests 
were made under the same conditions, namely : 1. The 
points of suspension were leveled with a theodolite. 
2. The span-lengths were pulled up to about 6 in. dip, 
just under one-half the breaking-stress and allowed to 
stand two hours. 3. The strand was then let out to about 
12 in., about one-fifth the breaking-stress, and the dip, 
d 1: at the centre of the span, measured. 4. The span- 
length was then loaded with an extra length of the same 
size strand, and the new dip, d, measured. This was 
equivalent to loading the strand with its own weight of 
ice, distributed over its length. 5. The measurements 
were made in still air, and at the same temperature. 
6. On removing the extra length of strand under (4), 
the original strand returned to dip d 1 under (3), thus 
showing no slipping and no strain beyond the limit of 
proportionality. Still's formula {'WJd^ - (W/d) = 
65 (df -d 2 ) MA/3 1 * was used. From the modulus, M, 
in millions of pounds per square inch was calculated for 
the different cables; M = 20.11 for the 7 strands, 0.025 
sq. in cable ; 19.85 for 7 strand, 0.05 sq. in. cable ; 17.36 
for the 19 strand, 0.10 sq. in. cable ; and 15.46 for the 
37 strand, 0.25 sq. in. cable. From these figures the 
value of M'iov a 61-strand conductor would be 14,000,- 
000, and for the 91 strand conductor, 12,500,000. These 
tests confirm those made by W. B. Woodhouse for values 
under working conditions. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20, 1918 


wet season commences the results of this grouting will 
be shown. 

A metal is an element that forms a base by combining 
with an hydroxyl group or groups. 

Danger signals should always be put in dangerous 
places, and be left there as long as the danger exists. 
but as soon as the danger is removed the sign must be 

Costs of mining companies in South America are con- 
siderably affected by the rate of exchange. In 1917, the 
Chile Copper Co.'s labor charges were increased nearly 
one cent per pound of copper thereby. 

Radio-active ores accelerate the rate of discharge of 
electricity from a charged body, because the rays they 
give off ionize the atmosphere surrounding the charged 
body. Hence an electroscope can measure radio-activity. 

Quicksilver contained in silver metallies of the Kerr 
Lake mine at Cobalt lias averaged 1% per ton of silver, 
or 20 lb. from 2000 lb. This is recovered by a con- 
denser-tube fixed to the air-tight cover on the crucible 

Flotation results at the Burro Mountain copper 
mines of Phelps-Dodge Corporation show that marked 
improvement is not to be expected by variations of re- 
agents, but rather by prolonged or slower treatment. 
This ore contains 1.97% copper. 

Pure nickel does not rust or oxidize; neither will the 
metal tarnish like silver or some of the alloys, such as 
german silver (copper, nickel, zinc). Nickel is prac- 
tically immune from attacks by alkalies, and is largely 
resistant to the action of most acids. 

Burred and defective hand tools are one of the most 
common causes of minor accidents. Foremen and men 
should see that such tools are removed from service, and 
put in good order. Burrs should be dressed off all ham- 
mers and steel, and only 'good order' tools should be 

Oil in shale is considered by some engineers not 
indigenous to the shale from which it can be distilled, but 
was formed elsewhere and then migrated to the shale, 
where it became adsorbed and inspissated, so that it can- 
not be extracted by solvents of petroleum, but must be 
obtained by destructive distillation. 

Water has been a great expense to the Old Dominion 
Co. at Globe, Arizona. As much as 11,500,000 gal. has 
been pumped in a day. In 1917 the maximum flow was 
4,898,393 gal. Pumps installed have a capacity of 
20,000,000 gal. daily. It was found in 1916 that below 
Pinal creek there was an area of exceedingly broken and 
porous ground near the mine, that probably let in water 
from the creek. During 1917, a total of 2015 ft. of holes 
was drilled in the creek-bed, and 23,000 tons of mill 
slime run into the ground through the holes. "When the 

Seemingly empty gasoline cans or tanks are prob- 
ably more dangerous than those filled with gasoline. 
Usually the* can is not entirely emptied, the remaining 
gasoline will vaporize, the vapor will mix with the air in 
the can, and the mixture may easily be explosive. When 
the can is being filled, this mixture is forced out by the 
gasoline and may explode if ignited by a flame or spark 
near the opening. 

Lithium compounds find several important uses ; for 
example, lithium hydroxide is a constituent of the elec- 
trolyte of the Edison storage-battery, and other lithium 
salts are used in pharmaceutical preparations. Metallic 
lithium, a silver-white soft metal, is the lightest of the 
alkali metals — so light that it will float on water. Lith- 
ium colors a flame deep red, and has been used in fire- 
works and signal-rockets, and is otherwise of military 

This simple test for cassiterite, given by F. L. 
Hess, of the U. S. Geological Survey, should be useful 
in prospecting: Place a fragment of the mineral in 
dilute hydrochloric or sulphuric acid with granulated, 
shot, or sheet-zinc. The zinc and the acid rapidly 
evolve hydrogen, which takes the oxygen from the min- 
eral, leaving a coating of tin on the fragment tested. 
Granulated zinc is the best to use, as its small particles 
can be made to touch the specimens at many points, 
thus bringing more of the hydrogen into contact, with 
the molecules of tin-oxide. The reaction is 

4H + Sn0 2 = Sn + 2H 2 
The metallic coating has a dull gray, somewhat leaden 
appearance, but it may be made lustrous by rubbing 
with a soft cloth or with the hand. If the hand is used, 
the characteristic odor given off when tin is rubbed on 
the flesh may be noted. 

Time in mixing concrete in machines is usually guessed 
at by the man in charge. In addition to this, he has 
the following duties: observe the motive power in a 
general way, raise and lower the skip without striking 
careless workmen, supply the proper amount of water 
for the mixture, and, finally, operate the bucket in plac- 
ing the concrete. In addition to all of these he is ex- 
pected to guess to a few seconds the time concrete is in 
the dump. An automatic device, consisting of a small 
gear-wheel that is worked by the main gear on the ma- 
chine, a train of small gears, and a gong, has been tried 
successfully. This batchmeter not only relieves the 
operator of guessing, but the man in charge knows by 
the bell that the materials have been sufficiently mixed. 
One of the most unusual features of this device is the 
effect produced by the ringing of the bell. It seems to 
affect the whole organization in that the men in front of 
the mixer speed-up to receive the coming batch ; also the 
■men behind the mixer are awakened to the fact that their 
material should be in the skip in the next few seconds, 
to prevent delay. 

July 20, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 





Riiilrond Construction. — Willow Greek Notes. 

The $7,000,000 requested by the Alaskan Engineering 
Commission for the year's work for continuing the con- 
struction of the Government railroad was cut to $5,250,000 
by the House Committee on Appropriations. One million 
dollars for development of Matanuska coal for the Navy has 
also passed the House. Both of the bills are awaiting con- 
firmation by the Senate. Work on the Government railroad 
is progressing as rapidly as men can be obtained. Day and 
night shifts are working on the Turnagain Arm division. 
The Dredge 'Sperm' is digging a channel to the site of the 
proposed dock. 

Doheny & Thompson of Montreal, operating the Gold 


Bullion mine under the name of Willow Creek Mines, had a 
small crew doing development during the past winter, and 
began milling ore on May 29. A new penstock has been 
built — giving 14 ft. additional head — and a new turbine in- 
stalled, which is expected to operate to better advantage 
under conditions of water scarcity than the former system, 
also to prolong the milling season, generally lasting 120 
to 140 days from June 1. The mill is equipped with 12 
stamps and 2 Wilfley tables, and has a capacity of 50 tons 
in 24 hours. A cone classifier divides the tailing into 70% 
sand and 30% slime. The former goes to tanks and the 
slime is impounded at present. The sand-leaching plant 
has a capacity of 45 tons per day; 35 tons coming from the 
mill and 10 tons from old material. This plant also treats 
concentrate from the Wilfleys. The company is to install a 
Dorr continuous-decantation plant to treat slime at an early 
date. The mine workings are at an altitude of 4500 ft., and 
the mill 3000 ft. An aerial tram one mile long conveys 
ore from mine to mill. A. T. Budd is manager and N. D. 
Bothwell superintendent. Seventy men will be employed. 

William Martin, of Seattle, largely interested in the Wil- 
low Creek district, will operate the Mabel and Independence 

mines this year, in addition to the Alaska Free Gold. 

The Talkeetna Mining Co.'s property,' on Archangel creek, 
is under lease and bond to W. R. Hocking of Seattle, who 
is now on the ground with men. 

The Willow Creek Development Co., Charles Herron, 
president; Judge David, treasurer; T. Bedell, secretary, will 
do development on the Isaacs group on Reid creek, which is 
under bond to the company. 

L. R. Rinker, of Loveland, Colorado, representing people 
from that district in the New Mabel Mining, Milling & Power 
Co., is in the Willow Creek district. His company has a 
bond on the Arch group and will do development this 

The LeRoi Mines Co. has been organized to develop pros- 
pects on Archangel creek in the Willow Creek district. 
George Carrol is president; Ben Levin, treasurer; R. M. 
Courtnay, secretary; and J. R. Austin, general manager. 
The capital is $300,000, par value $1. 

Placer and Deep Mining Operations. 

Dredging continues unabated in this district. No. 1 boat 
of the Tonopah Placers Co. and a boat of the Powder River 
Gold Dredging Co. are operating in the old channel of the 
Blue river, a little over two miles north of Breckenridge. The 
gold secured is generally round, the nuggets are scarcer 
than in the Swan river and French gulch. No. 2 boat of 
the former company is doing well on leased ground of the 
Farncomb Hill Gold Dredging Co. in the Swan valley. Its 
No. 3 boat and one of the French Gulch Dredging Co. are 
doing well in French gulch. The Tonopah Placers during 
the season of 1917 dug 3,351,821 cu. yd: of ground in the 
beds of three streams producing $451,743 at a cost of 7.6 
cents per yard. 

The Royal Tiger company is operating the old I. X. L. in 
Swan valley, under the management of T. A. Brown. A 
new mill, something out of the ordinary, provides for the 
sorting of lumps of high-grade ore before pulp reaches the 
jigs. The vein, 50 ft. between walls, carries lead and bis- 
muth. If present methods prove satisfactory, a 300 or 400- 
ton plant will be erected. 

Re-timbering of the Cleveland tunnel of the Mattie B. 
Mining Co. has been completed. It passed through an 
80-ft. fault, and recovered the vein. The tunnel cut copper 
ore 300 ft. from the portal. Drifts show it to be 18 to 30 
ft. thick. The ore carries gold, silver, and copper. J. A. 
Hazen is manager. 

Paul Burdette is still working his lease on the vein that 
he followed from the Ella workings into ground owned by 
the Wellington Mines Co. and makes semi-monthly ship- 
ments of lead carbonate ore in carloads. 

The 20-stamp amalgamating and concentrating mill of the 
Big Jesse property has for some time been operated satis- 
factorily on good ore. George F. Roth, of Rochester, New 
York, lately became manager. 

Ray Meyers, William Sauers, and others are to drive a 
drift from the Puzzle Extension lode in Illinois gulch to cut 
the two veins of the Washington property, 200 ft. below the 
level of the present Washington workings. 


MINING and Scientific PRES 

July 20, 1918 

The orebody o£ the Monte Cristo is of blanket type, and 
appears to be from 4 to 7 ft. thick, carrying gold, silver, 
iron, and zinc. The re-modeled mill of the Monte Cristo has 
been in commission for some time, handling ore of the 
Liberty Leasing & Milling Co., of which Frank Peabody is 

The Gold Bond Extension Co. is working claims on Mt. 
Guyot. The principal vein is 4 ft. wide, containing a 2-ft. 
pay-streak. The ore is said to be worth from $50 to $100 
per ton in silver. Monthly shipments during the summer 
will be made from 50 to 75 tons. 

Bllwood & Wiseland recently shipped a carload of good- 
grade silver-lead ore from the Pilot in the Montezuma dis- 
trict. One vein of the Pilot contains arsenic, some of which 
is in the form of long crystals. 

The tunnel of Crown Point, one of the old Union Group 
on Mineral hill, has been put into good repair by G. Calvert 

Zinc, Lead, and Pyrite Mining and Markets. 

Mine operators in the first half of June were apprehensive 
over the possible shut-downs because of low prices for zinc 
ore, poor demand, and a rapidly increasing surplus of con- 
centrate; but were greatly relieved in the second half by 
better prices. On high-grade refinery blende, used in sheet 
and plate mills, the allocated base price of $75 per ton, 60% 
metal, prevailed; but the quantity diverted to this branch 
of the spelter industry was comparatively light, less than 
10 cars weekly. On second and inferior grades the range 
was $45 to $60 per ton, 60% assays, down to $42.50 to $50, 
with a rather indifferent demand for ore prevailing the bet- 
ter part of the month. Low grades were entirely unde- 
sirable in the first two weeks. Independent producers sell- 
ing in the open market contented themselves with restricted 
output and storing in bin, until about mid-month the reserve 
in the field of all grades was in excess of 12,000 tons. It 
was this stock that inspired buyers with the belief that ore 
could be had in quantity at their own offers, but a rapid 
rise in the price of spelter changed the situation completely, 
and prices of concentrate moved with the gain in the price 
of the metal. Several mines in the field that had suspended 
production resumed work, and began recruiting working 
forces to their former strength, a rather difficult undertak- 
ing at present. 

Lead producers had nothing to worry them. The month 
opened at $85 per ton, 80% metal content. Later in June 
offerings were as high as $97.50 on choice lead concentrate, 
and some lots in excess of 80% had been bid in at over 
$100 per ton. The reserve held at the beginning of the 
month, over 2000 tons, was considerably increased, fine 
weather enabling many miners to invade old diggings and 
shallow surface workings from which was culled fair-grade 
lead ore thrown upon the waste-piles many years ago. Pro- 
ducers holding in quantity were not tempted to sell much, 
even when top prices were offered. Producers were san- 
guine that the price would advance over $100 per ton. 
Most of the lead ore that reached rail was sold to the Fed- 
eral Lead Co., which for years has employed .a system of 
paying for it as soon as weights are certified. This method 
is liked by producers, and much competition in bidding for 
lead ore is through this procedure eliminated. 

The demand for iron pyrite continues. The output is 
about 800 tons weekly, nearly all of which comes from the 
zinc-ore refineries in the field. A new sulphuric-acid plant 
is to be constructed at the National Zinc Ore Separating 
Works at Cuba City. It will be able to '--eat 200 tons of 
crude concentrate daily and make 10 tons of commercial 
acid daily. The acid department will be under the direction 
of W. N. Smith, of the Vinegar Hill Zinc mines, general 

manager of this company's producers in both the Missouri 
and Wisconsin fields. 

Deliveries during June to local refineries and to smelters 
out of the field were 16,005 tons of blende, 715 tons of lead, 
and 1992 tons of pyrite. 

.. ..... 


New Mining Districts. — Condition of Gold Mining. 

Cobalt. — Some of the large Cobalt mining companies, 
which are looking for new prospects to develop, are in- 
vestigating properties in the south-eastern portion of Bucke 
township, three miles north of Cobalt. This area may prove 
to be an important extension of the Cobalt field. A con- 
tact-zone occurring on the shore of Lake Temiskaming is 
stated to extend for several miles in a north-westerly direc- 
tion through Bucke. It is characterized by considerable 
faulting, and some promising veins have been discovered. 
The Mining Corporation of Canada has taken an option on 
SO acres in north Cobalt, and is said to be negotiating for 
other properties. Several other deals are pending. Good 
results from the re-opening of the old Green Meehan mine, 
which is now yielding high-grade ore, have helped to stimu- 
late interest in this area. 

The Kenabeck Consolidated Silver Mines, of which high 
expectations were entertained at the outset, has gone into 
liquidation. E. Champagne has been appointed liquidator. 

The Trethewey company of Cobalt has decided to con- 
tinue the shaft on the Castle property at Gowganda, being 
developed to the 3 50-ft. level. 

Porcupine. — All expectations of an early resumption of 
ore treatment at the Dome mill have been abandoned, as 
the company is disposing of its milling supplies, chemicals, 
etc., valued at $300,000. This condition will apply until the 
return of more favorable economic conditions. 

The Vipond-North Thompson is being closed indefinitely, 
and underground operations are being curtailed. 

The Newray mill has been overhauled and is again in 

The Dome Lake has cut a third shoot on the 500-ft. level, 
showing 6 ft. of good ore. A winze will be sunk 100 ft. on 
this. The mill is extracting 90% of the gold. 

At the Davidson the shaft will be deepened to 700 ft. A 
transmission-line is being constructed from South Porcupine 
to supply power, and a larger plant will be installed. David 
Sloan has been appointed manager. 

Promising gold discoveries are reported to have been 
made in the Teddy Bear River district, and a number of 
prospectors have gone in. The Teddy Bear flows into Lake 
Abitibi, and is seven miles west of the Ontario-Quebec boun- 
dary. The formation is stated to be similar to that of the 
Lightning River district, of which it is presumably a con- 

Two Mines Shut-Down Permanently 

As mentioned in the Mining Summary of July 13, the 
shutting-down of the Leadville unit of the U. S. S. R. & E. 
Co. is a big loss to this district, as apart from the monthly 
payroll of $8000, great things were expected from the ex- 
ploitation of the old workings. 

All the known orebodies in the Tucson mine of the Iron 
Silver Mining Co. have been extracted, no new ones have 
been found, so it is to be closed. Salvage of underground 
equipment is now in progress. The Tucson was for years 
one of the most productive mines in the district, shipping 
zinc-lead sulphide ore. The Mikado shaft ground, acquired 
two years ago, is yielding 250 tons of zinc ore daily, but this 
output is to be increased. 

Activity in the manganese properties continues. 

July 20, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Juneau. — Alaska Gold Mines in June milled S2.600 tons 
of $1.25 ore, recovering 83.31%. Tonnages since the be- 
ginning of the year are as follows: 

Month Tons Value per ton 

January 179,300 so. 903 

February 140.305 0.984 

March 160.093 1.114 

April 125.435 1.148 

May 101,200 1,114 

June 82.800 1.250 

For some reason shares recently jumped from $1.25 to 
$3.50. but have eased off to $2.50. 

Kasaan. — The shaft at the Granby Consolidated's It mine 
has been sunk 275 ft., and stations are being cut at the 
85, 170, and 255-ft. levels. Diamond-drilling has been 
started and each level will be prospected. Prom 225 to 
25 5 ft. the shaft was all in ore, and looks promising. 

Ketchikan. — A 100-ton mill, employing gravity and flota- 
tion methods of concentration, is working at the Saltchuck 
property of J. E. Chilberg of Seattle, 60 miles north of this 
place. The first shipment assayed 44% copper, 2 oz. gold, 
14 oz. silver, also some platinum. 


Batesville. — The Chanute Spelter Co. is re-opening a 
manganese mine near here, idle for 3 years. E. W. 
Buskett has a deposit assaying 45% Mn and 2J% Fe. A. 
Miser, of the U. S. Geological Survey, is completing an in- 
vestigation of manganese in this State. 


All copper producers have advanced wages by 50c. per 
day, effective July 1. Men in the Miami district now get 
$5.65 per shift. 

Ajo. — New Cornelia is to start at an early date excavating 
for a 50 0-ton experimental flotation plant to treat its sul- 
phide ore. The machinery has been ordered. In June the 
output of copper was 2,821,676 lb. of cathodes, 935,807 lb. 
of cement metal, and 443,280 lb. in sulphide ore smelted, a 
total of 4,200,763 pounds. 

Bisbee. — The Phelps-Dodge Corporation has made a 
change in its bonus system and started an arrangement 
whereby each man in its employ for one year shall receive 
an additional bonus for each year of service up to a maxi- 
mum of $250, when no additional bonus will be paid. The 
main points are as follows: After July 1, 1918, every em- 
ployee who has remained in the service of the company con- 
tinuously for one year will receive a bonus of $100 upon 
completion of his year's service, and for each additional year 
of continuous service an additional $10 will be paid until 
the annual bonus amounts to $250, when no further in- 
crease will be made in the annual bonus. The bonus is in 
no way related to the wage-rate, or kind of work done. It 
is a flat bonus for continuous service and the same amount 
will be paid to every employee, regardless of his daily wage, 
monthly salary, or nationality. In order to receive the 
bonus employees must remain continuously with the com- 
pany, but time lost on account of sickness or accident will 
not count against them after they return to work. They 
will be allowed to lay-off for a total of 30 days during any 

year's service period, provided written permission is ob- 

Jerome. — The United Verde Extension has blown-in its 
first furnace. 

Johnson. — The Arizona United Mining Co., owner of the 
Republic and Mammoth mines, in Cochise county, states 
that it has terminated the lease made three years ago to 
the Goodrich Lockhart Co., operating as Cobriza Mines De- 
velopment Corporation, and has resumed possession and 
operation of its properties. Heretofore operations con- 
ducted by lessees were limited to mining and shipping high- 
grade direct-smelting ore. The company will enlarge op- 
erations and, in addition to continuing the shipping of rich 
ore, proposes to develop lower grades. During the period 
of operations by lessees, shipments were made of 6500 tons 
per month of 5% copper ore. 


Carwille. — The Yukon Gold Co. has stopped its dredge on 
the Trinity river, and will dismantle it. About three years 
ago the boat was erected in Morrison gulch, near Carrville, 
at large expense. The ground was found to be unpayable, 
so the boat was moved three miles down the river. Here, 
large boulders have interfered with operations and made 
recovery of the gold difficult. The report of this company 
for 1917 makes little mention of any difficulties. 

Yreka. — To assist in mining chrome in Siskiyou county, 
estimated by assistants of Albert Burch of the U. S. Bureau 




of Mines to be 30,000 tons, the Federal government has ap- 
propriated $5000 to $10,000 to aid in improving the road 
from the junction of Little Shasta river with the Klamath 
river, down the latter to Seiad about 5 miles. Siskiyou 
county is also to expend $10,000 on the road, producers 
will pay 4 cents per ton-mile for the chrome hauled over it, 
and as back-loading the auto-trucks will carry material to 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20, 1918 

be used in maintenance. From Little Shasta river to Horn- 
brook on the Southern Pacific, this is part of the State high- 
way from Yreka, which is finished. The haul to Hornbrook 
is easier than to Yreka. 

Copperopolis. — The Napoleon Mining Co., operating at 
Telegraph City, 7 miles west of here, has erected precipi- 
tating boxes, 450 ft. long, to recover copper from rich 
mine-water. The mine is 500 ft. deep, but is only un- 
watered to 200 ft. A new hoist has also been put in, also 
two Diesel engines to drive an Allis-Chalmers ball-mill, two 
concentrators, and an M. S. flotation unit, to dress 90 tons 
of ore daily. The new plant is expected to be ready by 
September. David Coughanour is superintendent of this 
mine, which has a past output of $1,200,000 in copper and 

Sacramento. — In the 'Press' of July 13 it was stated that 
in the dispute between William Hales and others and the 
Central Pacific Railway Co., and the Power Timber Co., 
assignee, the Land Office had decided that miners may file 
mineral claims to railroad lands in California found to con- 
tain chrome. The vital point in the decision was that the 
suit involved unpatented railroad lands. Locations cannot 
be made on patented railroad lands. This suit was started 
a year ago. The locations were the four claims called the 
Iowa Hill Chrome Ore Mines in Placer county. The de- 
fendant contended that the ore was an iron ore. A sample 
from all the claims averaged 45.38% Cr,0 3 and 11.6% Fe. 
The chrome deposits were adjudged to be valuable, but the 
iron content was worthless. 

San Francisco. — Reports filed with the State Mining Bu- 
reau during the week ended July 6 show five new wells 
starting to drill, making a total of 411 since the first of the 
year. There were 597 wells reported for the same period 
of 1917. 


Climax. — According to H. L. Brown, consulting engineer 
for the Climax Molybdenum Co., the mill is to be enlarged 
from 500 to 1000-ton capacity. The present monthly out- 
put is 100 tons of MoS = concentrate, and some difficulty has 
been experienced in marketing it. To move miners from 
one level to another it is said that Otis elevators are to be 
used. This mine is worked through tunnels. 

Cripple Creek. — The Portland company pays 2 cents per 
share on July 25. 

Silverton. — The D. L. & W. Co., operating the Lacka- 
wanna, shipped 3 cars of ore to the Silver Lake mill during 
May and is steadily increasing its output. 

The S. D. & G. Leasing Co., operating the Silver Lake 
Mines, is not shipping much ore at present. 

The Ranchman Mines Co., holding a number of claims in 
this district, has been incorporated with a capital of $250,- 
000. The officers are T. J. Downing, J. E. Burger, F. W. 
Sharp, S. R. Carney, and J. E. Burgess. 

Indications for the present season's output of Silverton 
show that it may exceed that of 1917. 

Telluride. — The Tomboy Gold Mines Co. paid a dividend 
of 12c. per share on June 28. This is equal to $37,200. In 
a circular issued from London on March 19, it was ex- 
plained that the reduced profit was due to labor conditions, 
making it impossible to draw on the better ore in the higher 
levels of the mine. A circular of June 8, just to hand, 
states that the general manager, D. A. Herron, estimates 
general expenses for 191S to be g $74,000 per month, plus 
war taxes of $5000. Average monthly expenses in 1914, 
1915, 1916, and 1917, were $50,000, $59,000, $64,000, and 
$69,000, respectively. To maintain the past monthly profit 
of $30,000 under present conditions would be forcing the 
mine to yield twice the profit earned in 1914, which cannot 
be done. Until conditions are better, the profit will there- 
fore be $10,000 per month. 


Mullan. — The Federal M. & S. Co. earned a profit of 
$134,874 in May. Losses were made in the first two months 
of the year. 

Work at the National copper mine was not suspended as 
reported, bid men are now stoping ore above the 1400-ft. 
level. A winze is to be sunk on ore below 1500 feet. 

Wallace. — All mine employees in the Coeur d'Alene region 
— about 4000 — have been granted a raise of 50c. per day, 
effective July 10. The wage will now be $5.25. 


Butte. — All of the companies here advanced wages 50c. 
per day on July 4, making the average $5.75. A total of 
21,725 people will benefit, receiving $2,750,000 per month. 
A wage increase conference was held in the office of C. F. 
Kelley, vice-president of the Anaconda company. Others 
attending were: W. A. Clark, representing the Clark inter- 
ests; Charles Booking, assistant manager of the Butte & 
Superior; Norman Braly, general manager of the North 
Butte; Oscar Rohn, general manager of the East Butte; 
William L. Creden, general manager of the Davis-Daly; 
Paul A. Gow, general manager of the Tuolumne; Al Frank, 
general manager of the Bullwhacker and Mines Operating 
Co., and a number of Anaconda officials. 

The following is a table of the number of men employed 
by the companies operating in the Butte district, according 
to the 'Butte Miner': 

Company Men 

Anaconda : 

Mines at Butte 10.200 

Office at Butte 500 

Washoe works at Anaconda, including office force of 150, and 

Southern Cross mine 3.600 

Works at Great Falls, including office force of 50 1.850 

Total Anaconda 16.150 

Butte & Superior 1.600 

North Butte 1.400 

East Butte 950 

w. A. Clark interests: 

Elm Orlu mine 500 

Timber Butte mill 250 

Ancient mine 20 

Travona mine 30 

Moulton mine 20 

Butte Reduction tailing 10 

Total Clark 850 

Davis-Daly 400 

Tuolumne 65 

Butte & Ramsdell '. 40 

Butte-Bullwhaeker 35 

Butte-Duluth Mines Operating Co 30 

Butte-Detroit Copper & Zinc 15 

Great Butte 10 

Office men from all mining companies, excepting Anaconda 200 

Total number Butte. Anaconda, and Great Falls employees 21.725 

Total Butte (exclusive of lesees) 16.275 

Total Anaconda 3.600 

Total Great Falls 1,850 

Mr. Kelley stated that the advance in copper to 26c. per 
pound serves only to give miners and other employees of 
the companies increased wages, and to enable the mining 
interests to meet the additional freight rate, which, in the 
case of the Anaconda company alone means an extra ex- 
pense of $3,000,000 per year. Therefore one cent of the 
2*c. higher price for copper goes to the railroads, and 
another cent to the increase of wages. The present wage 
contracts with all organized crafts will continue until July 
1919. This increase is voluntary and does not abrogate 
these contracts. When the price of copper was fixed by the 
Government at 233c, a stipulation was entered into with 
the Government that wages would not be reduced. As the 
then current price was about 2 6*c. this fixed the wage scale 
at 25c. per day above the contract schedule. The increase 
in wages now given establishes a scale that under the con- 
tracts with employees would only prevail when copper sold 

July 20, L918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


between 20 and 31c, and inuieases the differential to 500j 
per day above the contract schedule. The net result ol t ho 
increased price, therefore, so far as the Butte district is 
concerned, is to distribute the bulk of it at once to the rail- 
roads and employees. Notwithstanding this fact, all of the 
operators expressed themselves as willing to meet the situa- 
tion, and are pleased that the Government has enabled them 
to provide for the increased freight charges and to make a 
substantial increase in the wage-scale. 

rhillipsburg. — Timbering in the shaft of the Jackknife 
manganese mine collapsed at a depth of 60 ft. on July 9, 
entombing seven miners under 40 tons of debris. Seventy 
men formed a rescue-corps and released the men late the 
next day. Food and water was given them through pipes. 


Rochester. — The Nevada Packard Mines Co. has issued its 
report for the year ended June 1, 1918. The general super- 
intendent is H. G. Thomson; mine superintendent, C. L. 
Holmlin; assayer and chemist, Waterfield Painter; and ac- 
countant, R. B. Adams. Earnings totaled $235,910, of 

0> Q 

which 548,373 was profit. Current assets amount to $49,- 
272, and liabilities $24,188. Development covered 2659 ft. 
This resulted in opening three important orebodies. A 
shaft is being sunk in the sheared zone along the contact- 
fault. This has cost $31 per foot. At 9 6 ft. a 4-ft. forma- 
tion of sericite-schist was cut, assaying $4 per ton. The 
opening of a' large lens of residual primary ore, the first 
sulphide ore in the property, was an important development. 
No estimates of reserves is possible, owing to the peculiarity 
of the ore. The mill treated 31,390 tons of $8.63 ore, ex- 
tracting 88.5%. This yielded 250,387 oz. of silver and 357 
oz. of gold. Mining cost $1,342; milling, $2,029; develop- 
ment, $1,521; and marketing bullion 11.1 cents, a total of 
$5,003 per ton. In 1916-'17 extraction was 86.8%, yielding 
339,062 oz. of silver and 617 oz. of gold, and total costs 
$5.42 per ton. Merrillite was substituted for Japanese zinc- 
dust for precipitation, ending all troubles in that depart- 
ment. Cyanide on hand amounts to 19 tons, equal to 15 
months' supply. The report for May 1918 shows an ex- 
traction of 91.5%, the highest since October 1916. All 
costs were 5 cents per ton lower than in April. 

The Rochester Combined Mines Co.'s 300-ton mill is ready 
to start. This was designed by K. Freitag. There is said to 
be 200,000 tons of $12 silver-gold ore in reserve. 

Round Mountain. — With a population of only 200, and 
63 miles from rail, this place has subscribed $24.94 per head 
to the War Savings Stamps drive. To the Three Liberty 

Loans llioy subscribed $92,900, and to the lied Cross $1238. 
Altogether the per capita subscriptions to the War is 
$496.54. The Round Mountain Mining Co. is the prl 
operator here. 

Tonopah.- Minors in the Victor shaft of the Tonopah 
Extension downed tools on July 9, demanding $7 per shift 
instead of $6, on account of their special skill. The com- 
pany refuses to acquiesce, considering the demand as un- 


Douthat. — A 500-ton (in 10 hours) plant is being erected 
by J. J. McLellan and Ray Munson to dress tailing at one 
of the Admiralty Zinc Co.'s dumps. Assays show up to 
5% zinc and lead. Equipment includes four sets of rolls, 
two rougher-jigs, one chat rougher or sand jig, one 7-cell 
cleaner-jig, 10 sludge-tables, and a flotation plant. 

Richer. — Production of the mines last week was 33 86 
tons of blende and 595 tons of lead, worth $264,297. 

A 250-ton mill is being erected for the Miami Wonder 
company. Rich ore has been opened at a depth of 208 ft. 
A. V. Ellis is superintendent. 

The Jefferson Mining Co. has purchased machinery for a 
3 00-ton mill to be erected near here. At a depth of 230 
ft. there is a 12-ft. face of rich ore. A. B. Clark of St. Louis 
is president. 


Jacksonville. — The Blue Ledge, Copper King, and several 
properties in the Blue Ledge district are producing copper 
ore running over 12%. The wagon haul to Jacksonville 
costs $10. per ton. The yield this season from the district is 
expected to be considerable. It is reported that flotation 
plants will be erected at several of these properties. 


Dividends paid by Utah companies in the first half of 1918 
totaled $9,306,570, compared with $15,242,845 in this 
period of 1917. The list is as follows: 


share Total 

Bingham Mines.. SI. 50 S143.000 

Chief Con 0.20 176,840 

Daly 0.20 30.000 

Dragon Con 0.02 37.500 

Eagle & Blue Bell 0.20 180.000 

Grand Central. . . 0.05 30,000 

Iron Blossom.... 0.02^ 25,000 

Judge 0.25 120,000 

Bingham. — The Utah Copper Co. has raised the wages of 
4500 men 50c. per day, effective July 1. 

Garfield. — The A. S. & R. Co. has raised wages at this 
and its Murray smelter 50c. per shift; 2500 men benefit 

Salt Lake City. — Ore producers and smelters in this State 
may quarrel over the increased rates and penalties being or 
to be levied by the smelters. A Federal mediator may be 
asked to investigate. 

Tintic. — This district produced 200,000 tons of ore, worth 
$6,000,000, during the first half of 1918. In the same 
period of 1917 the output was about 240,000 tons. There 
are 40 mines shipping at present, led by the Dragon, Chief, 
Iron Blossom, Eagle & Blue Bell, Tintic Standard, Centen- 
nial, Grand Central, Mammoth, Colorado, Gemini, Gold 
Chain, and Victoria. 

The Chief Consolidated company recently acquired 125 
acres of land, formerly embraced by the North Godiva 
property. For this, $50,000 was paid. The Chief now owns 
about 859 miles in this district. Another large working 
shaft is to be sunk on the Crusader claim, a half-mile east 
of the present main shaft. It will be sunk to 2000 ft., and 
will be 17 ft. 4 in. by 6 ft. 2 in., with three compartments. 
Walter Fitch, Inc., will do this work. A hoist from one of 


share Total 

Ontario $0.50 S75.000 

Pacific 0.01 4,000 

Silver King Con.. 0.10 70.000 

Tintic Standard.. 0.09 105.730 

Utah Con 0.50 150.000 

Utah Copper 5.00 8.122.500 

Western Utah. 0.07 Vj 37.000 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20, 1918 

the other shafts will be used to 600 ft., after which a large 
one, on order, will be used. 

The Chief Consolidated M. Co. almost finished putting in 
its electric pumps of 2000-g.p.m. capacity. Water from the 
lower levels will be raised to 1S00 ft., then to 1200 ft., 600 
ft., and the surface. The water-column is 8 in. diameter. 
Some of the water is to be used for Are protection. 


British Columbia 
Trail. — An increase of wages has been demanded by em- 
ployees of the Consolidated M. & S. Co. at several of its 
mines. In most instances the miners have accepted the com- 
pany's offer of substituting the Rossland mines scale in the 
lead mines, which means an increase of approximately 15c. 
per day. Some, however, have refused this proposal. At 
the Sullivan mine, at Kimberley, an increase of 50c. was 
asked, which would give muckers $4.15 and miners $4.65 
per day. 

Three Porks. — During its past financial year the Rambler- 
Cariboo Mines received $78,785 from sales of lead and zinc 
ore and concentrate. A dividend absorbed $17,500. The 
balance is $20,832, about $1000 less than the previous one. 
There was mined 9500 tons, yielding 580,990 lb. of lead, 
163,576 lb. of zinc, and 78,529 oz. of silver. The superin- 
tendent, W. A. Cameron, is hopeful about the mine, which 
has sufficient ore for two years' operation of the mill. 


Cobalt. — Silver output of the Kerr Lake mine in May was 
268,213 oz., a record. There are 55 men employed. 

Porcupine. — The Schumacher gold mine is to be closed 
until conditions are more favorable. Labor is scarce and 
supplies not only high in price, but some are most difficult 
to obtain. 

The Teck-Hughes Gold Mines company has decided to 
close its property until conditions improve. The directors 
fully considered 'selective mining,' that is, extracting and 
milling the best ore, but after consulting expert advice they 
concluded that this would not be in the best interests of the 
company. Cash resources are small and not sufficient to 
carry on development for many weeks. 

Port Colborne. — The International Nickel Co.'s new re- 
finery here commenced operations last week. 


Dawson. — Hydraulicking on Last Chance creek started 
on about May 17. The Yukon Gold Co.'s plants on Bonanza 
were expected to commence soon after. 


Santa Eulalia. — The Buena Tierra Mining Co. has issued 
its reports for 1917. Political conditions in this State made 
it impossible to operate during the period, but as the A. S. 
& R. Co. was to re-start its smelter at Chihuahua in April 
of 1918, the management prepared to re-open the mine. 
Ore-reserves remain at 281,500 tons of lead ore, and the 
pnysical condition of workings and plant is good. Ex- 
penses in Mexico last year totaled $16,721. A. C. Brinker is 
general manager, and R. M. Raymond consulting engineer. 

Applications for fellowships in the College of Mines, 
Seattle, University of Washington, and the Pacific North- 
west Experiment Station, U. S. Bureau of Mines, will be re- 
ceived during the summer, the time for filing having been 
extended in order to meet the changes in personal plans 
incident to war service. Each fellowship has a value of $60 
per month. Holders become candidates for the degree of 
master of science in mining engineering or metallurgy. 
Graduates in science as well as technology may apply. 


I M l ! 

Note. The Xbtior invites members o/ the profession to send particulars nj their 
work and appointments. This information is interesting to our readers. 

J. M. Callow is at Ray, Arizona. 

C. O. Lindberg, of Los Angeles, is here. 
John A. Rice is at Bully Hill, California. 
Albert Burch has gone to Butte, Montana. 

Gerard Lovell has arrived in London from Australia. 

B. H. Dosenbach, of Butte, has been here on a short visit. 
Frederick Bradshaw, of Tonopah, spent a few days in 

San Francisco. 

J. M. Manson, of the Western Ore Purchasing Co., Hazen, 
Nevada, is here. 

L. P. S. Holland has returned to Los Angeles from 
Boulder, Colorado. 

Richard Snell has returned from the Butters Divisadero 
mines in Costa Rica. 

James S. Wroth has been appointed First Lieutenant in 
the Engineer Officers Reserve. 

D. H. Angus has resigned as manager of the Tough-Oakes 
mine at Kirkland Lake, Ontario. 

Henry J. Russell, of Denver, president of the U. S. Rare 
Minerals Co., was here last week. 

A. R. Globe, for several years assistant manager of the 
Hollinger at Porcupine, has resigned. 

C. M. Eye, of Baguio, Philippine Islands, has been to 
Tientsin, Peking, and Tsingtau, China. 

Chauncey L. Berrien, formerly at Anaconda, has been 
promoted to Major in the Aviation Service. 

D. A. Mutch has been appointed manager of the Coniagas 
company's Ankerite mine at Cobalt, Ontario. 

P. W. Bradley is making his periodical visit of inspection 
to the Treadwell and Juneau mines in Alaska. 

H. Hardy Smith, recently at the Suan mine, in Korea, is 
now with the Huchang Mining Co., in the same region. 

Robert E. Tally, mine superintendent for the United 
Verde Copper Co., at Jerome, Arizona, is at the St. Francis 

Francis C. Lincoln, professor of mining and metallurgy 
in the University of Nevada, is now at Long Beach, Cali- 

L. J. Mayreis has resigned the position of assistant resi- 
dent manager of the Burma Mines Ltd. He left for New 
York in June. 

Byron E. Janes, graduate mining engineer from the Uni- 
versity of California, was killed at the El Tigre mine, 
Sonora, Mexico, on July 10. 

D. C. Livingstone, representing the Idaho School of MineB, 
is on the north fork of the Coeur d'Alene river making an 
investigation of rare metals. 

Seeley W. Mudd has been promoted to Colonel in the En- 
gineer Officers Reserve Corps. He is on the New Hampshire 
coast convalescing from a recent illness. 

Theodore Pilger, formerly with the Butte & Superior 
Mining Co. as mining engineer and geologist, has estab- 
lished an office as consulting engineer at Archangel, Alaska. 

Elder Nance has just returned from the Orsk goldfield in 
Siberia. Conditions there have not been affected much by 
the War, save that labor is scarce and money transactions 
are difficult. 

G. A. Roush, assistant professor of metallurgy in Lehigh 
University, and editor of 'The Mineral Industry,' has been 
appointed Supervisor of Training for the Inspection Division 
of the Ordnance Department. 

Julv 20. 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



! ;f 


San Francisco, July 16 

Aluminum-dust, large and small lots, cents per lb t 

Antimony (wholesale), cents per pound 

Copper, electrolytic, tents per pound, in carload lots 

Copper, electrolytic, cents per pound, in small quantities.... 

Lead. pig. cents per pound 8.30- 

Plalinum, Government price, per ounce 

Quicksilver, per ft ask of 75 lb 

Spelter, cents per pound 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 


July 16 

Antimony, 45% metal, f.o.b. California, per unit 

Chrome, 38 to 48%, California, per unit $1.25 — SI. 50 

Magnesite. crude, California, per ton (nominal price) 57.00 — $8.00 

Manganese, domestic, 35 to 54%, f.o.b. South Chicago, per 

unit (Government price, effective May 29) SO. 86 — SI. 30 

Manganese, domestic, 35 to 54%, f.o.b. east of South Chicago, 

per unit (Government price, effective May 29) SI. 01 — $1.45 

t Manganese, domestic, penalty of 50c. to $1 per ton for 
8% and up to 25% silica, and bonus of 50c. to $1 for 
less than S and 5%.) 

Molybdenite, per lb., 90% MoS a -. $1.25 

Pynte. per unit of sulphur, cents 28 

Tungsten. 60% W0 3 , California, per unit S20 — $24 

Aluminum and bauxite in 1917 has just been issued by the U. S. 
Geological Survey, In the chapter is a list of consumers of the ore 

'Chromite.' a 30-page pamphlet by Albert Burch and S. H. Dolbear. is 
now ready, and may be secured free upon request. 

The restriction on the import of graphite has been extended by the 
War Trade Board, effective for all 1918. Investigation shows that stocks 
and domestic production will suffice for requirements well into 1919. 

The War Trade Board has amended the restriction on the importation 
of manganese to permit its importation, under the back-haul proviso, per- 
mitting its importation when shipped as return cargo from Europe and 
the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and when shipped from convenient 
ports where loading can be done without delay. Importations of man- 
ganese ore from the Far East have, by another ruling, been prohibited as 
to ocean shipments made on and after July 20, 1918; and, to make this 
ruling effective, all outside licenses for the importation of manganese from 
those countries have been revoked as to ocean shipment on and after 
July 20. Adequate supplies can be obtained, it has been found, from 
sources nearby, entailing far less strain upon present shipping resources. 


(By wire from New York) 
opper is quiet. Lead is scarce and strong. 

July 16. — C 
though steady 

Spelter is dull. 


On September 21, 1917, the Government -fixed copper prices at 23.50c. 
per lb. for large lots, and 24.67 %c. for small lots, effective until June 1, 
1918. On this date the prices were re-fixed until August 15; but on 
July 2 the price was increased to 26c. and 27.30c, respectively, until 
August 15. Quotations in cents per pound are as under: 

July 10 26.00 June 

11 26.00 

" 12 26.00 

" 13 26.00 

14 Sunday July 

15 26.00 

" 16 26.00 

Monthly averages 

Average week ending 

4 23.50 

11 23.50 

IS 23.50 

25 23.50 

2 23.50 

9 26.00 

16 26.00 






Jan. . . 

. ..24.30 




Feb. . . 

. . .26.62 





Meh. . . 

. ..26.65 



Sept. . . 



Apr. . . 

.. .28.02 



Oct. . . 

. . .28.50 


May . . 

.. .29.02 





June . . 

. . . 27.47 



Dec. . . 

. . .32.89 



Refined copper output of the United States for the first half of 1918 
totals 1,220,000,000 lb., compared with 1,270,000.000 lb. in this period 
of 1917. 

Copper production from some of the mines in June was as under: 

Mine Pounds 

Anaconda 25,800,000 

Arizona 3,700,000 

Calumet & Arizona.... 4,232,000' 

Chino 6,706.000 

East Butte 1,999,000 

Braden 8.292.000 

Greene-Can ane a 4,100.000 

Inspiration 10,300.000 

Iron Cap 850,000 

Mine Pounds 

Kennecott 4.044.000 

Miami 4.692.000 

Nevada 7,250.000 

Old Dominion 3,368.000 

New Cornelia 4,212.000 

Ray 7,737.000 

Shannon 672.000 

Shattuck 805,000 

Utah 18.500.000 


Below are given official (not Government) quotations, in cents per 
ounce of Bilver 999 fine. In order to make prompt settlements with 
smelters and brokers, producers allow a discount from the Government 
price of $1. hence the lower price. The Government has not fixed the 
general market price at $1, but will pay this price (as from April 23, 
1918) for all silver purchased by it. The equivalent of dollar silver 
(1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 pence per ounce (925 fine), cal- 
culated at the current rate of exchange. 






ew York, 
















rage week ending 











. .85.04 

SI. 10 


Silver dollars representing S64.000.000 have been melted and silver cer- 
tificates of S58.000.000 destroyed, to the first week in July. 

A conference of all assayers in charge of the United States Assay Offices 
will he held at Carson. Nevada, in September, to discuss the provisions 
of the Silver Purchase bill, according to announcement made by Raymond 
T. Baker, director of the Mints. He says that there are many points to 
be considered under the Bill, and it is necessary to establish uniform rules 
for carrying out its provisions in all parts of the country: hence the con- 
ference. Mr. Baker will preside at the meeting and a number of other 
important questions in connection with the handling of the country's 
silver will be discussed. 


Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. Government 
metal receives 7c. per lb. until August 6. Early in July producers agreed 
to fix prices at 7.90c. per lb.. New York, plus the extra freight. 






14 Sunday 






. 6.96 

. 6.23 

. 7.26 

. 7.70 

. 7.38 

June 6.88 






. . 8.05 
. . 8.05 
Monthly averages 

Average week ending 











. 6.40 

. 6.28 

. 6.86 

. 7.02 

. 7.07 

. 7.65 



Zinc is quoted as Bpelter, Btandard Western brands. New York delivery, 
in cents per pound. On May 25. 1918. the Government fixed prices until 
September for grade A spelter at 12c. per lb. for itself and the open market. 
Lower grades can make their own prices as usual. Sheet-zinc is fixed at 
15c, and plate at 14c. per pound. 

July 10 . 




14 Sunday 







Average week ending 






Jan 18.21 

Feb 19.99 

Mch 18.40 

Apr 18.62 

May 16.01 

June 12.85 








. . 8.75 
. . 8.75 
Monthly averages 


Nov 11.81 

Dec 11.26 


. 9.90 

. 9.03 

. 9.18 




. 7.68 

. 7.70 

. 8.18 

. 8.78 

. 8.85 

. 8.78 


The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco, California beini* 
the largest producer. The price is fixed in the open market, according to 
quantity. The Government is taking 40% of the United States quicksilver 
output, paying therefor S105 per flask. Outside of thiB business the com- 
petitive market can make any price as usual. Prices, in dollars per flask 
of 75 pounds: 

Date I July 2 120.00 

June 18 110.00 " 9 120.00 

25 110.00 I " 16 120.00 

Monthly averages 


Jan 222.00 

Feb 295.00 

Mch 219.00 

Apr 141.60 

May 90.00 

June 74.70 




July 81.20 

Aug 74.50 

Sept 75.00 

Oct 78.20 

Nov 79.50 

Dec 80.00 



Prices in New York, in cents per pound. These prices are nominal. 
Monthly averages 


Jan 41.76 

Feb 42.60 

Mch 60.60 

Apr 61.49 

May 49.10 

June 42.07 




July 38.37 

Aug 38.88 

Sept 36.66 

Oct 41.10 

Nov 44.12 

Dec 42.55 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20. 1918 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, July 10. 

None of the markets is particularly active; all are fairly 

The 2jc. advance in the price of copper gives general 

Tin is very quiet and without feature. 

Lead is strong and inactive with the New York price ad- 
vanced 15 points. 

Zinc is quite inactive again but firm in price. 

Antimony is unchanged and dull. 

Disagreement on all the products considered was the 
outcome of the conference in Washington, July 3, between 
steel-makers and a special price-fixing committee. The 
makers of rails were at odds as between J 57 and $6 0, the 
former satisfactory to the large interests. The Government 
proposed a much lower price. A meeting of steel-makers 
alone in New York on July 15 will attempt an agreement. 
The steel industry as a whole continues to make an un- 
expectedly good response to the call for war steel, aided 
particularly by cool weather. There are also indications of 
a better morale among the workers at iron and steel plants, 
stimulated by the zeal of the ship-workers. The large new 
locomotive plant at Chicago for the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works has taken shape in the inquiry before fabricators for 
10,000 tons of material. 


As already indicated, in a late addition to the report of 
last week, the Government maximum price of copper was 
advanced 2ic. per lb. to 26c, as a result of the Washington 
meeting on July 2. It is now stated that this was to be- 
come effective on that day and to continue until August 15. 
The President is understood to have promulgated the new 
schedule officially. Not only was the increase a surprise, 
coming as suddenly as it did, but the extent of it was more 
than had been expected, no more than 2 5c. having been 
spoken of generally. The fact that the matter came up so 
suddenly and that it was moved forward for consideration 
from August 7 to July 2, leads to the conclusion that the 
Government had facts before it warranting the decision 
made. What these actually were, and what went on behind 
the scenes, is not publicly known. A representative of a 
large producer and seller told your correspondent today in 
substance what follows: Probably the new freight rates 
precipitated the matter, adding as they do to the cost of 
producing copper in many ways. Besides this, since the 
23.50c. price was fixed last September, there have been 
advances in wages by many companies, and more are to 
come. The question of a proper or an increased recompense 
to refiners because of higher costs was another factor. The 
new increase will probably be absorbed largely by the 
higher costs so that low-cost companies will really be no 
better off than when 23.50c. price and lower freights pre- 
vailed. The possibility was mentioned that the new level 
would ensure the small producer a fair profit so as to keep 
them operating and thus make sure their needed output of 
about 100,000,000 lb. per year. That the present produc- 
tion is not as large as may be required, since the demand 
and consumption are increasing rather than otherwise, may 
have been a factor also in the deliberation. There is talk 
of a 27c. price after August 15, and it is stated that there 
is to be a meeting on August 7 to consider the basis to be 
established after August 15. The jobbing price is now 
27.30c. per lb. in 5-ton lots or less, or 5% over the car-load 
price. It is almost self-evident that a much better feeling 
prevails in the industry. There is a good deal of confusion 

as to just how the new price affects copper already sold, but 
no definite understanding has been heard. 


Practically no business has been done in the last week, 
and the market is quite bare of news or developments. 
Occasional lots, for future shipment from the Far East, 
have been sold, but they have been in small quantity and 
of no particular significance market-wise. They went at 
about 86 to 86. 50c. per lb. There is nothing more heard 
about price-fixing, and there is no news as to supplies of 
the metal. There have been more arrivals of Banca tin at 
Pacific ports. Buyers are not endeavoring to purchase, 
knowing that there is little use in pushing matters. Ar- 
rivals at Atlantic ports up to July 8 inclusive had been 445 
tons, with 13 25 tons reported as having come in at Pacific 
ports. There is no estimate published as to the quantity 
afloat. The London market has advanced lately, and is now 
at £345 per ton for spot Straits as against £332 10s. a week 


The new freight rates continue to cause confusion and 
changes in the market. Due to an adjustment on account 
of this, the lead producers have advanced the New York 
price to 8.05c, or 15 points above that of last week, with 
no change in the St. Louis price, which still stands at 7.75c. 
per lb. In this connection it is interesting to note that be- 
fore the 25% increase in freight rates was authorized, the 
rate from St. Louis to New York was 19Je. per 100 lb. It 
is now 35c, with that from Omaha 27c per 100 lb. The 
new New York price is therefore an average between these, 
or 30 points above the St. Louis price as a base. As to the 
market in general, it is the same old story — very quiet but 
very firm. There is undoubtedly a scarcity and producers 
are well sold up. Everybody is trying to prevent the mar- 
ket going to premiums by keeping it at quoted prices, so as 
to forestall Government-fixed levels. 


The market has become dead and devoid of interest after 
the late advance and the fairly large buying, especially by 
the Government. There has not been enough buying to 
really test the market. It may be quoted nominally at 
8.85c, New York, or 8.60c per lb., St. Louis, for prime 
Western for July or early delivery, with a slight premium 
for August and September. One large dealer quotes 8.55 
to 8.62§c, St. Louis, for all of the third quarter, but re- 
ports no business. There is very little desire to buy or sell. 

Grade A zinc is fixed at a maximum price of 12c per lb. 
Sheet-zinc is regulated at a 15c per lb. maximum with 
plate-zinc at 14c per pound. 


The market is quiet at 13 to 13.25c, New York, duty 
paid, for prompt and early delivery. There have been a 
few sales of 25-ton and smaller lots. 


Government maximum prices continue for No. 1 virgin 
metal, 98 to 99% pure and for scrap, at 33c. per lb. for 
lots of 50 tons and over, at 33.10c per lb. for 15 to 50-ton 
lots and at 33.20c. per lb. for lots of 1 to 15 tons. 


The market is nominal at $1.25 per lb. of MoS. in 90% 
concentrate. It is stated that most of the Canadian molyb- 
denite has been contracted for shipment abroad. 

July 20, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


Mining Decisions 

"Mineral" Denned Judicially 

The term "mineral." when employed in conveyancing, is 
understood to include every inorganic substance which can 
be extracted trom the earth for profit, whether it be solid, 
as stone, fire-clay, the various metals and coal, or liquid, as 
tor example salt and other mineral waters and petroleum 
oil, or gaseous, unless there are words qualifying or limiting 
its meaning, or unless trom the deed, read and construed as 
a whole, it appears that the intention was to give the word 
a more limited application. 

Horse Creek Land & Mining Co. v. Midkiff (West Vir- 
ginia), 95 South-Eastern, 26. 

Book Reviews 

Coal Lands — Disqualified Holder May Transfer 

One disqualified from holding title to coal lands could re- 
ceive a title from the lawful owner thereof and transfer it 
to another who is legally qualified to hold it — in other 
words, could act as an intermediary for conveyances. 

Ketchum Coal Co. v. Pleasant Valley Coal Co. (Utah), 
16S Pacific, 86. 

Oil and Gas Lease — Rights of Lessee Prior to Discovery 

The lessor under an oil and gas lease is the only person 
who can take advantage of a provision in a lease providing 
for a forfeiture thereof for failure of lessees to comply with 
its terms. While the lessees acquire no vested estate in the 
premises prior to the discovery of oil or gas, yet they have 
the right to the possession of the land to the extent reason- 
ably necessary to perform the obligations imposed upon 
them by the terms of the lease. 

Brennan v. Hunter (Oklahoma), 172 Pacific, 49. April 
9, 1918. 

Coal Lands — Excessive Entries — Cancellation 

In determining the validity of patents to coal lands, where 
it appeared that the entries were all made in pursuance of a 
scheme by arX association of persons to obtain more land 
than allowed by law, the validity of any one or more of the 
several patents cannot be determined apart from the general 

United States v. Kirk (Colorado), 248 Federal, 30. 

Oil Lease — "Net Proceeds" Defined 

Where an oil lease indicated that net profits were to be 
determined by deducting from the gross income only the 
royalty and operating expenses as distinguished from capital 
expenses, the words "net proceeds," as used in a modifying 
clause, providing that after the first four years at least half 
of a certain 15% of the net proceeds derived from the busi- 
ness should be paid to the plaintiff, meant net profits as 
above defined. . 

Nathan v. Porter (California), 172 Pacific, 170. 

Oil and Gas Lease— Royalties — Forfeiture Waived 

Where an oil and gas lease provided that royalties should 
be deposited to the credit of the lessor in a specified bank, 
the lessor constitutes the bank as his agent and if the bank 
accepts the lessees check for royalties several days after 
they are due under the lease, the lessor is bound by the 
acceptance and cannot forfeit the lease for non-payment 
within the stipulated time. 

Beatty Oil & Gas Co. v. Blanton (Kentucky), 245 
Federal 979. 

Accounting: Theory and Practice. A first-year text by 
R. B. Kester. Pp. 607, index. The Ronald Press Co., New 
York, 1918. For sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press.' 
Price, $2.50. 

Looking at this subject from the standpoint of a mining 
company, we would say that this book will be found useful. 
During the course of a year we study and abstract from the 
balance-sheets of several hundred companies, whose account- 
ing is based on the fundamentals discussed in the new work. 
The author says that this is an effort to supply a field rather 
barren of text-books for students of first-year accounting. 
Most students entering college do not have a knowledge of 
bookkeeping, while in some schools a knowledge of such is 
a prerequisite ro entrance on the study of accounting. Be- 
tween bookkeeping and accounting there seems to be no 
difference; it means the same thing. We consider that this 
volume is more than a first-year text, that is, it will do ad- 
mirably for such a purpose, also for those experienced in 
the profession of accountancy. 

A Handbook of Briquetting. By G. Franke. Translated 
by Fred. C. A. H. Lantsberry. Pp. 631, 9 plates,_ 225 ill., 
index. J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1917. For sale 
by 'Mining and Scientific Press.' Price, $5. 

This book is Vol. I of a handbook originally written by 
Professor Franke of the Bergakadamie of Berlin. The work 
is intended not only as a text for instruction but as a prac- 
tical guide for actual briquetting of coals and other fuels. 
The second volume will follow shortly and it is complete in 
itself, and either volume will be sold separately. It is the 
most exhaustive treatise on the subject probably to be found 
in the language, and will be of great value to engineers en- 
gaged in conservation problems, which are becoming more 
and more urgent. The historical account is interesting, but 
the larger value lies in chapters dealing with crushing, 
mixing, warming, drying, kneading, and heating coals, 
together with the binding materials used in briquetting, 
followed by an elaborate discussion of all the forms of 
presses in common use before the War. A large number of 
briquetting factories are described in detail, aided by work- 
ing plans. The estimates of cost have only a relative value, 
but the comparison of economies obtained will apply, with 
altered figures, at the present time. The application of 
briquettes both for domestic use and industrial operations 
is discussed in great detail. The treatise on briquetting of 
coal is followed by chapters on briquetting of waste coke, 
waste brown coal, peat, sawdust, waste wood, and other 
organic materials. A brief discussion is also given- to 
briquetting as applied to inorganic non-metallic materials, 
and the briquetting of salts. The book should attract a 
great deal of attention from engineers at the present time. 

Fuel Economy in the Operation of Hand-Fired Power- 
Plants. Circular No. 7 of the University of Illinois Engi- 
neering Experiment Station. Urbana, April 1918. 

There are two possible results of the probable fuel short- 
age next winter; either certain industries must close down 
or more work must be done with the coal available. This 
90-page booklet, printed in four colors, shows that the av- 
erage small power-plant can save 15% of its fuel by the 
exercise of greater care in equipment and operation. This 
means a saving of 12 or 13 million tons per annum if applied 
throughout the country. Important considerations are the 
coal, principles of firing, boilers and stacks, feed-water, 
steam piping, and record of operations. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20, 1918 

Company Reports 


Properties: mines and works at Bisbee, Douglas, Morenci, 
Prescott, and Tombstone, Arizona; at Dawson and Tyrone, 
New Mexico; and at Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico. 

Operating Officials: at Copper Queen Branch: G. H. 
Dowell, manager; Gerald Sherman, superintendent of mines; 
and H. H. Stout, superintendent of reduction works. At 
Merenci Branch (Detroit): M. H. McLean, manager; V. P. 
Hastings, smelter superintendent. At Burro Mountain 
Branch: E. M. Sawyer, manager. At Copper Basin Branch: 
A. B. Peach, acting superintendent. At Stag Canon Branch: 
T. H. O'Brien, manager; J. B. Morrow, superintendent of 
coke works. At Moctezuma Copper Co.: J. S. Williams Jr., 
general manager. At Bunker Hill Mines Co.: E. Grebe, 
superintendent. At Phelps-Dodge Mercantile Co. (Bisbee): 
W. H. Brophy, general manager; W. A. Meyer, acting. 

Financial Statement: sales of copper, lead, silver, gold, 
coal, coke, and merchandise totaled $61,161,459. Invest- 
ments, etc., yielded $1,100,727. The total was $62,262,186. 
Operations cost $32,053,619; taxes, $5,857,595; deprecia- 
tion and general, $1,894,065. The profit was $22,456,906, 
plus $15,687,126 brought forward from 1916, making $38,- 
143,032 available. After paying dividends there was a bal- 
ance of $27,343,032. 

Dividends: four of $2.50, and extras of $14, amounted to 
$10,800,000. The total now (May 1918) is over $70,- 

Production: labor troubles curtailed operations at Bisbee 
and Morenci, while there was a general shortage of men. 
The output from all departments was 153,974,692 lb. cop- 
per, 8,136,356 lb. lead, 1,524,632 oz. silver, and 24,423 oz. 
gold. Including metal from toll operations, there was sold 
274,994,140 lb. of 'C * 0/ electrolytic and 15,528,429 lb. of 
P. D. ingot copper. The price fluctuated between 33$ and 
23*c. per pound. 

Copper Queen Branch 

Development: work was restricted by labor conditions, 
and covered only 58,518 ft., against 80,853 ft. in 1916, in 
the Limestone mines. The most important result was that 
in the orebody in the south-west. A system of fire-doors 
and sprinklers was put in, also the forced ventilation plant 
was completed. Ore production included 740,090 tons of 
copper by company operations and 35,986 tons by lessees, 
15,476 tons of lead by company and 2571 tons by lessees, 
and 23 7 9 tons of manganese. Lead ore was sent to El Paso. 

At Sacramento Hill there was 290,771 cu. yd. of over- 
burden removed. In the West deposit is 3,407,148 yd., to 
mine which must be moved 10,383,997 yd. of waste. A 
3 000-ton mill is to be erected to handle this ore. There 
were 2264 men employed at the mines. 

Smelter: the works at Douglas received from all sources 
1,276,817 tons of charge, which yielded 191,581,131 lb. 
copper, 2,042,263 oz. silver, and 32,331 oz. gold. Improve- 
ments permit of a larger capacity. There were 1485 men 
employed at the works. 

On January 7, 1918, service bonuses were paid to 2286 
employees, the amount being $181,120. 
Morenci Branch 

Development: strikes caused a shut-down for almost four 
months. Ore-reserves were considerably increased. The 
four mines produced 324,516 tons of mixed ores. 

Concentrator: the mill dressed 312,225 tons assaying 
2.33% copper, making 46,047 tons of concentrate carrying 
11.20%. Tailing averaged 0.648%, giving a recovery of 
70.78%. Results are considered disappointing, due to the 
abnormal conditions. The flotation plant is to be enlarged. 

Smelter: the blast-furnace reduced 118,596 tons of 

charge, yielding 13,203,401 lb. copper. By June 1918 there 
should be two 1000-hp. Diesel engines in the power-plant. 
Another is to be ordered also, and one 3700-cu. ft. Diesel 

Employment was given to 1192 men. 

Burro Mountain Branch 

Development: churn-drilling exposed ore at several points. 
A total of 30,542 ft. was drilled, 52 holes averaging 587 ft. 
Underground the number of tons opened per foot of de- 
velopment was 37.8, an increase of 16.3 tons. To block out 
a ton cost 21c, a decrease of 4c. The Thistle and Mohawk 
deposits are being prepared for extraction and larger ton- 
nage for the mill when it is enlarged. Reserves were sub- 
stantially increased. 

Concentrator: 473,443 tons of 1.972% ore was dressed to 
45,681 tons assaying 14.775%. Residue contained 0.606%, 

Plan of Copper Queen Smelter, Douglas, Arizona 

giving 72.2 58% recovery. Including lessees ore and pre- 
cipitates the yield was 14,253,391 lb. copper and 39,404 oz. 
silver. Experiments are to be made in leaching ore below 
milling grade. 

At the power-plant there were to be four Diesel engines 
working by May 1918. A Diesel air-compressor was started 
last November. 

There were 928 men employed. Considerable progress 
was made at the townsite. 

Copper Basin Branch 

Development: a total of 1250 ft. of work was done. Re- 
serves compare favorably with those of a year ago. 

Production: of 17,299 tons shipped, 11,658 went to the 

July 20, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


sim-lter at Clarkdale, 4253 tons to Douglas, and 13S8 tons 
to Humboldt. Copper content was 934.781 lb., returning 

Stag Canon Branch 

Prod utt Ion: coal from the six mines totaled 1,406,079 
tons, an increase of 33,825 tons. Ot this, 767,601 tons was 
sold to railroads, and 112,566 tons to other consumers. 
Washed coal amounting to 489,859 tons made 306,455 tons 
of coke, a slight increase. There were six fatalities. 
Mtoctezuma Copper Co. 

Development: prospecting and exploration totaled 33,823 
ft. Reserves increased considerably, mainly below the Por- 
venlr tunnel-level. The new Pilares shaft is to be sunk and 
equipped to supersede the present one, now in ore. The 
Churunibabi mine is shipping ore direct to Douglas. Work 
at La Caridad was greatly retarded. The Promontorio has 
been discouraging. 

Concentrator: 750,897 tons of 3.179% ore produced 
156,067 tons o£ concentrate assaying from 12.284 to 
13.141% copper. Tailing contained 0.747%, making a re- 
covery of 81.19%. The flotation plant is to be improved, 
especially in the slime department. 

Bunker Hill Mines Co. 

Development: the advance last year was 11,598 ft., but 
results were not encouraging. 

Production: the mine yielded 69,418 tons of various ores, 
an increase of 10,119 tons. The mill dressed 16,075 tons of 
gold-silver-lead ore and 28,672 tons of manganese ore. 
Shipments consisted of 2872 oz. gold, 397,253 oz. silver, 
1,049,445 lb. lead, 13,357 lb. copper, 2106 lb. molybdenite, 
3355 tons of manganese, and 471 tons of manganese dioxide. 
Lessees also produced 1763 tons of lead-copper-silver-gold 

There were 386 people employed. 

Phelps-Dodge Mercantile Co. 

Gross sales amounted to $9,789,639, an increase of 
$1,383,003. The net profit was 8.42%, a drop of 1.96%. 
During 1917, 34.6% of sales was to company's employees, 
the remainder to outsiders and the trade. A new store was 
opened at Tyrone, New Mexico, where sales totaled nearly 
$1,000,000. There were 620 people employed at the stores 
and general office, 24% being women. 


Property: gold mine and mill at Aurora, Mineral county, 
Nevada; controlled by Goldfleld Consolidated Mines Co. 

Operating Officials: J. W. Hutchinson, general manager; 
W. M. Dake Jr., general superintendent. 

Financial Statement: sales of bullion in 1917 amounted 
to $404,558 net, plus $11,153 from sundries. Operations 
cost $434,499, leaving a loss of $18,787. Interest and de- 
preciation increased the loss to $48,978. This, with pre- 
vious deficit, made a total deficit of $607,137. 

Development: new openings amounted to 3 993 ft. Re- 
sults on the whole were not encouraging. Some prospecting 
was done in the old Juaniata workings, under water since 
1872. At 85 ft. above the main haulage-level the vein was 
found exposed for 260 ft., half of which had been stoped. 
It is 8 ft. wide, increasing to 18 ft. on the east. A 90-ft. 
section assays $4.50 per ton, and one cut for 10 ft., $20 per 
ton. With the Juaniata Extension claim the company has 
5000 ft. along the strike, and the vein may prove of con- 
siderable importance. An arrangement was made to work 
the Silver Lining mine adjoining. An indicated ore-shoot 
is 250 ft. long, worth $10 per ton, and about 75,000 tons of 
$8 ore is estimated to be available. 

Production: the mill treated 175,447 tons of ore assaying 
$3.32 per ton, of which 82.15% was extracted. 

Costs: these totaled $2.48 per ton, mining being 92.6c, 
treatment $1,297, and general 26.3 cents. 


Property: gold mine and placer deposits and mill In Nys 
county, Nevada. 

Operating Official: Gibson Berry, general superintendent. 

Financial Statement: revenue from gold totaled $225,586. 
All charges, Including $2S,910 for depreciation and $22,638 
for taxes, etc., were $153,383. The profit was $72,204. 

Dividends: none were paid, so the total remains at 

Development: practically no new work was done, but 
during four months the mill ran on bulk samples from four 
separate sections in the mine. These resulted as under, for 
the three, the other being too poor to finish: 

No. 921 No. 710 No. 473 

Ore treated, tons 1,422 1,102 1,184 

Average value $3.20 $1.60 $1.27 

Extraction, per cent 78.5 83.8 76.3 

Section 921 contains considerable ore, offering favorable 
inducements for exploitation under normal conditions. The 
mill was stopped in September. In the above tests, treat- 
ment was varied to determine the best method. Several 
lessees are working in the mine, also on bedrock of the 
placer area. 

Pipe-lines and other equipment for hydraulicking are in 
good condition. An earth dam was built in Jett canyon, 8 
miles distant. The main tail-race was lengthened 126 9 ft., 
making it 4280 ft. long. Supplies on hand for extensions 
are ample for some time. Rail liners in the flume are en- 
tirely successful, so is blasting the gravel ahead of sluicing. 

Production: 12,118 tons of ore averaging $7.21 per ton 
was milled. The extraction was 89.9%. There was hy- 
draulicked 127,788 cu. yd. of gravel, averaging $1.0956 per 
yard. Bedrock cleaning yielded $15,353 additional. Total 
ore milled to date is 411,015 tons, worth $3,091,595. 

Costs: mining and milling were $2,176 and $2,183 per 
ton, respectively. Placer operations cost 37.3c. per yard, 
labor accounting for 83.5%. 


Property: copper-lead mine in Bisbee district, Arizona. 

Operating Officials: L. C. Shattuck, general manager; 
Arthur Houle, superintendent. 

Financial Statement: gross income from all sources was 
$3,652,156, of which $3,609,989 was from metals sold. 
Operations cost $2,174,656, leaving a profit of $1,477,500. 
After deducting dividends and depreciation the 1917 sur- 
plus was $101,141. 

Dividends: four absorbed $612,500, making $6,562,500 
to date, equal to $18.75 per share. 

Development: new openings amounted to 15,793 ft., down 
to 900-ft. depth, only 23 ft. being done at this point. Total 
openings are 127,855 ft. Tunnels 5984 and 5903 showed 
some silicious manganese. On 100-ft. level the most im- 
portant development of the year was opened. A lens, 110 
ft. long, 25 ft. thick, and 60 ft. wide, assays 30% copper, 
12 oz. silver, and $2 gold per ton. Around this ore is a 
silicious ore assaying 15% lead, 8 oz. silver, and $1.60 gold 
per ton. Much lead-silver and promising leached copper ore 
was opened. Old stoping ground on 700-ft. level continues 
to yield new orebodies of importance. Work at 800 ft. has 
not opened any commercial ore. Sinking to 1000 ft. was to 
be done early in 1918. 

Production: ore shipped amounted to 130,645 dry tons of 
copper ore and 6804 tons of special ore. These yielded 
11,935,317 lb. copper, 2,010,145 lb. lead, 1542 oz. gold, and 
154,344 oz. silver. 

Costs: these were $10.01 per ton of ore, and 13.242c. per 
lb. of copper. A 400-ton mill, using Minerals Separation 
process, was expected to be working by May 1918. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 20, 1918 




The maintenance of tight connections on flanged-joint 
pipe-lines is often a source of trouble. Such joints actually 
seem to delight in leaking at critical times and at inaccessi- 
ble places. A permanently tight gasket, that when once 
placed can be forgotten with assurance that it will never 
cause trouble, should win instant recognition. The Smooth- 
On corrugated iron gasket is coming into wider use in 
mines, particularly for high-pressure steam and for air- 
lines, because it invariably makes a joint that lasts as long 

as the pipe itself. Smooth-On gaskets are made from sheets 
of specially prepared iron, rolled with concentric corruga- 
tions, and then coated with Smooth-On elastic iron cement 
No. 3. It is the peculiar property of this cement to metallize 
and to expand when metallizing, which makes the Smooth- 
On gasket permanently leak-proof, since it completely fills 
the irregularities in the flange-faces. Being of iron through- 
out, the gasket expands and contracts with the pipe, and so 
the parmanency of the joint is never impaired. There are 
many cases on record where after years of service without a 
leak, Smooth-On gaskets have been removed in dismantling 
a line and have been found to be uninjured. By again coat- 
ing with Smooth-On elastic cement No. 3 they were ready 
for use in a new place. Smooth-On gaskets are made for 
all sizes of pipe from 2 to 24 in., and for pressures up to 
250 lb. Both narrow and full-width gaskets are made in 
each size. The narrow gaskets cover the surface of the 
flange-face inside the bolt-line circle and are recommended 
for general use. and costing less than the full-width gaskets 
which cover the entire flange-face. 


Manufacturers of many articles have found it expedient 
to take advantage of the Argentine protective tariff to open 
branch factories in that republic. The same thing is likely 
to happen in Chile. The Sociedad de Fomento Fabril, of 
Santiago, has proposed protective duties on a long list of 
manufactures. Those that concern the mineral industries 
are: plows and harrows, galvanized iron pails, bolts and 
rivets, sheet iron, aluminum and copper kitchenware, struc- 

tural iron, iron cut nails, wire nails, iron benches, crown 
tops, automobiles, chemical products, enamel components, 
paints and ochres, chalk, cement, matches, inks, tanning 
extracts, dentrifices, and talcum. In addition to the in- 
crease of duties on the goods enumerated the council of the 
Society is giving serious study to the matter of organization 
and nationalization of commerce for further protection 
against aggressive foreign competition. 

The Rare Metal Products Co., Glen Ridge, New Jersey, 
is planning to increase the capacity of its plant, and has 
acquired the works of the Seton Chemical Co., of Belleville, 
New Jersey, consisting of a manufacturing building 400 
ft. long with auxiliary structures aggregating a total of 
about 30,000 sq. ft. of floor-space, and covering an area of 
7J acres. The consideration for the property is said to be 
$150,000. The plant will be used by the company for the 
manufacture of antimony and other metal products. 

The Finance Exploration & Development Corporation of 
America has been incorporated under the laws of the State 
of New York for the purpose of investigating and financing 
mining, oil, and industrial enterprises. An initial capital 
of $500,000 has been provided. This corporation will main- 
tain a staff of skilled engineers to examine the merits and 
possibilities of enterprises needing additional capital for 
development or expansion. The directors are William R. 
Jones, Jackson B. Sells, Burt Brown Barker, E. L. Kerstet- 
ter, and Homer L. Carr. Mr. Carr is consulting mining 
engineer for the corporation, with offices at 50 Broad street. 
New York City. 

The Compressed Air Society, upon the recommendation 
of its Technical Committee, has adopted the following defi- 
nitions of certain compressed-air terms in order to elim- 
inate confusion: 

The displacement of an air-compressor is the volume dis- 
placed by the net area of the compressor-piston. 

The capacity should be expressed in cubic feet per minute, 
and it is the actual amount of air compressed and delivered, 
expressed in free air at the intake-temperature and at the 
pressure of dry air at the suction. 

Volumetric efficiency is the ratio of the capacity to the 
displacement of the compressor, all as defined above. 

Compression efficiency is the ratio of the work required 
to compress isothermally all the air delivered by an air- 
compressor to the work actually done within the com- 
pressor-cylinder, as shown by indicator-cards; it may be 
expressed as the product of the volumetric efficiency (the 
intake-pressure and the hyperbolic logarithm of the ratio 
of compression), all divided by the indicated mean effective 
pressure within the air-cylinder or cylinders. 

Mechanical efficiency is the ratio of the air-indicated 
horse-power to the steam-indicated horse-power in the case 
of a steam-driven, and to the brake horse-power in the case 
of a power-driven machine. 

Overall efficiency is the product of the compression-effi- 
ciency and the mechanical efficiency. 

The Society further recommends that the use of other 
expressions of efficiency be discontinued. Communications 
regarding this and related subjects may be sent to L. D. 
Albin, the secretary, at 30 Church street. New Yorlr,. 

Edited by T. A. RICKARD 


15 Cents per Copy 
$4 per Year 


■ ' :i ■':■.■::,■ I i;'!^:|:i: 1 : 1 : i.:l :■■: '; J :; i,! .i ■ ! ^ :: ■ ! '- ■ ■.':!.■■ ' : l ■ : il i !; , , ' 1 -I i \ : ■. I- '■:---;,r1:J l MnMi:,:;,; T,,/ ■ : ! ■ N : ; ! ; 



1,705,429 FEET 


amp Feet 

> Devon*. Moss 86.227 

i Taylor. Ky 17.H03 

. S. C 7.1 884 

J 14.6411 



VI 'J 

Omiee. Iowa. . . 

Gordon. Ga 13.128 

rnmgnl Col 66,308 

Kearny, Col 61.6111 

M.rr.ll N J 22.820 

Cu-lcr Mirh 7.004 

Cody. N. 

Camp Wheeler. Uj 


Gersti... . 

Embarkation Camp, . . 
Cnmp Taliaferro. Texas 

Va. . 


_ _jnp Meade. Md. .... 

Camp Johnston. Fla 56.232 

Engineer Depot. France 180.411 

Camp Sluart. Va 71.202 

Love Field. Texas 13.807 

Rarilan River Ord Dep.. N. J.. 18.954 

Kelley Fields. Texas. 94.007 

Brooks Field. Texas 4.212 

Pie Point Ord. Dep., Va 4.634 

Coastal Aero Station. Fla 

Ebhells Field. Ark . . . .■ 

Ordnance Depot, Md 

Camp Humphreys, Va 

Mill- Field. Cat 

March Field. Cal 

Exploitive* Plant. W Va 

Quartermaster* 1 Terminals, 3. C. 

Army Camp. Texas 

Camp Eustis. Va 

Navy Yard Vallejo. Cal 

Marino Training Camp, Va. . . . 
Camp Perry. Ohio 



m <;:>•; 

HI :.0i.> 

5n :)>:> 


0.1 (>i.-, 

Camp Sevier. S. C 

Camp Travis. Texas 

Camp Jones. Aril 

C imp Shi'lhv. Misn 

Camp Sheridan. Ala 

Camp Wadsworth. S. C 

C.imn Lee. Va 

Norfolk Q. M. Terminals, Va. 
Camp Loean. Texas 

C .mi' M. 'Arthur. Texas 


Q. M. Corps. Construction Dtv. .196.101) 


Camp Gallons 

Camp Devens. Mass 400.000 

Camp Tuylor, Ky 1.000,000 

Camp Upton. N Y 8T,0 000 

Camp Meade. Md 400.000 

Comp Pike. Ark :.. .1.200,000 

Camp Sherman. Ohio 4110.000 

Camp Gordon G.i 1 HOIUKIO 

C.imp Fun,ton K:.n K00.000 

Camp Cu-lcr. Mich 400.000 

Camp W.-.d-worth. S C 7011.000 

Camp Wheeler. Ga r.00.000 

Camp Cody. N M -Hill nno 

Camp Sevier. 3 C 400.000 

Camp Shelby. Minn 400.000 

Camp McArlhur. Texas 200,000 

Camp Greene. N C ntlUllllI 

Camp Lortnn. Texas 400.000 

Camp Stuart. Va 1 800.000 

Camp Gallons 

Camp Johnston. Fla 400.000 

El Imps-ton Field, Texas 60.000 

Engineer Depot, Franco 387.500 

Love Field. Texas 275,000 

Fort Caswell. N. C 200.000 

PiK Point Ord. Dep.. Va 230,000 

Kelley Field No. 1. Texas 100.000 

Dorr Field No. 2. Fla 200.000 

Ebhetts Field. Ark 100 000 

Taylor Field. Ala.. 100. OHO 

Ordnance. Depot. Md prtn.iino 

Ml Clemens. Mich 120.000 

Camp Taliaferro Fields. Texas 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3 300,000 

Fort MeHi'nry, Mil 2110.000 Aero SlO . Fla 101.000 

Call Field. Tex 100.000 

Camp San Juan. Porto Rico. 400.000 

Camp Gallons 

Gen, Hospital No, 3, N. J. . . 200.000 

Fort McFherson, Ga 200,000 

Hecbanlcal Repair Shop. Md. 200,000 ulosis Hospital, N. Y. 420.000 

Chemical Plant No. 4, Va. . . 640.000 

Park Field. Tenn 100.000 

Navy Yard. Pauillac. France. 100,000 
D.S. Explosives Plant. Tenu .1.0.". l.:100 

Quci'imtown. Ireland 100.000 

Gn.mUnamo. Cuba 47,000 

IMy:u. Field, Miss, 100.000 

SuLilher Fn-ld. C:i 100.000 

Clearim,' Hospital. N. Y 200,000 

Mills Field. Cal 176.000 

March Field. Cal 75,000 

r S Km. I ..-i v.- Plant. W. Va. (Il1ii.oi.ii) 

U.S. Hospital N C 300.000 

Camp Euslls, Va 600.000 

Camp Gallons 

Q.M. Dep., S. Schenectady. N.Y. 400.00C 
Q.M. Dep.. E. Columbus. Ohio.. 400,000 
Q.M. Dep,. New Cumb., Pa.. 400,000 

Ordnanco Depot. Fa 200,000 

Marine Troinintr Camp. Va. .l,2r.ii 000 

Filtration Units. France 1.251,200 

Aviation Concentration & Sup- 
ply Depot, L. 1 100,000 

Camp Perry. Ohio 300.000 

Aerial Gunnery School. Fla.. ZOO, 000 

Camp Jones, Arlr 100.000 

Q M Term . Charleston, S C. 400.0110 
Rarltan River Ord Dep.. N. J, 50,000 
Coast Defense. Pensacola. Fla 40(1.000 
Final Testing Field Dayton. O 100. 0(1 1> 
Q M. Corps, Construction Div. 0.000. 000 




Remco for 



In This Issue: 

Conditions in Russia 

The Menace to Gold Mining 

Buyers' Guide, page 46 
Advertisers' Index, page 54 

MINING and Scientific PRESS July 27, 1918 

The • 
Denver Engineering Works Company 


Announces that at the Annual Meeting held in June, 1918, 
the following Directors and Officers were elected: 


H. W. Hardinge Frank E. Shepard William W. Torrence 

Robert J. Pitkin Richard B. T. Kiliani 


President .... FRANK E. SHEPARD 
Vice-President and Treasurer, RICHARD B. T. KILIANI 
General Manager . . WILLIAM W. TORRENCE 
Secretary .... ROBERT J. PITKIN 

In addition to the manufacture of 

Hardinge Conical Ball Mills 

the Company will continue to manufacture 

Mining and Milling Machinery Cylindrical Ball Mills 

Electric Hoists Richards Pulsator Jigs and Classifiers 

Mine Timber Framers Ovoca Classifiers, Etc. 

This Company counts as one of its best assets the good will of its customers, and 
future business relations will be based on 

Best Methods and Best Service 


FRANK E. SHEPARD, President WILLIAM V. TORRENCE, General Manager 

Mining «£* Press 


T. A. RICKARD. K.liL.r 
M. W. von BERNEWITZ. Aoociatt Editor 


Published al 420 Market St.. San Francltco, 
by the Dewey PubUthina Company 


C. T. HUTCHINSON. Manojfr 
E. H. LESLIE. (.(«) I'l.luT Bit,, Chicano 
A. S. BREAKEY. .3514 YYouhconli /Ma.. N™ York 

Science has no enemy save the ignorant 

Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, July 27, 1918 

$4 per Year — 16 Cents per Copy 



NOTES 105 


Address by Mr. Fedor F. Foss on the state of 
affairs in Russia; friendly attitude of the United 
States; motives of this country above suspicion; 
a military expedition to Russia must go with the 
expressed desire of the Russians; Czeko-Slovak 
revolt against the Bolsheviks; economic assistance 
needed for reconstruction of representative gov- 
ernment in Russia. M. & S. P., July 27, 1918. 


Testimony of Mr. Hennen Jennings before the 
Ways and Means Committee; Allied countries con- 
trol over 85% of the gold resources of the world; 
what constitutes a desirable condition for a mone- 
tary standard; other metals than gold suggested; 
remarks of Sir Lionel Phillips; gold being sold 
below cost; proposals by Minister of Mines of 
British Columbia; gold mining placed on the 
priorities list. M. & S. P., July 27, 1918. 



By Donald F. Irvin 109 

Difficulty of proving value of nitrate land on ex- 
amination; reduction of cost of beneficiating the 
nitrate; lack of centralization in the nitrate busi- 
ness; need of a local technical society of nitrate 
producers; too much conservatism in the industry; 
technical problems awaiting solution; filtration 
methods. M. & S. P., July 27, 1918. 


By Alkali 110 

Application of the Potash Act to lode-mines con- 
taining alunite and orthoclase; necessity for pro- 
tection against locations for potash. M. & S. P., 
July 27, 1918. 


By George Warren Tower Jr Ill 

Copy of letter to Senator Walsh on the need of 
protecting the output of the minor minerals; pres- 
ent committees have not the power, without the 
War Minerals Bill, to take necessary steps to en- 
sure adequate supplies. M. & S. P., July 27, 



By John Roger 112 

Usually stated as percentage of elongation when 
samples of different length are heated an equal 
number of degrees; comparison does not involve 
things that are proportionate; properly, equal 
units of heat should be added to each; volumetric 
specific heat is a necessary factor in the equation. 
M. & S. P., July 27, 1918. 


By Fedor F. Foss 113 

Resume of populations and racial components of 
Russia; origin of the Russian nation; psychology 
of the lower class; the 'intelligencia' and the in- 
fluence of this class; lack of education and eco- 
nomics in the old empire; cultural statistics of 
Russia; how to help the country. M. & S. P., July 
27, 1918. 


M. & S. P., July 27, 1918. 


By Arthur J. Hoskin 119 

Classification of flotation processes; principle 
utilized in the Ruth machine; distinction from the 
M. S. type, and the compressed-air type; function 
of oil in frothing; practical results. M. & S. P., 
July 27, 1918. 


Proposal for re-habilitation of gold; questions of 
bonus, paying more for the metal, remission of 
taxes, and other aids; testimony of Hennen Jen- 
nings before the Ways and Means Committee; re- 
port of Minister of Mines in British Columbia on 
gold mining; conditions in California. M. & S. P., 
July 27, 1918. 



Abstract of a paper by Robert Hadfield, C. Chene- 
veau, and Ch. Geneau in the Proceedings of the 
Royal Society of London. M. & S. P., July 27, 








Established May 24, 1860. as The Scientific Press; name changed October 
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MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 27, 1918 

No. 64X 
(6ft. diam.) 
Marcy Mill ar- 
ranged for direct 
connection to 

Investigate the Marcy Mill 

■ — for grinding for table concentration 

The Marcy Mill produces a splendid product for table concentration because 
of its non-selective discharge. There is no vertical classification or sorting 
action on the pulp. The Marcy Mill produces less slimes than Chilian Mills, 
Huntington Mills and stamps. It has far greater capacity with low power 
consumption and produces a product of minimum size. 

On February 24th, 1915, the Daly-Judge Mining Company installed one No. 
64J Marcy Mill which replaced three 5' Huntington Mills. The result was 
greater capacity, better table product, and a great saving in operating labor. 
This installation was followed with an order from the Silver King Coalition 
for two 6' mills to replace Huntington Mills and rolls and grind for table feed. 

The Marcy Mills are grinding efficiently for table concentration at the 
plants of the Federal Mining & Smelting Company at Wallace and at Hailey, 
Idaho. Marcy Mills are made in the following sizes: 3', 4', 5', 6', 7' and 8' 
diameter, capacity 50 to 800 tons per day. 

The new Marcy Milt booklet contains a full description of this 
mill and other interesting crushing* data. Write for a copy. 

The Mine and Smelter Supply Co. 


NEW YORK OFFICE: 42 Broadway 



MINING and Scientific PRESS 


'HE Index to Volume 116 of this paper is now ready, 
and copies may be secured by writing to this office. 

"DEER, SONDHEIMER & CO. and L. Vogelstein & 
■*-* Co. have passed into the hands of the Alien Prop- 
erty Custodian, Mr. Mitchell Palmer, who is reported 
to have said that he had taken "another step to crush the 
German control of the metal industry in this country." 
Qui vivra, verm. 

TMPORTATION of chrome ore from Cuba, Guatemala, 
■*• Newfoundland, and Brazil will be permitted by the 
War Trade Board ; the amount, however, is not to exceed 
43,500 tons for the period ending March 31, 1919. Per- 
mission is given also to bring 10,000 tons from New 
Caledonia this year. No restriction is imposed upon 
receipts by land from Canada or Mexico, nor upon ship- 
ment as return cargo from European ports when no de- 
lay is involved in loading. 

ly/TAPS are essential to any geographic description. 
A It is curious how little the average publisher 
appreciates this fact. Such maps as our daily press 
give us in order to explain the battles in Europe might 
be the work of high-school sophomores. There is no 
excuse for them. Accurate maps of France are available 
and could be reproduced daily in short order. That is 
where the New York 'Times' and other first-class news- 
papers show that they are well edited. No account of 
strategic moves is intelligible without maps drawn ac- 
curately to scale. 

/"^ HANGE of name of the American Institute of Min- 
^ ing Engineers has been approved by the Board of 
Directors and a proposal to that effect will be submitted 
to members at an early date. The name is to be changed 
by inserting 'and Metallurgical' before the word 'En- 
gineers.' The idea is to be more specific and compre- 
hensive, but the effort made to recognize the inclusion of 
metallurgists has the immediate effect of excluding 
chemists and geologists, among others, for these are 
neither mining nor metallurgical engineers. "We cannot 
see any advantage in the change of name; on the con- 
trary, we see several disadvantages, besides the one to 
which we have referred. Another is the fact that the 
present name has served for nearly half a century and 
has become honorably known all over the world. A 

third is the greater probability of confusion with the 
Mining and Metallurgical Society of America, which 
exists to do the things that the Institute does not care to 
do and serves as a nucleus of disaffection whenever the 
Institute needs discipline. 

/COLORADO is to have the next meeting of the In- 
^ stitute. The sessions will begin at Denver on Sep- 
tember 2, to be continued at Colorado Springs on the 
succeedings days, and followed by excursions to Cripple 
Creek, Pueblo, Leadville, and Boulder. Arrangements 
are in the hands of a strong committee, headed by Mr. 
Spencer Penrose. An effort will be made, naturally, to 
discuss the production of minerals in relation to the War 
and to stimulate the work of the profession in behalf of 
the Cause. 

"PATRIOTISM finds various forms of expression. A 
•*- correspondent to the 'Chronicle' writes to suggest 
that the 'German' name for the month of August be re- 
placed by the 'American' name of Samuel. The gentle- 
man that makes this illuminating suggestion is called 
Jacobs, a good old Anglo-Saxon patronymic, of course. 
We knew that the Pan-Germans claimed most of the 
great men of the past, from Jesus to Dante, as theirs 
racially, but Augustus Caesar had a pedigree such as 
might permit him to escape the imputation of being a 
descendant of the barbarians whom his uncle Julius 
fought so successfully. 

Tj^ROM the 'Financial Times,' of London, we learn 
■*- that the Goerz company has purchased from the 
Custodian of Enemy Property in South Africa the 
347,803 enemy-owned shares in that company and that 
these shares are to be offered to British and Allied share- 
holders at 13 shillings each, as against the current 
market-price of 14 shillings. This is an interesting 
precedent. According to our London contemporary, 
the enemy holdings in South African companies include 
100,000 shares in the Goerz company, 106,900 in Con- 
solidated Mines Selection, 110,000 in East Rand Pro- 
prietary, 458,800 in General Mining, 298,000 in Geduld, 
266,700 in New Modderfontein, 224,250 in Van Dyk, 
and 307,200 in West Rand Consolidated, besides 435,050 
shares in three other companies. In some cases these 
enemy holdings constitute a control ; thus the New Mod- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 27, 1918 

derfontein company is capitalized at 350,000 shares, the 
General Mining corporation has 1,875,000 shares, the 
Geduld 875,000 shares issued, and the Van Dyk 500,000 
shares issued. A block of shares even less than the 
majority will suffice for the control of a company. It 
remains to be seen whether these other enemy holdings 
will be treated according to the Goerz precedent. 

CULPHUR and pyrite are in greater demand than at 
'-' any time since the War began, partly because of the 
steady increase in the manufacture of munitions to 
meet the needs of a growing Army at the front, and 
partly as a necessary consequence of curtailing the im- 
portation of Spanish pyrite. No one knows when vessels 
again may be available for bringing more than the 
10,000 tons per month allowed by the Shipping Board. 
In order to ensure a supply of acid-making material the 
War Industries Board has named Mr. William G. Wool- 
folk as controller of sulphur and pyrite, with authority 
extending to production and distribution of these 

'T'HAT the frank demand of the British Labor Party 
-*- for a completely socialized government has not met 
with sympathy among the leaders of labor in this coun- 
try is indicated by the refusal of the New York State 
Socialist Party to endorse a plank calling for a two 
weeks vacation, with pay, every year for workingmen. 
The reason for voting down the proposal shows that the 
spirit of American individualism still lives. The objec- 
tion, as stated by Mr. Joseph D. Canon, was that "we 
are drifting now from the capitalist system, or ' stateism, ' 
as it is called, and it may be more difficult for us to get 
anything from stateism than it is now from capitalism. 
Let us keep away from this dangerous legislation. '•' The 
fact that the Socialists themselves recognize and fear the 
autocracy that lies at the heart of their system is a sign 
that the old order is not likely to be destroyed in this 
country. Democracy is a happy mean between the self- 
appointed autocrat, whom we call czar or kaiser, and the 
elected autocrat, whether represented by an individual 
or a governing board, charged with the administration 
of a socialized commonwealth. When the Labor party 
in a densely populated State like New York, where the 
evils of the factory system are near the maximum, still 
clings to the sweets of individual liberty, it is certain 
that the men of the West, who meet the opportunity of 
independent fortune more often that their brothers in 
the East, will not consent to enslave themselves under a 
form of government that would reduce them forever to 
the status of wage-earners. 

uniform rate across the continent of one cent per pound. 
These rates are to be increased each year for four years 
until the maximum rate will be 10 cents per pound. 
This is equivalent to an increase of from 50 to 900% 
above the»old flat rate. Needless to say it represents a 
heavy burden on the business of periodical publications. 
Many journals and magazines will be unable to carry 
the weight of taxation and will succumb. In order that 
any publication may survive it will be necessary to dis- 
tribute the additional cost between the producer and 
the consumer, that is, between the publisher on the one 
side and the reader and advertiser on the other. This 
new tax comes on top of a series of increases in expendi- 
ture, particularly the abnormal cost of paper and other 
supplies, not to mention wages. In 1916 we raised our 
subscription rate from $3 to $4 per annum, and it was 
accepted in the best possible spirit by our readers, who, 
apparently, recognized that a successful effort had been 
made by us to give them better value for the money re- 
ceived. No increase in advertising rates has been made, 
because the expanding volume of advertising has helped 
to overcome the cost incidental to abnormal conditions 
created by the War. We are grateful both to our read- 
ers and to our advertisers for their loyal support in 
these strenuous days ; we intend to sit tight, making no 
increase either in the rates of subscription or of adver- 
tising at least for the present, in the hope that Congress 
may repeal or modify this destructive legislation. We 
hope to weather the storm of war without further 
changes in our rates and we intend to do our utmost to 
make this paper increasingly useful for the great cause 
to which every good citizen is committed heart and soul. 

/~kN July 1 the law organizing a zonal system of 
^ postal rates went into effect. The law establishes 
eight geographic zones at progressively increasing dis- 
tances from the place of publication, and the payment 
of postage at correspondingly higher rates, ranging 
from $ cent per pound to 2f cents, a maximum of 3^ 
cents per pound for the first year as against the former 

A wise movement has been started by a progressive 
- i_1 - manufacturer of mining machinery for establishing 
in Washington a bureau consisting of representatives of 
the leading makers of such appliances to co-operate with 
the War Industries Board and other committees in order 
to facilitate the production of the equipment needed in 
the mining operations of the country. It transpires that 
no co-ordination of the makers of machinery with the 
government agencies concerned in producing raw ma- 
terials has been undertaken. The proposal to effect a 
voluntary organization for this purpose is commendable. 
Manufacturers of machinery have been severely handi- 
capped in their efforts to obtain the iron and steel and 
other necessary metals on account of the priority ad- 
vantages accorded to shipbuilding and some other in- 
dustries. No one questions the wisdom of discriminating 
in their favor, but it must be apparent that the effect of 
crippling the mines by making it difficult to obtain me- 
chanical equipment, must react in the end disadvan- 
tageously upon the output of ships and of other essen- 
tials for the conduct of the War. The plea of individual 
manufacturers of mining machinery may be overlooked, 
but combined action will command attention. It is to be 
observed also that such an association as is now proposed 
would make it possible to distribute orders in accordance 
with the abilities of the firms to make early delivery. In 

July 27, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


this respect it would be possible to adopt the principle 
of the cartel, which played so important a role in giving 
solidarity to industrial effort in Germany before the 
War. We should not hesitate to appropriate a good 
idea from the Enemy, if, by so doing, we may increase 
our efficiency for overcoming him. 

The Russian Crisis 

On another page we publish the text of an address de- 
livered by Mr. Pedor P. Poss before the Engineers Club 
of San Francisco. Mr. Poss is a member of a Russian 
mission to the United States and chairman of the mining 
committee of that mission; he came to this country in 
September last for the purpose of studying American 
mining and metallurgical industries, and particularly 
their relation to Government administration, technical 
societies, educational facilities — in short, anything con- 
tributing to the development of the profession and of the 
industry. He is a graduated mining engineer of the late 
Imperial Mining Institute at Petrograd ; in politics he 
stands as a constitutional democrat, so that his point of 
view is largely that of the first provisional government 
organized by Lvoff, Milyoukov, and Eodzianko. His pro- 
fessional and financial connections with important enter- 
prises in Russia enable him to speak authoritatively 
and sympathetically. The engineers that heard the ad- 
dress were impressed by the plea made by him for assist- 
ance from America to Russia, and by his reminder that 
the Russians had fought and died unflinchingly for the 
Allied cause until demoralized by German chicane. The 
spectacle afforded by the Russian retreat and political 
chaos has moved some of us to a cynical contempt, for 
which, on second thought, we ought to be sorry. Such 
a mental attitude can do no good. Russia is a great fact. 
Her sudden effort to rid herself of a corrupt bureau- 
cracy headed by a weak autocrat moved our enthusiastic 
approval because we hailed it as a first step to the estab- 
lishment of democratic government, but when the effort 
as suddenly degenerated into soap-box oratory, political 
buffoonery, and industrial nihilism, we were repelled and 
disgusted. Mr. Poss and other good Russians ask us to 
be patient; they tell us that the Russians are 80% 
illiterate, that politically they are children, easily mis- 
led, but with good instincts. Russia is in travail and we 
must stand by her in her dark hour, for the sake of the 
democratic ideals we hold dear and in the name of 
Abraham Lincoln. The President stated explicitly on 
May 18 that he intends "to stand by Russia as well as 
France." On June 9 he told the Mexican editors that 
we want nothing out of this war, which "so far as we 
are concerned is for idealistic objects." That is exactly 
why the United States can do more to help Russia than 
any other of the Allies. England, Prance, or Japan 
might be suspected to indulge ambitions of territorial 
aggrandizement or of commercial penetration. Foreign 
bondholders are unacceptable as political mentors. The 
United States has no pecuniary bias in her efforts at 
rehabilitating Russia, she does not desire to possess an 

acre of Russian territory, nor have our people 
heavy investments of the b&d thai prevent Paris and 
London from being disinterested in the details of Bus 
sian re-organization. The Presidenl is about to appoint 
a commission, which, we presume, will report on (lie 
subject to him, for the purpose of guiding his future 
action. Meanwhile several thousand American marines 
are said to be co-operating with the British in keeping 
open a door into Russia on the Murman coast of the 
"White Sea, near Kola and Alexandrovsk, which arc 
accessible to navigation the year round. If any help is 
to be given, moral or physical, it is necessary to £e%p 
this door open. "Whether an expeditionary force will be 
landed on this sub-Arctic coast, to march southward, is 
a matter that may not arise immediately. Obviously bo 
army, whether of American soldiers or of other Allied 
troops, can accomplish any good without invitation and 
support from the party around whom, sooner or later, 
the Russian people may be expected to rally in an effort 
to restore order, and to drive out the German invader. 
The treaty of Brest Litovsk has proved to be a scrap of 
paper under cover of which the Prussian outlaw gave 
an air of legality to his scheme of spoliation. The 
seizures of grain and other supplies from the peasants 
under cloak of military necessity have opened the eyes 
of the Russian peasants to the menace of German depre- 
dation. Up to the present the German propaganda has 
succeeded in making the Russians fearful of the coming 
of an Allied expedition, and rendered them ready to op- 
pose such intervention, which cannot be done effectively 
so long as it is regarded inimically by those whom it is 
intended to help; but a propitious moment will come, 
when the Russians have realized that none of the Allies, 
not the United States only, desires to annex Russian soil. 
Meanwhile the forces of reaction, not against constitu- 
tional reform, but against the savage anarchy of the 
Bolshevist mob, are crystallizing. The , Czeko-Slovaks, 
who, in great numbers, deserted or were made prisoners 
when the Austrian armies were routed in 1915 and 1916, 
have organized themselves into several corps, one of 
which is acting as a nucleus of opposition to the Bolshe- 
vist misgovernment in Siberia. Another body of Czeko- 
Slovak troops has captured Kazan, the old Tatar capi- 
tal, and dominates navigation on the lower reaches of 
the Volga. Generals Korniloff and Alexieff have been 
reported at the head of troops insurgent against the 
Bolshevist cabal. The news is fragmentary and con- 
fusing, for it comes from different parts of a region 
three times as large as the United States, but it suggests 
the growing opposition to the forces of anarchy now 
endeavoring to secure themselves in authority under 
German patronage and gives promise of a concerted 
attempt to re-establish order. This opposition to the 
German-Bolshevist party should be utilized in ,the in- 
terest of Russia and the Allied cause, which is that of 
democracy in Russia, as elsewhere. The independence 
of Siberia is well worthy of American , recognition and 
support: it is being aided by the Czeko : Slovak troops 
that were on their way to France, by way of the trans- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 27, 1918 

Siberian railroad, when, contrary to their intentions, in 
self-defence, they had to capture Vladivostok, in con- 
junction with Allied naval forces. This Czeko-Slovak 
army controls 1300 miles of the railroad and, assisted 
by a Japanese-American expeditionary force, should 
soon be in a position to strike at the German invaders. 
Such a move, together with a flank attack from the 
north, from the Murman coast, would re-create an eastern 
front to which the Germans would have to re-direct their 
military energies, causing a diversion of incalculable 
help to the Allied offensive in the west, in France and 
Flanders. Any such move should be accompanied by a 
well-organized effort to lend economic assistance to the 
Russian people, thereby blocking the German scheme to 
exploit Russian resources, and eventually to mobilize the 
Russian peasantry on the side of the Prussian military 
machine. This war is no parochial affair; it is one of 
terrestrial amplitude, and must be viewed in a compre- 
hensive way if it is to be brought to the one necessary 

The Status of Gold Mining 

We return to this subject, because it is of immediate 
interest to most of our readers. On another page we 
reproduce the larger part of the testimony given by Mr. 
Hennen Jennings before the Committee on Ways and 
Means of the House of Representatives. He lays stress 
on the fact that the Allied countries produce most of the 
gold of the world, the British dominions and the United 
States, as we have remarked more than once, contribut- 
ing about 85% of the total. Russia normally yields 5% 
more. Of the gold produced in neutral countries, it may 
be asserted that the major part of it is won by aid of 
British capital and by Anglo-American engineers. The 
enemy countries contribute barely 1% of the world's 
gold production. Why should we voluntarily relinquish 
this advantage by allowing any obstacle to handicap 
the vigorous exploitation of gold mines ? It is the basis 
of credit, whatever people may say, and we must not 
allow the exaltation of war finance to becloud this funda- 
mental fact. We published Mr. Jennings' essay on this 
subject six weeks ago. His colloquy with the Committee 
is interesting, if only to indicate the mental processes of 
the gentlemen participating in the deliberations. In 
passing, we venture to suggest that public documents 
should be revised before they are issued; the witnesses 
whose statements are reported ought to read the record, 
to protect themselves from errors, even in the prelim- 
inary issue, and the entire record should be read by a 
competent proof-reader, if not by an editor. We have 
protected Mr. Jennings against two or three obvious 
typographical slips, but the entire report of the pro- 
ceedings shows the lamentable lack of revision. The 
members of the Committee appear to have been im- 
pressed with the value of iridium and depressed at the 
thought of its effect upon the gold standard. If mere 
'preciousness' were the thing to keep in mind, why not 
elevate tantalum to the position of a monetary metal, or 

scandium, which would cost as much as $10,000 per 
ounce at least. To Mr. Rainey the suggestion may seem 
tantalizing, if not scandalous. His colleague, Mr. Sloan, 
objects to platinum because it is not "as desirable for 
the vision,^' which is true, for a $20-gold piece is indeed 
"a treat for sore eyes." Gold happens to have been 
selected as a monetary metal partly for that reason: it 
is beautiful ; moreover, it does not corrode ; it is heavy ; 
it is distributed in nature in proportions rendering it 
neither too rare nor too common. It is more than a 
coincidence that the production of gold should have in- 
creased with the growth of base-metal mining and with 
the expansion of general industry. At the meeting of 
the Central Mining Corporation, in London, Sir Lionel 
Phillips acknowledged that "but for the British navy, 
the gold-mining industry would have come to a stand- 
still." So would many other necessary activities. He 
made a friendly protest against the adverse exchange 
incidental to the purchase of South African gold by the 
Bank of England. The standard price was 85 shillings 
per ounce, whereas "the small amount now permitted to 
be used for trade purposes has risen to 115s. per fine 
ounce." He added: "That the raw gold from South 
Africa is worth more than the price paid for it in paper 
currency is not a difficult matter to demonstrate 'in gen- 
eral terms." The rates of exchange are not the true 
measure of its value, because it is used partly to regu- 
late those rates, and without our [South African] gold 
the adverse exchanges would have been still higher. 
. . . If we could have paid for our commodities [mine 
and mill supplies] in our own gold, instead of depre- 
ciated paper, we should have obtained due compensation 
in value for part of the increase in working costs." 
These quotations from Sir Lionel's speech are given 
verbatim because they will find a ready response among 
those operating gold mines in the United States. In 
Canada similar ideas are fermenting. The Minister of 
Mines in British Columbia has approved the suggestion 
that all war taxes be remitted to gold-mining companies, 
that the increased freight-rates be abrogated in favor 
of low-grade gold mines, and that gold-mining be 
afforded such assistance as is being granted to other war 
industries. It is evident that the gold-mining industry 
of the world is becoming articulate and is asking for 
such public national support as it deserves. We are 
glad to note the announcement made on July 13, by the 
War Industries Board, that gold-mining has been listed 
as an essential industry, and all reasonable priority on 
material and supplies used in the production of gold 
will be given by the Priorities Committee. This action 
was taken at the request of the Treasury Department. 
It remains to interpret this decision. We hope that it 
will mean a remission of special war taxes, relief from 
increased freight-rates, acceleration of shipments of ma- 
chinery, a check upon excessive prices on explosives, 
chemicals, and other supplies, and the prohibition of re- 
cruiting labor from gold mines to mines producing the 
base metals. All this will help, but more will have to be 
done if gold mining is to be kept alive. 

July 27. 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRF.SS 

^ 7 

Chilean Nitrate Deposits 

The Editor: 

Sir — There has just come to hand the copy of the 
Mining and Scientific Press of March 23, in which I 

note extended comment, in the New York letter, on the 
Chilean nitrate situation. The identity of your corre- 
spondent is unknown to me, but it is proper to state that 
his viewpoint is one which cannot be endorsed com- 
pletely by those resident in this country and familiar 
with the business of nitrate production. Questions of 
nitrate as a war-material, and as a fertilizer, are of such 
importance to the United States, both now and in time 
of peace, that mistaken impressions should be corrected, 
lest they might affect in some way, the American view- 
point. To quote from the article mentioned, "Intend- 
ing purchasers (of nitrate land) know exactly what they 
are buying." There are several well-known episodes in 
the recent history of the nitrate business, involving some 
of the large producers, in which the principals thought 
they 'knew exactly what they were buying,' but develop- 
ment and exploitation of the ground showed later a large 
and painful discrepancy in nitrate content. One prop- 
erty, well known in the nitrate world, has had reports 
upon its possibilities, based upon examination by quali- 
fied men, and these reports varied from a gross content 
of millions of quintals, to an estimate that gave no 
net recoverable value to the property at all. Discarding 
such exaggerated differences in conclusions, it is clear 
that there will always be room for honest differences of 
opinion on the reserve of caliche, in unexploited 'pampa.' 
It is unsafe to infer that all estimates made by the 
Chilean government engineers for the Fisco, show less 
than the quantity available, since, by careless work 
(which is usual), the existence of barren patches may as 
easily pass unnoted as that of rich 'papas,' or bunches 
of high-grade material. The statement that "cost of 
Chilean nitrate may be lessened in spite of the frequent 
assertions to the contrary," is interesting, and I be- 
lieve it to be true, but not for entirely the same 
reasons as those advanced by your New York con- 
tributor. To one who knows the pampa, it reads like an 
ill-timed jest, when the suggestion is advanced to boil 
the vats of a group of oficinas by steam generated in a 
central plant. The fuel consumed in the boiling of the 
caliche, in the present forms of treatment, is the largest 
single unit of cost, and this steam cannot be conveyed 
economically from one plant to another. As for steam 
generated for power-purposes, a central station to dis- 
tribute electric power would be useful, but the saving 

afforded in fuel and costs would not be likely to bulk 
large when competing for low costs against synthetic 
nitrates, since the direct use of motive power at an 
oficina treatment-plant is relatively small, being largely 
confined to primary crushing, elevating crushed caliche, 
pumping solutions, and generating electric light. The 
oficinas of sueh companies as the Loa, or the Antofa- 
gasta, which are scattered over a tract of ground some 
25 miles long by 6 miles wide, show the validity of this 
view. A late resume of the economic situation in Chile, 
as affecting the nitrate business, written by F. Mella, of 
Santiago, which appeared in the Mining and Scientific 
Press, gives a very true sketch of the present difficulties, 
and the comparisons of pampa-power installations with 
high-grade metropolitan power-plants, like the Com- 
monwealth Edison, for example, as suggested in the 
New York letter, are quite beside the point. The essen- 
tial difference lies in the relative ease of distribution of 
power, and the permanence of the demand for it. ■ 

As to "an entire lack of any idea of centralization in 
the nitrate business," I agree, with some reservations. 
Your correspondent may not know that part of this 
diffusion of effort is enforced by an obedience to the 
Chilean mining code, which provided that only a cer- 
tain maximum area of ground might be devoted to the 
purpose of nitrate making in a single oficina. This 
provision was supposed to guard the interests of the 
Chilean laborer, and thus always to supply him with 
numerous centres of employment. It is unfortunate, 
and has caused the erection of some small and econom- 
ically unjustified oficinas, in the past. 

The lack of co-operation complained of is more evi- 
dent among the several companies than among the 
group of oficinas comprising any one company organiza- 
tion, as in most eases there is an effort to spread the 
overhead charges evenly among the various plants, and 
the staff-organizations of the oficinas cannot now be said 
to be excessively large, whatever they may have been 
before the "War. 

A much-needed innovation is the establishment of an 
organization analogous to the A. I. M. E., but limited 
to the nitrate industry, which would supply the mental 
stimulus and exchange of ideas that now is lacking en- 
tirely. Since the majority of the ' powers- that-be' in the 
nitrate business came by way of the book-keeper's office, 
it is not remarkable that the technique is not of an ex- 
tremely high standard, and this fact operates strongly 
toward clinging to existing plans. Conservatism char- 
acterizes the industry generally, but there are marked 
exceptions, which are growing more and more numerous, 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 27, 1918 

and this conservatism is, itself, not so much an indiffer- 
ence, as it is honest skepticism regarding the possibility 
of improvement, or else it indicates timidity in backing 
any novelty. The result has been- rather amusing when 
it is realized that gyratory crushers, belt-conveyors, and 
recording conveyor-weighers are regarded as great 
novelties even at this time, while three years ago they 
were hardly known here. 

"Lack of co-ordination in research- work" is true 
criticism, and it characterizes other phases of life in 
Chile, besides research work in nitrate making. 

That the "techno-chemical problems involved in the 
treatment of caliche, and in the production of high- 
grade nitrate, are almost negligible," will be a welcome 
surprise to the energetic staff of oficina known as 
Delaware, in Taltal, Chile, where the Duponts have con- 
sidered this problem as being far from "almost negli- 
gible," so much so that they have spent some years in 
arriving at their particular solution of the problem. 
Doubtless they will again be pleased when they hear 
that the "problems of a satisfactory recovery are en- 
tirely mechanical," when they bear in mind their own 
work on the important chemical conditions that govern 
the proper mechanical design of nitrate-extraction 
plants. The mutually inter-related action of the nu- 
merous dissolved salts, which exist in highly concen- 
trated solutions all through the extraction-system of a 
nitrate plant, have been the basis of most interesting 
and profitable research by the chemists of the Dupont 
staff in Chile, as well as the equally important me- 
chanical design. 

When mentioning 'Delaware,' I do not wish to de- 
tract from research work by others in Chile, but it is a 
well-known fact that this oficina has maintained, and 
does now maintain, an unusually large amount of re- 
search study, and it is probably a more interesting ex- 
ample to American readers, on account of its American 
ownership, than any other oficina would be. 

The concluding paragraphs of the New York letter 
are in general agreement with the facts. "Lack of co- 
ordinated research"; "hesitancy of the conservative 
owners to install modern equipment, due to dubious 
results afforded by up-to-date installations of doubtful 
applicability," are both truthful statements. "The au- 
tocratic control of all filter patents" was true at one 
time, but in the fall of 1917, the absurd claim of the 
representative of the Butters filter organization in Chile 
(Leslie Mennell) to the invention and ownership of the 
Oliver filter patents was rejected and nullified by an 
executive decree promulgated by President Juan Luis 
Sanfuentes, of Chile. Hence, this ridiculous situation, 
which was in many ways analogous to the old Moore- 
Butters litigation in the United States, terminated in 
much the same manner, and lias therefore been elimi- 
nated from consideration. 

As to the "mysterious attitude of the pampa chemist," 
this may possibly refer to the semi-annual 'new process' 
for the treatment of caliche, which is evolved from the 
inner consciousness of some resident of Santiago or Val- 

paraiso, and is at once caught up by the local news- 
papers as the long-sought panacea for the nitrate world. 
I have read the specifications of several of these and 
have usually found them to emphasize the non-essentials, 
or to stat% that "este aparato tiene que trabajar, for- 
zosamente." Such episodes certainly tend indirectly to 
cast unfair ridicule upon the unassuming pampa chem- 
ists. Since, in many cases, the oficina chemist is treated 
as little more than a druggist's clerk, and may even 
combine with his own work that of 'bodeguero' (ware- 
houseman), or even 'practicante,' the wound-swabber 
and basin-holder for the local doctor, it is unreasonable 
to expect from such an one, either the fund of available 
information that a thoroughly trained chemist would 
bring to research work, or the energetic interest of a 
well-paid engineer in developing new metallurgical 

I am in touch with the present efforts that are being 
made to improve the operation in nitrate-making, par- 
ticularly as regards economy in treatment, costs, and 
extraction, and with one exception these efforts do not 
limit themselves to the consideration of the use of the 
equipment of one firm alone, as is intimated by your 
correspondent. Modern metallurgical plans and ma- 
chinery are being tried in various places, and whenever 
a device promises utility it is being tested, either at one 
plant, or at another, of the progressive organizations. 
From all these efforts a general fund of data will ac- 
cumulate, and thereby, doubtless, the cost of producing 
Chilean nitrate will be lowered considerably, but the 
export tax imposed by the Chilean government, amount- 
ing to 28d., plus some 60% of super-charge per quintal 
of nitrate shipped, is a great clog on efforts to achieve 
cheap production. However, that is mixed with con- 
siderations foreign to questions of technology. 

Donald F. Irvtn. 

Antofagasta, Chile, May 30. 

Locating Metalliferous Lodes Containing 

The Editor: 

Sir — Referring to the interesting question in the letter 
by J. F. Law, together with your comment, in your issue 
of June 22, I beg to ask whether the interpretation which 
you give does not indicate the possibility of some un- 
pleasant conflict of interests? For example, if a man 
should locate a claim under the old law in order to pos- 
sess himself of metalliferous deposits, might not another 
party, realizing the existence of potash minerals in the 
vein, which the original locator had failed to claim under 
the special potash law, demand from the Department of 
the Interior a prospector's license covering the same 
ground? If, then, he should demonstrate the existence 
of valuable potash minerals in the vein, would the De- 
partment not be obliged to issue a lease to him, resulting 
in the unique situation of two sets of owners having 
rights in the same mine with respect to different sub- 
stances ? Furthermore, if a man should locate a gold mine 

July 27, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


that happened to lie adjacent to a pegmatite dik< 
taining high-grade orthoclase, asaaying l' 1 '. or more in 
potash, might not the innocent gold-miner be interfered 
with seriously by some one else undertaking to locate the 
contiguous dike within his claim? li seems to me thai 

Congre8S must have Overlooked the fact that potash min- 
erals are likely to he found associated with metalliferous 
lodes, even constituting part of the gangue of such lodes. 

The possibility of bringing about such an embarrass- 
ing situation as this for the sake of establishing enough 
of a right to potash to admit of harrassing lode miners 
with the peril of litigation would seem to make it im- 
portant for owners of lode mines to investigate their de- 
posits to ascertain whether potash minerals were present, 
and. if found, to protect themselves by applying for a 
lease under the potash law. 


Goldfield, July 1. 

War Minerals Bill 

The Editor : 

Sir — I am enclosing a copy of a letter I sent to Senator 
"Walsh of Montana this week. If you think proper you 
may publish it. I might add that my interest in the War 
Minerals Bill is not because of a desire to control or to 
regulate the mining interests, for they are doing all in 
their power, but to co-ordinate the work, so as to pre- 
pare to meet deficiencies and, where necessary, to adjust 
the difficulties of small companies and to aid them. Eng- 
land and France have found this necessary. "Why do we 
not profit by their experience ? 

Hon. T. J. Walsh, 

Washington, D. C. 
My dear Senator Walsh : 

Keplying to your kind letter of May 7, I would advise 
you that I was in Washington from May 13 to 16 and 
attended two of the Senate committee hearings on the 
War Minerals Bill. I was fortunate in hearing the testi- 
mony of D. G. Kerr, vice-president of the United States 
Steel Corporation. I hesitate to comment too freely on 
this and other matters lest my remarks may be inter- 
preted as adverse criticism, whereas in reality my inter- 
est is constructive and is to urge legislation that will co- 
ordinate the work coming under this head, thus enabling 
the producers, the consumers, and the Government to 
work together with complete understanding, and in a 
way that will meet the demands of the War for greatly 
increased production. Witnesses have stated to your 
committee that there is already sufficient special law to 
do the things necessary to increase mineral production 
and to protect and encourage it. In any case this, legis- 
lation is scattered and not uniformly interpreted. Dif- 
ferent departments must be consulted and must author- 
ize different proceedings. Red tape must be overcome ; 
authority and centralization must be provided to give 
quick action and to execute a far-seeing plan for provid- 
ing necessary materials. This will he accomplished by 
the War Minerals Bill. It is the principal reason for 

this bill, As to details, 1 believe these have been well 

threshed out in the Eouse ami before the Senate i 

mittee. I will ask for your special consideration of one 

or two items. 

There are many small properties owned by men of 
little or no means that are Qecessarj to the Country at 
this time if production is to be assured. Who is going 
to linanei them ? The big companies have not done so as 
yet, and in any case they have enough to do to gel out 
their production. Besides they are not miners. The 
financiers and the banks cannot or will not because 
prices are far above normal and are not guaranteed for 
a sufficient time to assure them the return of their money, 
and also for the further reason that their profits are 
limited by the Excess Profits Tax Law. The establishing 
of a price for sixty or ninety days does not protect a 
War Industry that it may take six months or a year to 
develop, equip, and bring to a producing state. Most 
of the best and largest mines that can make money under 
normal conditions are now in operation. Their produc- 
tion is insufficient to meet .the needs of the Country. 
Ships are not available to import the material in suffi- 
cient quantities. The Government must provide either 
laws, guarantees, or prices. It may even in some cases 
have to operate. Nothing essential to bringing to us a 
complete victory in this war can be left undone. 

With reference to price-fixing it would seem that one 
fixed price for any product is not just, because large 
rich mines would gain profits, which cannot always be 
guarded against or recovered through excess-profit taxa- 
tion. A 'cost-plus' is likewise objectionable because it 
leads to extravagance. It has not proved uniformly suc- 
cessful in shipbuilding. I can only suggest a 'zoning 
system', combined with a graduated scale based on the 
size and richness of the property, and on operating and 
transportation charges from the mine to the market. 
This would correspond to a preferential such as has been 
given to small coal mines. Governmental operation 
should be authorized in the case of urgently needed ma- 
terials, but only as a last expedient when a mine is closed 
because of litigation; when the owner refuses to work 
the property ; or when it is owned by an alien enemy or 
doubt exists as to whether the ownership is truly Amer- 
ican, that is, owned by naturalized citizens born in 
enemy countries. 

I shall be glad if you will bring these matters before 
the Committee with the further comment that the 
measure will assure the needs of the Country and be 
popular if the administrator selected is a man with long 
practical experience and training in mining as well as 
business — such men for example as B. B. Thayer and 
Pope Yeatman. 

George Warren Tower, Jr. 

New Rochelle, New York, May 29. 

Acetic acid prices have not been fixed, but by agree- 
ment the quotation is 15fc. for 100% as the basic price, 
and 19c. for glacial acetic. These are based on acetate 
of lime at 4 cents. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 27, 1918 

Expansion of Metals by Heat 


The expansion of metals by heat is usually given as 
the percentage of elongation that takes place when 
samples of the different metals of equal lengths are 
raised in temperature an equal number of degrees, for 
instance, from 500 to 501°F., thus establishing a co- 
efficient of linear expansion. "When the expansion is 
given volumetrically, that is, by equal volumes of the 
dissimilar metals, the relations of the co-efficients are 
considered to be the same, that is, the metal is supposed 
to expand equally in all directions, the volumetric ex- 
pansion being the linear expansion multiplied by three. 
The irregularity of these co-efficients for different metals 
has led to much discussion as to the cause when the 
great irregularity observed is not due to the peculiar 
behavior of the metals but to the way in which the 
co-efficients have been determined. The figures given by 
different experimenters lack uniformity, so that only ap- 
proximate relationships can be shown, but they are near 
enough for present purposes. 

It must be evident that if the temperature of one cubic 
foot of nickel is raised 1" F. with a specific heat of 59.97, 
and the temperature of 1 cu. ft. of lead is raised 1° F. 
with a specific heat of 21.97, and the relative expansions 
are compared, the comparison does not involve two things 
that are equal or proportionate. Almost three times as 
much energy has been added to the nickel as to the lead, 
and it should be clear that co-efficients determined in this 
way must lead to confusion. To get the proper relation- 
ship in the expansion equal units of energy must be 
added to each. If the co-efficient of expansion, as deter- 
mined by equal units of temperature, is divided by the 
volumetric specific heat we will get co-efficients by equal 
units of energy, and these will be found to be, in a gen- 
eral way, inversely proportionate to the force of atomic 
attraction, as indicated by the number of degrees between 
normal (the temperature at which the specific heat was 
taken, say 500° absolute) and the fusion temperature 
for each metal. The co-efficients of expansion would 
seem to increase as the metal gets softer, but the figures 
are not regular enough to admit of saying that this is 
actually so. 

they are no doubt far from being correct. The column 
'Co-efficients of expansion by equal units of tempera- 
ture' is supposed to be the co-efficients per cubic foot of 
metal, in each case raised in temperature from 500° to 
501°, thaj is, raised 1°, which for nickel would give 
59.97X778 = 46,356 ft.-lb., while for lead it would 
represent 21.97 X 778 = 17,062 ft.-lb. of energy, and 
for the other metals an amount proportionate to their 
specific heats. The column ' Co-efficients of expansion by 
equal units of energy, ' gives the co-efficients by tempera- 
ture divided by the specific heat in each case, which gives 
the expansion of one cubic foot of each of the metals, due 
to the absorption of 778 ft.-lb. of energy, and these co- 
efficients, as will be seen, are in a general way, inversely 
as the force of cohesion, as indicated by the melting tem- 
peratures, or just what might naturally be expected. 

The confusion as to the expansion of metals by heat 
may be said to come from three things: first, from esti- 
mating the specific heat of metals by gravimetric propor- 
tion; second, from failure to differentiate between heat 
and temperature ; and, third, from the contemplation of 
latent heat, something which does not really exist. 

Government standards for electro-plating have 
been fixed at a conference of military authorities with 
representative members of the plating industry, officials 
of the American Electro-platers' Society and members of 
the Bureau of Standards staff. It-was decided that zinc- 
plating is the most efficient method of preventing cor- 
rosion of iron and steel. No specifications are necessary 
for materials not subject to severe corrosion, but black 
finishes should be specified as 'black nickel,' and copper- 
sulphide finishes eliminated. The Preece test, the NaOH 
test, and SbCL, tests, are the most efficient for testing 
zinc-plated products. The NaCl spray test is advised 
until a more suitable one is found. The current unit 
test is adopted for determining the thickness of zinc to 
be deposited to withstand the test. For surfaces of sep- 
arate units, the minimum amount of zinc should be de- 
posited that will withstand the corrosion-test. As a 
basis, the weight deposited should approximate 50 mg. 
per sq. in. (6.45 sq. cm.) of surface. ' Occlusion of H 
from pickling and plating solutions containing free acids 
cause crystallization of high-carbon steel, so the wet 
method of tumbling, together with the use of an abrasive 

Co-efficients of Expansion of Metals 

Co-efficients of 

Weight expansion by 

Specific heat per cu. ft. Specific heat equal units of 

"etal per lb. lb. per cu. ft. temperature 

Platinum 0.032 1.347 43.10 0.0000144 

Nickel 0.109 548 59.97 0.0000208 

Iron 0.113 480 55.58 0.0000197 

Copper 0.095 562 52.44 0.0000266 

Gold 0.032 1.200 38.40 0.0000236 

Silver 0.057 655 37.33 0.0000324 

Aluminum 0.214 167 35.10 0.0000369 

Sine 0.095 436 41.42 0.0000422 

Tin 0.056 458 25.64 0.0000349 

Lead 0.031 709 21.97 0.0000471 

Antimony 0.051 421 21.42 0.0000388 

Co-efficients of 
expansion by 
equal units of 


Tensile strength 

per sq. in., 














to melt 
above 500 






In preparing the above table the figures have been 
taken from the best sources of information available, but 

with an alkaline soda solution is suggested. Zinc-plated 
steel is protected by paraffin and paraffin oil. 

.Tulv 27, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 



Conditions in Russia 


*To understand events in a large country like Russia 
it is important to know what this country represents; 
what are the chief characteristics of the people and the 
general economic conditions. 

I would remind you that the total area of Russia was 
over 8,500,000 square miles, with a population of 181,- 
000,000 people. The United States has 3,500,000 square 
. miles and 100,000,000 people. Two-thirds of the whole 
population are Russian Slavs, divided into Great Rus- 
sians 66%, Little Russians 26%, and "White Russians 
7%, besides 8,000,000 Poles and other Slav branches. 
Then come the representatives of the Indo-European 
group; Letts, Livonians, Gmuds, numbering 3,000,000. 
The Western European races include Germans, Swedes, 
Norwegians, English, Danes, and Dutch, in all about 
2,000,000. The Roman family is represented by 1,500,- 
000 Rumanians, French, and Italians. The Semitic 
race, besides Jews, includes Syro-Chaldeans and Arabs. 
The Ural-Altai people are represented by 3,500,000 
Finns and 14,000,000 Tatars. The religions practised 
in Russia are many. The principal ones are the Greek 
Catholic about 70%, the Roman Catholic 9%, Moham- 
medans 11%, Jews 4%, Protestants and Evangelists 5%. 
From these figures you can see that Russia is not a na- 
tion but a gigantic conglomeration of races, religions, 
and languages. 

The first question that arises is, how could such a 
nation have so long been a strong military power, and 
how could such an empire collapse so easily? 

Russia was created by the Great Russians. This race, 
even at an early stage of development, showed construc- 

*An address delivered before the Engineers Club, San 
Francisco, on July 2, 1918. 

tive force. In the past centuries there have been just 
two ideas that in the minds of the peasants have stood 
for the State; they were the Czar and the Church. 
During the feudal period the Czar was the sole sovereign, 
the supreme judge, with the power of life and death over 
all. You will remember that in Russia feudalism ended 
not so very long ago. The peasant of earlier days 
neither saw nor comprehended the complex connections 
between political, social, and economic forces ; to him the 
Czar was not only monarch in the social and political 
domain, but in order to explain the life and activities of 
nature, he accepted him as the personification of Provi- 

The psychology of the lower class is simple. A Rus- 
sian must see and touch a thing in order to appreciate 
and understand it. The men who created the Orthodox 
Church in Russia realized this phase of the Slav mind; 
hence that religion is founded on the worship of God 
through the pictures of Christ, the Holy Virgin, and the 
Saints. The direct conception of an abstract idea is 
foreign to the mind of the peasant. Therefore the Church 
provides an innumerable list of saints whose pictures or 
ikons are the media through which the peasant mind 
approaches the Deity. Similarly, to the peasant, the 
idea of the State was expressed by the person of the 
Czar and by the institution of the Church. The pictures 
of the Czar used to be as common as the ikons ; they ex- 
ercised the same function in relation to the Government 
as the religious pictures did toward the Church. In 
short, the Czar and the Church were the keystones in 
the arch of government. In a day, when the country 
was entirely unprepared for such a change, the Czar 
ceased to exist and the Church was eliminated. To the 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 27, 1918 

common people, the State seemed to have disappeared. 
They have never had a national idea save in terms of 
Church and Czar, and when both were removed their 
minds lapsed into pitiful confusion. The masses did 
not in the least realize the significance of what had taken 
place, there being no strong educated class to guide them. 

The division of the Russian population into classes 
does not mean much. We have the following divisions: 
Peasants, burgesses, non-Slav citizens, Cossacks, clergy, 
honorary citizens, and nobles. The peasants constitute 
about 77% and the burgesses about 11%; but for our 
purposes it is better to say that we have two classes, one 
educated, and the other illiterate. A very small portion 
of the latter has been through the primary schools, but 
within a few years they have forgotten what they 
learned, because they had no use for learning. The 
average percentage of illiteracy in Russia is 79. The 
average literacy for both sexes is 21%. It is 29% for 
men, 13% for women. Of course, in some towns we 
have a higher percentage of literacy, up to 79, 55, and 
33% in some Western cities. These two classes, as I 
said above, one more or less educated and the other 
wholly uneducated, have never been welded together. 
Russia has had no class that understood the vital neces- 
sity of industrial development. 

For a large group among the educated people we have 
a special term, the 'intelligencia.' These persons have 
been brought up on all kinds of philosophies and social 
ideas, with an inclination to "save the world," to "assist 
the unfortunate," and generally to improve conditions 
by talking. They have tried to make the peasants feel that 
they are unfortunate and oppressed, and that they must 
demand their rights. Such suggestions, combined with 
the tyranny of an autocratic government, and without 
the development of the productive forces of the nation, 
created dissatisfied talkers who did not know their own 
wants. The intelligencia has been deprived of all ele- 
mentary rights and, oppressed by the autocracy, it had 
no ability to create an organizing and productive class. 

The conditions of Russian life before the War can be 
described in the words of Gregor Alexinsky : ' ' Contra- 
dictions abound in all spheres of Russian life. In the 
economic domain we see modern capitalism developing 
itself with American celerity, alongside medieval villages 
whose economy is still almost natural. In the social 
domain the proletariat, in part conscious and organized, 
eager to procure the triumph of the ideal of universal 
happiness, and trained in the ideas of a theoretical 
socialism, live side by side with the feudal 'seigneurs' 
who do not recognize even the most elementary demands 
of justice. In the political domain the most sincere and 
ardent aspirations toward liberty contend against the 
worst possible methods of repression. And in the liter- 
ary and artistic domain, while many Russians are 
known far beyond the frontiers of their country for the 
novel simplicity and profundity of their thought, 120,- 
000,000 inhabitants of Russian soil are absolutely illit- 
erate. The youth of the intellectual and working classes 
are materialistic atheists, but the most barbarous preju- 

dices, the most primitive fetishisms, constitute the men- 
tality of the Russian peasant. On the one hand is an 
arrogant aristocracy, incessantly feasting in stone-built 
capitals. On the other hand are millions of human 
beings sheltered under straw roofs and nourished by 
black bread." 

I would mention that some prominent statesmen of 
Russia have many times put forth the idea that it is bet- 
ter to leave the peasants in entire ignorance than to give 
them only a little education ; they insisted that a small 
amount of education produces discontent and socialistic- 
ideas without compensating advantages. Therefore 
these statesmen have hampered educational develop- 
ment. I can make a comparison of the Russian intelli- 
gencia, thoroughly educated but not practical and partly 
idealistic, to a thin layer on an ocean of ignorance. 
While the ocean was quiet, the intelligencia floated 
safely, but when the ocean became stormy, the layer was- 
suddenly broken up into many pieces and was driven 
back and forth on the restless waves without any organi- 
zation, sense, or ability to do anything. 

The contrasts of Russia are caused by the clash of 
modern European, or if you will, Universal ideas, and 
the remains of the Middle Ages, the heritage of the 
period when Russia still lived her own life and was not 
yet drawn into that mill of the world which crushes be- 
tween its mighty stones the grain of humanity to make 
the bread of the future. 

Before the beginning of the world-war Russia was the 
largest civilized empire in the world, a Colossus, but 
with legs of clay. The foundation of government lacked 
two elements, education and economies. Now I shall 
turn to detailed figures in order better to illustrate the- 
internal life of Russia. The density of population 
varies greatly and is comparatively sparse. It averages 
10 inhabitants to the square kilometre. The densest 
population is 114 in the province of Moscow, 104 in Kiev, 
whereas the least density is 0.4 in Tenesei. Of the total 
population 13% is in the towns and 87% is rural. 

In comparison with other civilized countries Russia is- 
first in the number of inhabitants and in having the 
smallest average per square mile. In 1912, out of 1063 
towns and urban settlements with a population exceed- 
ing 10,000 (the number of urban settlements is 182), 
only 219 had an organized water-supply, that is. 20% 
of the total. Of the remaining 204 towns only 167 pro- 
vide water to private houses. In 52 urban settlements-- 
the inhabitants have to fetch water from central reser- 
voirs. There are settlements with a population exceed- 
ing 100,000 that have no water-supply. Only 59 sys- 
tems with extensions to houses have filters. Only 40 
towns have canalization or sewerage. The refuse is 
carted to some distance from the town in the majority 
of municipalities, but a few towns have special space 
reserved for the purpose. In 61 cases the refuse is- 
washed by high-water, in 24 by ground-water, and in 
5 by both. In 492 cases all refuse is thrown into the 
sea, rivers, and ditches, or not removed at all. 

In the whole of Russia, out of 1231 towns 1068 have 

Julv 27, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


public Lighting; of these, 162 are lighted by electricity, 
128 by gas, 1028 by kerosene; 1047 towns have slaughter- 
houses; 1136 have ore-brigades, ~>t have tramways, 32 

census, the contagious cases and infectious diseases av- 
erage 19,500,000 per annum, this being 12% of the total 
population. The proportion of diseases was as follows: 

| ' ' M f ' ^'^*^- 


Itch •:•: 

Malaria is 



Typhi!* a,;. 

Trachoma r> 

Dysentery 4,3 

This indicates the lack 
of hygiene and rudimen- 
tary sanitation. We had 
about 22,000 doctors, in- 
eluding 1750 women. In 
European Russia there is 
one doctor for 1300 people 
in the towns and one for 
21,900 in villages. In 
Asiatic Russia is one doc- 
tor for 2800 townspeople 
and one for 37,600 vil- 

have telegraphic service, 
and 314 have telephones. 
There are 902 towns with 
public libraries and read- 
ing-rooms (the United 
States has 18,000 libra- 
ries) , 76 towns publish. 919 
periodicals, 178 towns pub- 
lish 576 newspapers (the 
largest circulation being 
about 200,000 per day). 
The United States has 
more than 22,000 periodi- 
cals. About 510 towns have 
printing-presses, 124 have 
typo-lithographic establish- 
ments. There are 136 towns 
with museums. 

According to the last 



lagers. The number of 
beds in hospitals has beea 
about 220,000. During the 
War it has been enor- 
mously increased. Of every 
1000 infants 267 die before 
they are a year old. The 
birth rate is 45 per 1000. 
The following figures 
show the state of educa- 
tion: Russia has 52 su- 
perior schools, together 
with 135,000 middle and 
primary schools with 9,- 
000,000 scholars, of which 
82% attended elementary 
schools, 26% secondary- 
schools, 3% special ele- 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 27, 1918 

mentary and secondary schools, and 20.8% had the 
higher education. The remaining 7% attended private 
schools. The annual expenditure during recent years 
has been 150 million rubles, or $70,000,000. So as to 
make the comparison easier I shall remind you that you 
have in the United States about 270,000 elementary 
schools, and that your school and college enrollment is 
22,480,000, with 700,000 teachers and an annual expendi- 
ture of over $800,000,000. 

The relative importance of the different occupations 
in Russia is as follows: Rural 77%, manufacturing and 
other industries 10%, private and personal services 
4.5%, trade and commerce 3.8%, transportation 1%, 
mining 0.4%, professions connected with public needs 
0.7%, government and public service 0.6%. In the 
United States agriculture takes 35.7%, manufacturing 
and industry 24.4%, commerce, trade, and transporta- 
tion 16.4%, and personal services 19.2%. 

In order to outline the conditions of economic life of 
Russia I shall mention that of the total production of 
Russia (which we reckon at 20 billion rubles), more than 
half is agriculture. The land question is the basic ques- 
tion for Russia. The country has a tremendous area 
suitable for agriculture, forming one-third of the total 
surface in European Russia, something around a billion 
acres. Moreover, there are large arable areas in Siberia 
and Middle Asia. Of this land 39% is owned by the 
Government, 36% belongs to peasants, and 25% to 
other private owners. Five-sixths of all the peasant- 
owned land is communal, that is, a community uses the 
arable land, the woods, the meadows, and water-supply 
in common. 

About 270,000 acres are sown with cereals, potatoes, 
and fodder-grass. As to crops, I need only mention that 
the largest output of cereals in Russia is rye, 35 million 
tons; wheat, 24 million tons; oats, 13.5 million tons; 
barley, 10 million tons; and potatoes, 27 million tons. 
If we compare Russia with the United States according 
to the relative area under cultivation, we find that in the 
United States it constitutes 10% of the total land, 
whereas in Russia it constitutes but 5%. Taken with 
reference to the population of the two countries, we 
find that to each inhabitant of the United States 
there are about 2\ acres of cultivated land, while in 
Russia there are only \\ acres. The prevalent method 
of agriculture in Russia is the three-crop system. Rus- 
sia has a low average yield of cereals per acre, averag- 
ing 10 bushels for wheat against 15 to 18 in the United 
States, 17 in Rumania, 20 in Germany, 30 in Sweden, 
.34 in England, and 44 in Denmark. At the same 
time the expenditure per acre for soil improvement 
in Russia is the smallest. In Norway it is $1, in Prussia 
67c, in Sweden 25c, in the United States 21c, and in 
Russia 5c. per acre. On account of faulty methods of 
fertilization, the lack of irrigation, and the primitive 
implements employed, the peasant's economy is com- 
pletely dependent upon natural conditions, or, as they 
say, upon God. In mining and metallurgy Russia, de- 
spite her vast resources, is far behind the United States, 
the first producer of metals in the world. 

Russia, United States, 

tons tons 

Coal 40.000.000 585.000.fl00 

Pitr-iron 4.500.000 60.000.000 

Copper 40.000 1.000.000 

The production of lead and zinc, silver and tungsten, 
has been merely started; only in platinum do we lead 
the world, producing 95% of the total output. 

In the consumption of all staples Russia is at the bot- 
tom in comparison with other nations, thus: 

Russia. United States, 

lb. per head lb. per head 

Coffee 0.14 11.0 

Tea 0.91 1.1 

Surar 0.6 1.6 

Pigr-iron 50.0 1.100.0 

Coal 440.0 11.700.0 

The consumption of copper, lead, and spelter is even 
on a smaller scale, so I need not mention these figures. 

The hunger for land on the part of the Russian peas- 
antry has been interpreted by Russian socialists as an 
indication that the peasants are natural socialists. This 
idea was supported by the fact that, as I have mentioned 
before, five-sixths of them hold their land in common. 
But this conclusion is absolutely wrong, because the Rus- 
sian peasant is a socialist only up to the moment when 
his land-hunger is satisfied and he becomes a private 
land-owner. After he gets the land and tills it, he will 
not allow any socialist to take the land from him, nor 
will he try socialistic experiments with it himself. In 
confirmation of this idea it may be stated that in seven 
years, after the enactment of a law permitting the peas- 
ants to go out of their communities and settle on the 
isolated farm-lands, 5,000,000 peasants settled upon 86 
million acres. In order to show how rapidly the peas- 
ants applied for land, it is interesting to mention the 
following figures : 

Applied in Households 

1907 219,000 

1908 380.000 

1909 704.000 

1910 650.000 

1911 678.000 

1912 1.226,000 

1913 1,105.000 


All this shows that Russia affords a big field for de- 
velopment. She has one of the largest systems of rail- 
roads in Europe, about 50,000 miles, but when you make 
a calculation per square mile of per head of population, 
the figures are small. They represent 1 kilometre per 
100 sq. km. of area in European Russia and 0.07 km. 
per 100 sq. km. in Asia. For 10,000 inhabitants, it rep- 
resents 4 kilometres in European Russia, and 5.8 km. 
in Asiatic Russia. In the United States the figures are 
4.3 km. per 100 sq. km. and 42 km. per 10,000 population. 

It will be seen from these figures that, despite the 
fact that Russia was an old empire, she was quite a 
young country from the standpoint of development, 
from the first necessaries up to the edcuation of the 
people. She dreamed of freedom, but she was oppressed 
by the autocracy. She was poor and undeveloped, with 
practically no industries, but with faith in her future. 
And when the Hun started his drive for world-conquest, 
this same Russia promptly mobilized eight million sol- 
diers of the very best quality, who started a brave offen- 
sive against the Germans and Anstrians. When these 

July 27, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


half-educated people saw that the German was a treach- 
erous enemy, killing the wounded and torturing the 

prisoners, the Russian soldiers were fired with resolu- 
tion, and made a marvelous campaign in East Prussia 
and in the Carpathians, taking more than l.">00,000 
Austrian and German prisoners. Through the short- 
sightedness and stupidity of the Government the soldiers 
did not have enough munitions and implements; they 
fought bare-handed and yielded only when they had 
nothing hut sticks to oppose to rifles. By this campaign 


Russia saved France and Europe, and gave to England 
time to prepare her army. In three years Russia has 
mobilized 16,000,000 men and has lost 7,000,000 in cas- 
ualties and sickness. 

The Russians, after having got freedom so easily — for 
the power of the autocracy fell as quickly and as easily 
as a rotten apple falls from the tree in a light breeze — 
accepted the promise of the socialists and the German 
spies that they would at once receive peace, land, and 
prosperity if they would lay down their arms. Though 
they had suffered so much from German cruelty during 
the War, nevertheless they believed that there was no 
use in further fighting, that all people are brothers, that 
the War was a device of emperors and capitalists to gain 
power and money from the common people. The poor 
peasants, with their eye on the land, thought that if they 
could have plenty of it they would not .need to fight 
Germany, and that Germany would make peace at once 
if they practised the principle of non-annexation and no 

indemnities. While the new-hum Russian free citizen 
talked continually about the principles of universal 
happiness, the German agents were doing their destruc- 
tive work. They succeeded in disorganizing the Russian 
army by introducing so-called democracy into the army, 
namely, the election of officers. The result of this prop- 
aganda is well known. The Russian army of more than 
12,000.000 men disappeared as snow before the rising 


sun of Russian liberty. Most of the officers were killed, 
and instead of the army came an armed mob, which, 
under the guidance of extremists, idealists, and German 
agents, is ruling Russia now. 

The Russian soldier, lacking education, especially 
political education, without any knowledge of statecraft, 
readily accepted the simple idea suggested by the Ger- 
mans and the Bolsheviki: "Why fight and face death 
when you now have full liberty ? Go back to your homes, 
take possession of the land and divide the wealth of the 
capitalists, who are the enemies of the oppressed peas- 
ants." "And go back quickly," warned the propagan- 
dist, "because if you come too late, all the land will be 
divided among the people and you will be left out." , In 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 27, 1918 

the first month the number of desertions from the Rus- 
sian army was increased by 2,000,000 men. 

I often hear the question, "Where are the Russian in- 
telligent classes? Why don't they help Russia to re- 
cover herself?" You know the answer now. The pro- 
portion of intelligent people is small, scattered, and now 
for the most part killed. The Russian intelligencia is 
paralyzed, and, being under the suspicion of starting a 
revolution against the Bolsheviki, the small number still 
alive is deprived of arms and of any means of starting 
a counter-revolution. Even the banks are seized by the 
mob in order not to allow somebody to get money to start 
a drive against the Bolsheviki. Russia is like a wealthy 
house where lived a large family. The house is attacked 
by burglars and the head of the family is killed. What 
can the housewife and the small children do against 
these burglars when they have no means of defending 
themselves, and when the natural protector is killed? 
Would you accuse the children of approving the work of 
the burglars? No. In the same way the Russian people, 
when even the delegates of the peasants to the Consti- 
tutional Assembly were driven out at the point of the 
bayonet by the Bolsheviki, went back to their homes, not 
being able to organize. They are awaiting events. From 
the outside it would seem that the Bolsheviki are ruling 
Russia with the consent of the Russian people, but the 
Bolsheviki acquired control of Russia in the same way 
in which a small boy with a whip acquires control of a 
large bull with a ring in its nose. 

Mankind should be thankful to the Russian people 
for what has happened, because at Russia's expense and 
suffering there has been made on a large scale an ex- 
periment in socialism that proves the extreme danger of 
introducing it under unfavorable conditions. The re- 
sults of this experiment will save the rest of the world 
from similar experiments and similar sufferings. It 
seems to me that the conditions in Russia are already 
helping the American people to be more united and to 
win the War before undertaking to settle social problems. 

And now what to do for Russia? There is only one 
answer: Help her. This help must be both practical 
and sentimental, economic and moral. It is quite clear 
to everybody who knows the Russian resources and the 
German ability to penetrate a country, that so long as 
the Allies permit Germany to stand with one foot on the 
Russian border, the victories of the Western front will 
be incomplete. You will have to twist the tail of the 
German in order to get relief on the Western front. 

Prom our side, American help will show to the world 
that might is not right, and that, as we say, "God is not 
in force, but in the truth." 

Asphalt manufactured from domestic petroleum dur- 
ing 1917 amounted to 701,809 4ons, valued at $7,734,691. 
Of this, California produced 220,294 tons of solid asphalt 
from 14 refineries, and 85,134 tons of liquid products. 
Asphalt from Mexican sources totaled 645,613 tons, worth 
$7,441,813. Imports were 187,886 tons, and exports 
30,107 tons. 

Preservation of Pit-Timber 

In view of the importance of preventing wastage in 
pit-timber, the British Department of Scientific and 
IndustriakResearch has issued a bulletin in which Percy 
Groom suggests preventive and remedial measures 
against decay. He points out that the fungi, which are 
for the most part responsible for the decay, often clothe 
the surface of the wood with a fluffy or cotton-like ma- 
terial (spawn) which rapidly spreads, and also produces 
fructifications that emit spores which, conveyed through 
the air, may alight on and attack other wood. Colliery 
timbermen should be taught to recognize the spawn and 
fructifications, and, starting from the intake, and travel- 
ing with the air currents to the return ways, they should 
periodically inspect the timber. Every fructification 
should be removed by cutting away the portion of wood 
to which it is attached, and should then be placed in a 
pail, carried to the surface, and burnt. For dealing 
with the spawn the men should carry a swab, cloths, 
and a pail containing an antiseptic solution ; the anti- 
septics suggested, in order of preference, are creosote 
and its various derivatives, zinc chloride, and copper 
sulphate, though the last should not be used where the 
mine-water is rich in iron. All the accessible wood 
should be washed with the solution, and the spawn re- 
moved. In this way the growth of spawn over the sur- 
face would be checked and its transference to other 
parts of the mine prevented. Preventive methods de- 
pend on rendering the wood immune to infection by 
fungi, through coating or impregnating it with the anti- 

Zirconium minerals are used chiefly as refractory 
material, which melts only at an extremely high temper- 
ature and is very resistant to the action of fluxes and 
slags. Zirconium fire-brick — made of a combination of 
zirconium oxide with a proper binder — promises to be 
extensively used. The fused oxide of zirconium expands 
so little on being heated that crucibles, muffles, combus- 
tion tubes, and similar articles made of it are not broken 
by sudden changes of temperature. Several alloys of 
zirconium have unusual properties. A zirconium steel 
is said to be particularly suited for making armor- 
plate, armor-piercing projectiles, and bullet-proof metal ; 
a new patented alloy of zirconium with nickel, called 
cooperite, is extremely hard and is particularly well 
adapted for making cutting tools. Zirconium compounds 
are used also as incandescent material, as an opaeifier 
in enamels, and in making paint and abrasives. 

Lithophone is now selling at 7-Jc. per pound, this 
price to rule until September. The manufacturers of 
lithophone experience difficulty in obtaining deliveries 
of crude barytes from mines in the Southern States. 
Domestic off-color barytes now command $22 to $24 per 
ton, and pure white floated $32 to $36. 

Asbestos of domestic origin sold in 1917 amounted to 
1683 tons, valued at $506,056, an increase of 13%. 

July 27, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


The Ruth Flotation Machine 


Machinery for concentrating minerals by oil flotation 
is of many designs. New schemes come to the attention 


of the public frequently. Every method is aimed to take 
advantage of the phenomena observed by each particular 

Oil flotation is not one process, but several. It is diffi- 
cult to explain to a layman just what is meant by flota- 
tion. There are so many schemes, each founded upon a 
different principle or theory, that the flotation of min- 
erals has become the work of technical specialists. After 
pioneers in this technical field had spent years in study, 


Fig. 2. operating with small, amount op oil 

development, and litigation, a student at the Colorado 
School of Mines, who had previously worked in mills, be- 
came so intensely interested in the process that he de- 
cided to make it his specialty. He equipped a private 
laboratory for research and he proved certain principles 
he had formulated. Finally he. set about to design a 
machine to apply these principles commercially. This 
refers to Joseph P. Ruth Jr., of Denver. 

The Euth flotation machine was not put upon the 
market until its efficiency had been thoroughly demon- 
strated by long laboratory experimentation. Its in- 
ventor designed and built it to. accomplish specific things. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 27, 1918 

He did not announce his findings immediately, but 
waited until he had proved, beyond all doubt, his ability 
to duplicate results with all the common sulphide ores 
upon a large scale. His experimental machine was con- 
structed with transparent plate-glass sides that permit- 
ted him to closely observe phenomena occurring under 
varying conditions. He was rewarded by finding that 
his apparatus would carry out his theories. It remained 
for him to modify his machine so as to simplify its manu- 
facture and render it thoroughly substantial under hard 
operating conditions. 

Experimenting with the small laboratory device 
known as a bubble-tester, Mr. Ruth noted the familiar 
phenomenon of the adhesion of sulphide particles to 
bubbles of air. If a bubble be brought into contact with 
a stationary particle of the mineral submerged in pure 
water, the latter will affix itself thereto. Oil does not 
apparently enter into this attraction. The experiment 
is not a new one, by any means, but it had much to do 
with Ruth's further research. He next added tiny 
amounts of soluble oil to the water and found the same 
adherence of the mineral to the bubble — with this differ- 
ence: the greater the proportion of oil dissolved in the 
water, the smaller the mineral particles that would ad- 
here to the bubbles. 

All his experiments up to this point were performed 
with stationary bubbles and minerals. He analyzed the 
actions of the various flotation machines then in use and 
took note of the fact that, almost without exception, flota- 
tion practices called for the agitation of minerals and 
bubbles so that there was considerable relative motion 
between them. The next step was to experiment again 
and to secure comparative results when both these ele- 
ments are in motion relatively, when either one is at rest 
and when both move at the same speed in the same direc- 
tion. The experiments demonstrated that the mutual 
attraction between bubbles and sulphide minerals re- 
mains constant under the varying conditions, but that 
the best attachment of the minerals to the bubbles takes 
place when there is the least amount of relative motion. 
This finding is in strict harmony with physical laws. 

Another line of investigation covered the effect of 
varying the size and the number of bubbles. The result 
was simply the verification of the perfectly obvious sur- 
mise that the greater the number of bubbles in a unit 
volume of pulp, the less chance there is for a particle of 
mineral to escape attachment. A corollary to this is that 
there should be the greatest possible diffusion of the 
bubbles throughout the pulp. 

"Working along the lines suggested by such conclusions, 
Mr. Euth devised an apparatus intended to accomplish 
two things, namely, to thoroughly aerate the pulp and to 
secure a minimum relative motion between bubbles and 
mineral particles. To attain these ends he hit upon two 
exceedingly simple devices. The chamber in his machine 
corresponding to the agitation compartment in other ma- 
chines of this same general type (see illustration) is of 
uniform cross-section so that the pulp is a column ascend- 
ing at a constant speed, the particles of ore and the 
bubbles rising at practically the same speed, thus secur- 

ing the highest approximation to no relative motion be- 
tween the two important sets of factors. The portion of 
his machine that takes the place of the agitator in a Min- 
erals Separation unit is known as the 'gas-distributer.' 
Its purpose is neither to agitate nor to stir. It is a single 
casting in the form of a closed type of impeller. Air 
enters the machine through the hollow vertical shaft 
from above and is discharged through four hooded port* 
arranged upon the upper surface of this distributer. 
Simultaneously the pulp is drawn into the distributer 
from below and, passing through compartments wholly 
separate from those conducting the air, is discharged 
through four ports spaced between the air ports. The 
distributer, revolving at 270 r.p.m., causes an intimate 
association of the pulp and air as they emerge from the 
impeller and start traveling upward. This method of 
throwing the bubbles and the minerals upward simul- 
taneously and at the same velocity obviates all counter- 
currents, with the consequence that the air-bubbles have 
an ideal opportunity to become loaded with mineral 

During his investigations, Ruth reached a conclusion 
that stands at variance with the beliefs held by the 
majority of flotation experts. This conclusion is that the 
use of oil in flotation has no bearing upon the wetting 
of the mineral particles, but that the prime function of 
oil is to so influence the physical consistence of the water 
as to cause it to become more thoroughly diffused with 
air-bubbles. He demonstrates this phenomenon with a 
small machine fitted with transparent plate-glass sides. 
If this be filled with pure clear water and the distributer 
be started, the water immediately becomes charged with 
bubbles of fairly large size, all rising in step with the 
water. A drop of oil is then added; as soon as it has 
time to dissolve and to begin issuing from the distributer, 
the water turns milky white, owing to the increase from 
relatively few large bubbles of air to millions of small 
ones. The photographs (Fig. 1 and 2) show this labora- 
tory machine running at the same speed, and mixing 
precisely the same volumes of air during both phases of 
the experiment. Mr. Ruth states that any substance, 
whether it be common salt or any other chemical, that 
will cause a similar diminution in the size of the bubbles 
will work equally as well as oil in flotation. 

The physics of this effect has not been satisfactorily 
explained. Ruth asserts that all oils are more or less 
soluble in water, some being wholly soluble while others 
dissolve to a very limited degree. It is the soluble por- 
tion of any oil, he believes, that indirectly causes the col- 
lection of the concentrate. This idea differs radically 
from the one generally accepted, but it seems proved by 
this simple experiment. If ore be fed to the machine 
after stable conditions have become established with a 
small amount of oil in the water, there does not appear to- 
be any change in the number of bubbles per unit of pulp 
volume. Agitation tends to increase the solubility of 
any oil. There is a fixed proportion beyond which the 
amount of oil dissolved in the water becomes inefficient. 
The selection of an oil, then, depends primarily upon the- 
type of machine used and the violence of agitation of the 

July 27, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


pulp. With the Ruth machine, it is believed that all 
ores may be treated with equally efficient results it' that 
particular oil be selected that will reduce the hubbies 
sufficiently in diameter without unduly oiling the water. 
Again, the gurden of ground ore in the pulp makes no 
difference in the number nor size of the bubbles. The 
bubbles should not be too minute or they will not be able 
to buoy the mineral particles that may become attached. 
It' the slime can be caused to segregate into small masses 
by this sort of coagulation, these small masses will then 
he aeted upon by the bubble precisely as though they 
were simple mineral particles and they will be floated 
and collected with the froth. 

Success in treating any given ore in this machine de- 
depends primarily upon the use of an oil that will cause 
thorough aeration of the pulp and that will, simul- 
taneously, give reasonable persistence to the bubbles after 
they rise to the surface and until they are skimmed. The 
least amount of oil that will make the water milky is just 
as effective as any greater amount. In fact, Mr. Ruth 
finds that the richer his liquid is in oil, the smaller the 
mineral particles that may be promptly floated. He 
therefore advocates a minimum amount of oil in the first 
cells — wherein it is desirable to collect the coarsest con- 
centrate — and the addition of oil in succeeding cells to 
collect the slimy particles. 

The accompanying drawings show the construction of 
the machine. Each cell has an aeration compartment and 
a settling-compartment or spitzkasten. The complete 
machine usually contains six such cells. 

An automatic and uniform water-level is maintained 
throughout the machine by gates in the partitions be- 
tween the aeration compartments, one lever adjusting all 
gates simultaneously to the same area of opening and 
thus regulating the forward travel of pulp. The dis- 
charge opening — at the end of the last cell — adjusts the 
height of pulp in all the cells. There are no pipes, valves, 
or floats. 

The aeration compartment is of uniform cross-section 
from the bottom up to the lip of the overflow partition. 
A curved metal plate along the back of the compartment 
gently deflects the pulp-column toward the settling- 
chamber without modifying the velocity of the column. 
The froth is removed from the front of the machine by 
paddle-wheels. Launders may be arranged to retain a 
separate concentrate from each cell or to blend the six 
concentrates in any desired, combinations. 

The commodious passage from the bottom of the set- 
tling compartment back to the foot of the distributer 
affords free and rapid circulation of the pulp. It is 
claimed this machine will not clog if it be shut down for 
any reason in the midst of a run, no matter how long 
the delay. The large passage-way for the pulp combined 
with the powerful suction of the distributer soon clears 
the lower part of the machine of any compacted pulp. 
The distributer, which is less than 13 inches in diameter, 
ordinarily runs, as stated, at about 270 r.p.m. and con- 
sumes less than one horse-power. 

The Ruth machine is net of the agitation type, such as 

those of the Minerals Separation or Janney, nor is it of 
the pneumatic type, as exemplified in the Callow cell. 
Its claims for patent were so distinct as to be promptly 
allowed. The patent. No. L,26t,€8Q, issued June 1, 1918. 
This machine was given its first working trial in the 
Newton mill at Idaho Springs, Colorado, where it was 
installed to handle the tailing from older units of con- 
centrating machinery. It proved effective in recovering 
quantities of minerals that had previously run to waste. 
Unfortunately, from our point of view, the Newton is a 
custom-mill that treats ores upon a tonnage basis, the 
clients being satisfied without requiring assays of the 
tailing and, in consequence, no records of efficiency have 
been kept. In the Phoenix works, at Denver, a six-cell 
machine has been running several months on low-grade 
molybdenite ore from Pitkin ; it has made a clean concen- 
trate and a clean tailing. 

Cost of Mining Supplies in Mexico 

During 1917 the Amparo Mining Co. at Etzatlan, 
State of Jalisco, treated 84,277 tons of silver-gold ore. 
The following comparative statement will give some idea 
as to the general increase in cost of supplies, in United 
States currency : 

Article 1912 1917 

Dynamite, case $9.90 $17.80 

Cyanide, pound 0.18 0.88 

Mining steel, pound 0.11 0.28 

Fuse, thousand feet 3.93 7.95 

Caps, hundred 0.46 1.74 

Carbide, pound 0.06 0.07 

White iron, pound 0.005 0.03 

Coke, ton 20.00 70.50 

Lumber, thousand feet 40.00 120.00 

Nails, pound 0.07 0.18 

Round and flat iron, pound 0.04 0.14 

Cruciform steel, pound 0.11 0.30 

Steel plates, pound 0.06 0.19 

Steel shafting, pound 0.08 0.16 

Crucibles, No. 300, each 21.00 64.88 

Battery shoes, each 10.00 27.00 

Battery dies, each 8.00 17.50 

A Consular Report dated April 16 at Tunis, north- 
ern Africa, gives the following statistics of ore produc- 
tion in Tunisia during 1917 : There was extracted 
41,400 tons of lead, 15,000 tons of zinc, 606,000 tons of 
iron, 5800 tons of manganese, 1,000,000 tons of phosphate 
rock, and 32,700 tons of lignite, representing a value at 
the quay of over 67,000,000 francs ($13,400,000) . These 
excellent yields would have been better if the phosphate 
mines had not been hindered by difficulties of exporta- 

Zinc-ore producers of the Komspelter region have 
been trying to increase the consumption of spelter by 
substituting it for other metals. It was hoped that the 
Standard Oil Co. would be able to make gasoline cans 
of sheet zinc, but it was found that zinc could not be 
soldered by machinery. A new soldering fluid has been 
devised to overcome this difficulty. 


MINING and Scientific PRESS 

July 27, 1918 

The Menace to Gold Mining 

The gold miners of the world are of one accord in 
demanding that means be found for relief from the hard- 
ships entailed by the excessive cost of labor and supplies. 
The movement is by no means confined to the United 
States. On July 4 a meeting of leading gold-producers 
of the British Empire was held in London, on which 
occasion it was recommended that the Government should 
arbitrarily increase the price to be paid for the metal. 
The same idea has been advanced in this country. Sir 
Lionel Phillips, chairman of the Central Mining Cor- 
poration, ascribed the shrinkage in the output of gold 
to the inability of the mine-owners to meet the increased 
cost by a compensating adjustment of the selling price. 
This view conceives that gold is a mere commodity, and 
takes no account of its position as the standard of ref- 
erence for the values of other articles of commerce. The 
American Mining Congress has offered several sugges- 
tions, including the exemption of the industry from 
taxation, the remission of freights on the supplies 
needed, exemption of the employees from the draft, and 
the payment of a bonus. The California Metal Pro- 
ducers' Association has endorsed the plan for paying a 
bonus, proposing $10 per ounce as the minimum, in 
addition to the regular rate of $20.67. It is claimed 
that a bonus of $10 would re-establish the earning power 
of the mines on about the same level as that existing be- 
fore the War. Another suggestion made by the Ameri- 
can Mining Congress was to remove the embargo upon 
the exportation of bullion so far as related to new gold 
produced in this country, in order to admit of taking 
advantage of any opportunity to dispose of it abroad at 
a premium. This ignores the primary object of accumu- 
lating a larger reserve in the United States as a basis 
for expanding credits, in consideration of which the 
Secretary of the Treasury has been insistent that gold 
must be treated as a war-essential. His letter to Mr. 
Sulzer, which has been widely copied, was based on the 
importance of augmenting our stock of gold in order to 
make it easier to sustain the obligations of the Govern- 
ment. Unless a large reserve is available serious diffi- 
culties may arise as the bonds and notes of the Treasury 
become multiplied. 

Commenting upon the importance of gold as the 
foundation of finance, Hennen Jennings testified, at a 
hearing before the Committee on Ways and Means of 
the House of Representatives, with reference to the new 
revenue bill: "I have been connected, in different 
capacities, with gold mining — between 30 and 40 years — 
in California, Venezuela, South Africa, England, and 
Montana, and have examined mines in Mexico and 
Alaska, and am conversant with difficulties and cost of 
producing gold. I have given much time and thought 
to the article on ' The gold industry and gold standard, ' 

which I believe contains much that is pertinent to your 
inquiry and which I beg to put in evidence.* My aim 
is to show that the gold industry differs from all other 
industries in that it is impossible for it to obtain any 
excess profit during this war period; but, on the con- 
trary, it is proportionately burdened as the price of 
other commodities used in its obtainment advance, and 
as long as the integrity of the gold standard is main- 
tained by this and other countries. The advantages of 
upholding the gold standard should and do rest with the 
countries that produce the most gold and hold the great- 
est reserves. We hold the greatest reserves. Great 
Britain and her colonies and dependencies produce 
62.6% of the gold of the world; the United States, sec- 
ond, with 19.3%, while within the territories of the Cen- 
tral Powers less than 1% is mined. The production of 
the gold of the world was at about a standstill for some 
years before the War. It is now on the down-grade. 
Our Liberty bonds are pledges in gold. How can they 
be redeemed, or faith and belief in them kept up, if gold 
outputs are allowed to dwindle, while the bonds multiply 
manyfold? Gold is no mere luxury; it is a necessity 
for the credit and financial unity and strength to the 
Allied countries. It is thus vital that gold mining should 
be encouraged as far possible and burdened as little. 
Gold mining has more or less pioneered the other mines 
of the world, and the modernness of mining can be ap- 
preciated by the statement that the output of gold dur- 
ing the last 18 or 20 years, of copper in 15 years, of 
petroleum in 11 years, have equaled all that was pro- 
duced since 1800 ; and probably the output of mines in 
the last 20 or 30 years of the world of all the funda- 
mental minerals — that is to say, iron, coal, copper, pe- 
troleum — has been greater than in all history. This has 
resulted in the great modern activity of industry, be- 
cause mining has produced the requirements and the raw 
materials that have aided man to manufacture force. 
It has been a power for the service of man equal to be- 
tween two and three billion men's muscular work. I 
make this little preface to show you the part that gold 
and mining generally have played in the industrial 
world. I have already spoken of the gold output of the 
warring nations. The greatest goldfield of the world at 
the present time is the Witwatersrand in South Africa. 
. . . Although this goldfield has cheap labor, and coal 
in proximity, the dividends from the producing mine* 
do not amount to over 22% of the whole output.f There- 
fore the margin of profit is not so very great. From the 
statistics of gold production in the United States for the 
years 1914, 1915, 1916, and 1917, it will be seen that the 

*This article appeared in our issue of May 11, 1918. 
tin 1917 the output was worth £38,323,921, and the divi- 
dends £6,718,604. 

July 27, 1918 

MINING and Scientific PRESS 


bulk of the output lias nol come from the phenomenally 

rich mines, but from those of moderate yield ami com- 
paratively low grade, such as the Homestake and the 
Alaska Treadwell mines. 
The inquiry in Committee, following Mr. Jennings' 

preliminary statement, is reproduced in part : 

Mb. Kuney: What is it that drives gold its money- 
value? The fact that it is valuable in the arts, the fact 
that it is valuable as jewelry, and desirable on those 
accounts has given it its value from almost the beginning 
of time, .hasn't it? 

Mr. Jennings : That gives it its stress value. 

Mr. Rainet: It has been always the precious metal 
of th